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TRADUCCIN CIENTFICA

MANUAL de CTEDRA 2013

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INTRODUCCIN Nueva didctica de la traduccin tcnico-cientfica: enfoque textual UNIDAD I 1. MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO EDUCATIVO Y DE DIVULGACIN GENERAL 1.1 Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales 1.2 Formacin de trminos 1.3 Manuales didcticos y definiciones de enciclopedias 1.4 Artculos de divulgacin general UNIDAD II 2. MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO DE DIVULGACIN CIENTFICA 2.1Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales. 2.2 Identificacin del destinatario. 2.3 Grados de divulgacin 2.4 Artculos de investigacin cientfica o papers 2.5 Resmenes de artculos de investigacin cientfica o abstracts UNIDAD III 3. MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO PUBLICITARIO-CIENTFICO 3.1 Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales de los textos de divulgacin masiva 3.2 Folletos publicitarios. Anuncios en revistas especializadas 3.3 Campaas masivas UNIDAD IV 4. TRADUCCIN INVERSA 4.1 Traduccin espaol-ingls: Anlisis contrastivo 4.2 Gneros que requieren traduccin inversa en el mercado laboral 4.3 Prctica de traduccin inversa APNDICE MUESTREO DE PAPERS TRADUCIDOS POR ESTUDIANTES

INTRODUCCIN Nueva didctica de la traduccin tcnico-cientfica: enfoque textual Como parte de la capacitacin inherente a su carrera, los estudiantes del Traductorado de Ingls, de la Facultad de Lenguas de la Universidad Nacional de Crdoba, debern ser capaces de reconocer distintos gneros textuales, y de traducir en consecuencia. En los textos cientficos, la problemtica se explica en su origen primero, y luego se describe el desarrollo del pensamiento en relacin a ella, generalmente con una finalidad didctica (en ocasiones encubierta) o de difusin, que va desde lo causal hasta las definiciones finales. El estilo impersonal necesariamente refleja un viso de objetividad y formalidad en el texto tcnico y cientfico. Adems de la eleccin de vocablos, este estilo es abonado por elementos tales como el uso frecuente de Passive Voice en ingls y Pasiva con se en espaol (particularmente en Argentina) y como el recurso de nominalizacin, que le proporciona un carcter formal al texto. Algunas veces la longitud de las unidades sintcticas, a travs de coordinacin o subordinacin, se entienden muy cerca de la frontera de la incomprensin en los textos tcnicos y cientficos en ingls. Tanto es as que a menudo debemos los traductores decidir cortes sintcticos en espaol, con el cuidado de que esos cortes no malogren la unidad de coherencia semntica. Idntica precaucin se debe tener con las largas frases sustantivas, sin modificadores, que constituyen en ingls una forma objetiva y fcil de expresar unidades semnticas. Su traduccin al espaol debe respetar el orden jerrquico y la carga semntica de los modificadores, a la vez que resolver sintcticamente la relacin entre los mismos, a travs de preposiciones o partculas conectoras. El traductor tiene ante s la concreta, y a la vez apabullante, tarea de verter ideas de una lengua a otra. Su funcin es tan natural como el inters de los pueblos por comunicarse, y tan compleja como los innumerables escollos que obstaculizan la comprensin entre las diferentes formas de expresarse de diferentes culturas. Proponemos el anlisis textual como punto de partida, y una gran vocacin de bsqueda para lograr la excelencia en nuestra profesin. La capacidad para documentarse ocupa un lugar central en el conjunto de competencias del traductor, ya que le permite adquirir conocimientos sobre el campo temtico, sobre la terminologa y sobre las normas de funcionamiento textual del gnero en cuestin. Diferencia entre textos tcnicos y cientficos Estamos de acuerdo con Pinchuck (1977) en que lo que diferencia a una gran parte de los textos cientficos es que tienen la finalidad de difundir ampliamente los resultados de la investigacin entre la comunidad de especialistas; por ejemplo, a travs de artculos, ponencias en congresos, o conferencias. Esta situacin de uso no se presenta nunca en el mbito tcnico. Por supuesto, tambin se escriben artculos de investigacin sobre campos tcnicos, pero aqu se produce un divorcio entre el tema y el mbito comunicativo de uso. La situacin comunicativa en la que se produce un artculo de este tipo no es tcnica, puesto que no surge en el seno de la industria ni estn implicados tcnicos en su emisin, ni su finalidad est relacionada directamente con la aplicacin prctica de conocimientos tericos. Por tanto, un artculo de investigacin sobre el control de la polucin del aire (ingeniera y tecnologa ambiental) es un texto cientfico, mientras que un proyecto de medidas para la rpida descontaminacin del medio ambiente en una determinada zona geogrfica (idntico campo temtico) es un texto tcnico.

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Otras situaciones comunicativas son compartidas con los textos tcnicos, porque al igual que ellos, los textos cientficos pueden utilizarse para transmitir el conjunto de saberes propios de una disciplina a los especialistas en formacin (manual sobre un campo determinado, cientfico o tecnolgico) o, en algunos casos, para divulgar unos conocimientos bsicos entre el pblico general (monografa divulgativa, artculo divulgativo en la prensa general, documental televisivo, todos ellos sobre temas cientficos o tecnolgicos). Pero aqu acaba el inventario de posibilidades, mientras que el mbito de uso de los textos tcnicos es mucho ms amplio, e incluye la produccin de textos con el fin de contribuir a la organizacin de los procesos industriales (plan de produccin, solicitud de desarrollo del producto, etc.), ofrecer informacin al usuario de los productos (manual de instrucciones, prospecto de medicamento), anunciar productos (publirreportaje, anuncio tcnico, etc.), y otros muchos ms, como veremos ms adelante. La traduccin de textos tcnicos - Silvia Gamero Prez Editorial Ariel, Barcelona, 2001

CAPTULO I 1. MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO EDUCATIVO Y DE DIVULGACIN GENERAL 1.1 Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales El gnero instructivo o educativo se expresa a travs del texto expositivo y relaciona aspectos del conocimiento en forma cronolgica, organizada y detallada. Miguel Snchez (1993) distingue variados estilos para expresar un texto expositivo, segn su modalidad de organizacin: -Secuencia, donde el desarrollo del tema sigue un ordenamiento especfico. -Descripcin, cuyo objetivo es presentar las caractersticas del tema u objeto. -Problema-solucin, como un estilo esclarecedor para presentar un tema. -Causalidad, que es una forma de secuencia con un origen y una accin directa o consecuencia. -Comparacin, que es una forma de descripcin, pero con el agregado de tomar dos o ms aspectos paralelos. El texto cientfico de consulta es aquel que presenta organizadas, de manera general o especializada, las diversas reas del conocimiento. Sus caractersticas son: -est destinado a especialistas o al pblico en general -resume conocimientos generales o especializados -su estructura interna consta de introduccin, desarrollo y conclusin -se utiliza para aclarar dudas A este tipo de textos pertenecen los diccionarios especializados o temticos, las enciclopedias, los catlogos, los resmenes, etc. El texto cientfico didctico es aquel en el que se presentan los conocimientos cientficos explicados de manera gradual y sistemtica para facilitar el aprendizaje de los estudiantes. Esencialmente lleva al lector a aprender, a desarrollar habilidades o estrategias y a asumir fundamentos axiolgicos o de valores. Se caracteriza por: -utilizacin de mtodos y procedimientos que facilitan el aprendizaje -su condicin (generalmente) de textos escolares -explicacin del conocimiento cientfico de manera gradual -asesoramiento a docentes en el proceso enseanza aprendizaje -inclusin frecuente de una o varias explicaciones, ejemplos, aplicaciones, ejercicios, resmenes y evaluaciones Aunque su objetivo es igualmente el conocimiento, su propsito no est slo en transmitirlo como el texto divulgativo, sino en fijarlo en el alumno, en darle la posibilidad de analizarlo, reflexionar sobre l y desarrollar as, en ste, habilidades para su aplicacin futura. Este texto se caracteriza por el ajuste del lenguaje a un lector predeterminado por su edad, nivel escolar, caractersticas culturales y perfil que se quiere lograr en l, lo cual lo diferencia del lector hasta cierto punto annimo del texto divulgativo o del lector iniciado y maduro del texto cientfico. De lo anterior se infiere la capacidad del texto didctico de asumir el lenguaje del educando y desarrollar en l otros niveles de significados y sentidos nuevos, pero, eso s, conservando la amenidad que requiere un texto que es ledo con un fuerte componente de obligatoriedad circunstancia subjetiva que no caracteriza los otros tipos de textos cuya lectura es siempre volitiva.

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El texto informativo divulgativo comprende tanto a los diarios, revistas y materiales publicitarios y divulgativos ligeros, como a los libros destinados a la divulgacin o difusin amplia de un tema de inters general. Su principal caracterstica formal es la simplicidad de su estructura y el empleo del lenguaje comn del modo ms depurado y correcto posible, con el cuidado de explicar con palabras de dominio comn los trminos y las nociones que no pertenezcan a este mbito. A diferencia del texto didctico, su objeto no es ensear y fijar el conocimiento, sino ser ameno, convincente e informar. Por divulgacin suele entenderse todo intento de comunicacin de los descubrimientos generados en el mbito de la ciencia a un pblico no experto. Se trata, pues, de una traduccin o reformulacin de un mensaje para una nueva audiencia. Dado que el nivel de formacin de los lectores previstos puede variar segn los contextos, podemos hablar de algunos tipos de divulgacin ms llanos que otros. Fundamentalmente, la diferencia est marcada por el medio empleado para la divulgacin (revista, diario, televisin, folleto, libro) y el autor (periodista, docente, cientfico, periodista cientfico).

1.2 Formacin de trminos Why did anyone start using these words that sound greek to us? One of the reasons is that a medical term describes SOMETHING with only one word while that would take many other words from the common language to say it, so it is a matter of economy of words. Another reason is the BORROWING of thousands of words from GREEK and LATIN languages. In England, for centuries, the education system inculcated the use of latin and greek. Although little is left of that education system the effect can be appreciated in different fields of specialization. In fact, most MEDICAL and LEGAL vocabularies derive from Latin and Greek roots. Latin and Greek developed from PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN: the earliest language from which European languages developed. And Latin and Greek developed into the Germanic languages (English) and the Romance languages (Spanish). Although there are plenty of exceptions, LATIN ROOTS usually refer to ANATOMY and GREEK ROOTS refer to PATHOLOGY. Lets explore words borrowed into English GREEK ROOTS IN ENGLISH GREEK aer bios kratos mast LATIN ROOTS IN ENGLISH MEANING air life power, rule breast

ENGLISH WORD aerosol biology bureaucrat mastectomy

LATIN pop dent vis mamm

MEANING people tooth see breast

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Prefixes that indicate position abaway from, separate adallanteantiapocircum contradextrodiadisdorsenecendoepiexheterotowards, near different from normal in front against away from, separate around against right through apart back in, within out inside upon, over outside, outer layer different

homeininterlaterlaevoopistho perperipostpreproreretrschizsupratransventr-

same in between side left backwards through around after, behind in front in front back, again backwards split above through in front

Practice: Complete with the corresponding prefix 1. _________Conducting away from duction 2. __________To pour through blood fusion 3. __________Above the pubic bone pubic 4. __________Anterior to a molar tooth molar 5. ________Covering the cranium cranium 6. _____Electrocardiogram recording activity of the left side of the heart cardiogram 7. ___________Through the mouth oral 8. ________Occurring during the period after death mortem 9. __________Between the ribs costal 10. ______Relating to the sides of the abdomen abdominal Prefixes that indicate description ankylbrackybradybent, fixed short slow glauckyphleuc, leukgrey bent, crooked white

cirrhcyanchlordysesthesiaerythr-

yellow blue green bad, painful feeling, sensation red

melanorthstentachysyn-symtherm-

black straight, normal narrow fast with, joined together hot or heat

Practice: Provide the correct medical term cirrhosis / cyanopsia / chloroma / erythocyte / glaucoma / syndrome / tachycardia / Meaning Component Part Key MedTerm 1. yellow -osis liver 2. blue 3. green 4. red 5. grey 6. with 7. fast -opsia -oma -cyte -oma -drome -cardia vision cancer cell vision symptoms heart

Prefixes that indicate measurement & number anone macrolarge a-anwithout megalarge ambiboth, double microsmall amphiboth, double multimany, excess anisounequal oligofew, under diploboth, double panall hypermany, excess polymany, excess hypofew, under primfirst innone protfirst isoequal Practice: Select the correct prefix for the following terms a / an / ambi / amphi / aniso / hyper / hypo / in / iso / macro / mega / micro / multi / oligo / pan / poly / prim / prot / ______-cardia none _____-cephaly large ______-lateral double ___-karyocyte large _______-bolic both ______-scope small ______-trophic unequal ____-injection many _______-pnea without ______-trophy few _________-pia double _____-anxiety all _____-therma many ______-plegia many ______-dermic few _____-gravida first _________-ert none _____-neuron first _____-nergetic equal Suffixes that indicate disease & change in the body 1. -algia pain 18. -pathy disease

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2. -algesia 3. -blast 4. -cele 5. -coccicocco 6. drome 7. -dynia 8. -ectasis 9. -emesis 10. -emia 11. -gengenesis 12. -iasis 13. -itis 14. -malacia 15. -megaly 16. -oma 17. -osis

hypersensitiveness to pain a cell that gives rise to a definite structure hernia a kind of bacteria symptom pain, swelling dilation, expansion vomit blood producing, beginning abnormal condition, formation of inflammation softening enlargement tumour abnormal condition

19. -pathy 20. -penia 21. -phagia 22. -phobia 23. -plasia 24. -plegia 25. -ptosis 26. -rrhage 27. -rrhea 28. -rrhexis 29. -sclerosis 30. -spasm 31. -troph

disease decrease, deficiency eating, swallowing fear formation paralysis, stroke prolapse, falling, dropping burst forth discharge, flow of watery stools rupture hardening involuntary contraction, twitching development

Practice: Divide the terms and provide a definition 1. dyplococcos 2. leukemia 3. hyperemesis 4. dysphagia 5. diarrhea 6. hepatitis 7. cirrhosis 8. syndrome 9. neoplasia 10. osteomalacia 11. dermatitis 12. dermatosis 13. nephropathy 14. fibroid 15. hemiplegia 16. hemorrhage 17. artheriosclerosis 18. bronchospasm 19. hypertrophy 20. hypoplasia Suffixes that indicate surgery/incisions 1. -centesis tap, puncture of a cavity 2. -clasis to break down, refracture 3. clysis injection of fluids for the washing out of blood in a cavity

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4. -desis 5. -ectomy 6. -lysis 7. -ostomy 8. -otomy 9. -pexy 10. -plast-plasty-plasto 11. -plasty 12. -rraphy 13. -stomy 14. -tome 15. -tomy 16. -tripsy

binding, stabilization removal loosen, free form adhesions, destruction forming a new opening (permanent) incision by cutting (temporary) fixation, suspension surgical repair formation, plastic repair suture mouth, forming an opening cutting instrument incision, to cut into to crush

Practice: Provide the correct medical term Component Part Meaning mastremoval thorapuncture coloopening tracheoincision arteriosuture gastrofixation rhinorepair osteorefracture enterodestruction cholelithoTo crush

Key breast chest colon trachea artery stomach nose bone small intestine gallstone

MedTerm

1.3 Manuales didcticos y definiciones de enciclopedias Los siguientes textos provienen de manuales didcticos o enciclopedias. La seleccin realizada apunta a valorar el anlisis textual como paso previo a la traduccin. Adems, el ejercicio de su traduccin nos introduce en el registro cientfico y en los problemas ms frecuentes que estos textos nos presentan. Texto 1 Chemical Energy Chemical energy is the greatest source of energy used by man. From flashing batteries to comercial airlines, it is the energy released from chemical reactions that power our economy. Paradoxically, most of the electricity produced in the world comes from the chemical energy released in the burning of coal, oil and gas. We will focus on the burning of two hydrocarbons, propane (a common fuel for stoves) and gasoline (the common fuel for portable electric generators). Energy from Molecular Bonds

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There are two types of chemical reactions. They are endothermic reactions, in which energy is absorbed, and exothermic reactions, in which energy is given off. In most cases, the energy absorbed or given off is in the form of heat. Most spontaneous reactions are exothermic. Spontaneous endothermic reactions do occur, but they usually require some initial energy to get started. An example of a familiar endothermic reaction is provided by the instant cold packs that many sports teams carry with them. These packs contain ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and water. When struck sharply, the two mix and react endothermically. Heat energy is absorbed when the ammonium and nitrate ions break apart leaving the liquid mixture cold, which feels nice on a twisted ankle. Texto 2 The origin of the Earth and the Solar System Now that we have completed our brief survey of the Earths interior and gross composition, it is time to describe how scientists think the Earth came into being. This takes us back to the birth of the Sun, which grew by the collapse of a slowly rotating interstellar cloud of gas (mostly hydrogen) and dust. This cloud is referred to as the solar nebula. As it contracted, the solar nebula span faster and faster. The material that was not drawn into the central point, whee the Sun was forming, became concentrated in a disc around the Sun. It was within this disc that the planets grew. At first the cloud would have been very hot, because of the gravitational energy converted to heat by the contraction. As it cooled, things began to condense out of the gas as tiny solid grains. The first grains to condense would have been made of substances able to form at temperatures above a thousand degrees. These would have included nickel-iron metal and some of the silicate minerals. As the temperature declined to a couple of hundred degrees centigrade the minerals growing could begin to trap water within their structure, but ice crystals would not begin to grow until the temperature reached -90C. The tiny grains that formed within the solar nebula would tend to stick together whenever they happened to come into contact, and so progressively larger chunks would collect. Once the process had begun, it may have taken as little as a few thousand years to form centimetresized pieces. However, throughout the sequence of events the timescales are poorly understood. After about 100 thousand years, the biggest blocks had probably grown to about ten kilometers across and are dignified with the name planetesimals. These were now big enough to make their gravitational influence felt, and their growth would now proceed at an accelerated rate until after aobut a further 50 thousand years most of the planetesimals had collided and accreted into a few dozen bodies a few thousand kilometres across, now known as planetary embryos. Collisions between these surviving bodies would have been violent, sometimes shattering both bodies, more often pasting the debris of the smaller body across the face of the larger one and liberating sufficient heat to cause melting to a very great depth. After about 100 million years all the planetary embryos that were going to collide had probably done so, leaving the solar system with four inner rocky planets, four giant planets (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) further out from the Sun where it had become cold enough for large quantities of water, methane, ammonia and similar volatile substances to condense and relatively tiny icy objects (the planet Pluto being one of the largest) in the outer fringes where the density of material was too sparse to collect into large bodies. The Earth probably acquired the Moon during these latter stages. Although still controversial, it is likely that the moon is formed from the debris of the last planetary embryo collision to affect the Earth. In this case, some fragments of the impacted body bounced back from the Earth and collected together in orbit around the Earth. The irregularly shaped rocky and iron-rich bodies known as the asteroids, which are up to a few hundred kilometers across and found mostly between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, were once thought to be the remains of a planet that was broken up by a giant

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collision. However, it now seems more likely that they are surviving planetesimals that never struck together when they hit each other, because their orbits were stirred up by their proximity to Jupiter so that they hit each other often too hard to allow accretion. Most meteorites, which are chunks of rock or nickel-iron that fall from the sky, are thought to be made of the same stuff as the asteroids. The story as outlined above may sound rather glib. It is important to realise that we are on the threshold of the realm of legend here. Most scientists would accept this story in outline, but there are many important details still in dispute. For example, the temperature history of the solar nebula is uncertain. It could have remained too hot for much rocky material to have condensed until substantial sized bodies of nickel-iron had formed. In this case, the rock would have collected around these pre-grown cores and planetary bodies would develop with an in-built layered structure. On the other hand, temperature may have fallen swiftly enough for chunks of a wide range of compositions to have been around at the same time. Planetary bodies would then have grown with a thoroughly mixed composition, and internal layering would then have to be generated by some later process. It is actually not too difficult to envisage how compositional layering could develop from initially well-mixed material, especially if we choose to believe that a planet like the Earth grew by collisions between planetary embryos of similar size. As noted above, these impacts would have been violent enough to cause global melting, and this would have provided the opportunity for dense phases, such as iron, to sink and form the core, and lighter materials, such as the silica-rich minerals characteristic of the crust and mantle, to rise upwards. However, a variant of the standard theory omits the planetary embryo stage, and has each planet developing from the largest planetesimal in its vicinity, which grew by accreting other planetesimals that were always much smaller than itself. In this scenario, the heat released by impact energy may not have been enoughto cause global melting, in which case differenciation into a compositionally layered structure would have to depend on internal sources of heat, such as radioactive decay. We will put speculation aside now, and turn to much firmer ground (metaphorically speaking!) and look at what happens in an earthquake. Texto 3 GLOSSARY accelerating rate. The speed and number of times something happens within a certain period; something that happens faster than usual or sooner than you expect. accretion; accreted (into). The process where small particles and gases in the solar nebula came together to form larger bodies, eventually of planetary size. ammonia. It is a basic building-block substance, which is crucial to life on our planet. It is composed of only two elements - nitrogen and hydrogen. Ammonia is produced by all animals, including humans, as a natural product of the metabolic process. Each person generates about 550 grams per year. According to one source, 500 families release more ammonia each year than 20,000 diazo copying machines. Ammonia is recycled by rain and soil in a process known as the "Nitrogen Cycle." Accumulation in surface water, soil, or in the atmosphere does not occur. This naturally regenerating cycle is vital to our ecology and life as we know it on this planet. bodies.The term "body" indicates a simple object, such as a planet. collision(s). In physics, collision means the action of bodies striking or coming together (touching).

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condensation(n); to condense (v). Condensation is the process in which a vapor (gas) is cooled to the liquid phase. Clouds are formed by the condensation of atmospheric water vapor. debris. It is a word used to describe the remains of something that has been otherwise destroyed. Depending on context, debris can refer to a number of different things. a) The pieces of something that are left after it has been destroyed in an accident, explosion, etc. b) Pieces of waste material. disk (galactic). The flattened, rotating portion of the Galaxy, centered on the galactic nucleus, containing much dust and gas as well as newly formed stars. Galactic disks are found in spiral galaxies and often exhibit prominent spiral arms. dust. a) Dry powder consisting of extremely small bits of earth or sand. b) Powder consisting of extremely small bits of a particular substance. earth. Our home planet. Earth is the fifth in size of the 9 major planets making up our solar system and is the third (between Venus and Mars) in order of distance from the sun (about 150 million km). embryo. In cloud physics, a tiny ice crystal that grows in size and becomes an ice nucleus. energy. Energy is usually defined as "the capacity to do work" but just what does that mean? Work is defined in physics as the exertion of a force over some distance, e.g., lifting a rock up against the gravity of the Earth. You probably have a pretty good colloquial grasp of the idea of "work" as something that takes effort. Energy is also something that is "conserved" within a closed system. This means that it is neither created nor destroyed but simply moved about (possibly changing from one form of energy to another). Light is basically a form of energy, one that radiates through space. So the Sun can release nuclear energy, creating light which travels through space to the Earth, where it can be absorbed by, say, a photocell, which in turn permits a motor to run propelling a solar-powered car forward. gas Gas is a phase of matter in which the molecules are widely separated, move around freely, and move at high speeds. geology. Geology is a science that studies the Earth's structure. The study of the rocks, soil, etc. that make up the Earth, and of the way they have changed since the Earth was formed. gravitational (potential) energy. (a) Energy that a body can acquire by falling through a gravitational field and that decreases as the kinetic energy increases. There is no general reference level (analogous to the state of rest of a body in defining kinetic energy), and so we customarily define the change in gravitational potential energy as the negative of the work done by the gravitational forces during the bodies change of position. (b) When we lift a weight from the floor to a tabletop, we clearly put energy into it. The energy is not lost, however, because we can retrieve it by allowing the weight to fall back to the floor. While the weight is on the table, we say that the energy is stored as gravitational potential energy. The energy is stored in the gravitational field. gross composition. It is the total amount of the substances, compounds or elements that form the interior and exterior of the Earth. hydrogen. Hydrogen is the element with the atomic number 1. It is the lightest element and the most abundant in the universe. Its nucleus is a single proton which is orbited by one electron. It fuels nuclear fusion that occurs within stars, converting hydrogen into helium. The sun is 75% hydrogen. ice crystal. Ice crystals are water that has frozen into a solid state whose atoms form a very regular pattern.

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inner rocky planets. The inner planets are those planets that orbit close to the sun. They are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. They are relatively small, composed mostly of rock, and have few or no moons. interstellar cloud of gas and dust. Interstellar dust is composed of microscopic bits (on the order of a micron in diameter) of carbon and/or silicates. The origin of interstellar dust in unknown, but it seems to be associated with young stars. Interstellar dust is not at all like the dust we have in our houses (which is mostly bits of organic debris and lint). Jupiter. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system and the fifth planet from the sun. This gas giant has a thick atmosphere, 17 moons, and a dark, barely-visible ring. Its most prominent features are bands across its latitudes and a great red spot (which is a storm). metals. Astronomers refer to all elements other than hydrogen and helium as "metals" (even though these elements aren't all metals as defined by chemists). methane. Methane (CH4) is an odorless, colorless, flammable gas. minerals. A naturally occurring, usually inorganic, solid consisting of either a single element or a compound, and having a definite chemical composition and a systematic internal arrangement of atoms. nebula. A nebula is a huge, diffuse cloud of gas and dust in intergalactic space. The gas in nebulae (the plural of nebula) is mostly hydrogen gas (H2). The plural of nebula is nebulae or nebulas. Neptune. Neptune is the eighth planet from the sun. It is a cold, gaseous giant with a hazy atmosphere and is orbited by eight moons and three narrow, faint rings. nickel-iron metal (NiFe). Iron and nickel are notable for being the final elements produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, and thus the heaviest elements which do not require a supernova or similarly cataclysmic event for formation. Iron and nickel are therefore the most abundant metals in metallic meteorites[2] and in the dense-metal cores of planets such as Earth. outer fringes. The parts on the outside of something; further from the centre of something. planetary embryos. () the Solar System is considered to have eight planets. Bodies which fulfill the first two conditions but not the third (such as Pluto and Eris) are classified as dwarf planets, providing they are not also natural satellites of other planets. Originally an IAU committee had proposed a definition that would have included a much larger number of planets as it did not include (c) as a criterion. After much discussion, it was decided via a vote that those bodies should instead be classified as dwarf planets. This definition is based in modern theories of planetary formation, in which planetary embryos initially clear their orbital neighborhood of other smaller objects. As described by astronomer Steven Soter: The end product of secondary disk accretion is a small number of relatively large bodies (planets) in either non-intersecting or resonant orbits, which prevent collisions between them. Asteroids and comets, including KBOs, differ from planets in that they can collide with each other and with planets () Planets. A planet is a large celestial body that orbits a star and does not shine on its own. There are nine planets orbiting the sun in our solar system.

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planetesimals. A planetesimal is a small object that orbits the Sun. Planetesimals are thought to have formed when the Solar System itself formed, and they were perhaps the building blocks from which the planets were built. Pluto. Pluto is the ninth and (usually) the farthest planet from the Sun. It has a highly inclined orbit. This small, cold, rocky planet has one moon, Charon. to rotate; rotating. When an object rotates, it turns around a central point or axis. One planetary day is defined as the time it takes a planet to rotate around its axis. Saturn. Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. It is the second-largest planet in our solar system (Jupiter is the largest). It has beautiful rings that are made of ice chunks that range in size from the size of a fingernail to the size of a car; it also has many moons. Saturn is made mostly of gas: hydrogen and helium. silicates (minerals). Silicates are minerals composed of silicon and oxygen with one or more other elements. Silicates make up about 95% of the Earth's crust. solar nebula. The rotating disk of gas and dust, surrounding the newly formed Sun, from which planets and smaller solar system bodies formed. Solar System. A solar system is a group of planets, moons, asteroids, and comets that orbit around a sun. In our solar system, nine planets, over 61 moons, and many other objects orbit around our Sun. solids A solid is a phase of matter in which the molecules are very close together and cannot move around. Sun. The Sun is a star at the center of our solar system. Our Sun is a medium-sized yellow star that is 93,026,724 miles (149,680,000 km) from Earth. Its diameter is 865,121 miles (1,391,980 km). At its core, nuclear reactions produce enormous amounts of energy, through the process of converting hydrogen atoms into helium atoms (nuclear fusion). Its absolute magnitude is +4.83. The solar mass is 1.99 x 1030 kg. temperatures. Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold something is - how much heat energy it has. Temperature is essentially a measure of how fast the particles in a body are moving (or vibrating). There are many different temperature scales, including Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin. Fahrenheit is a scale in which 32 F is the freezing point of water and 212 F is the boiling point of water. Celsius is a scale in which 0 C is the freezing point of water and 100 C is the boiling point of water. Kelvin is a scale in which 0 K is absolute zero and the size of one degree is the same as for Celsius. Temperatures measured in the Celsius scale can be converted to Fahrenheit or Kelvin by means of the formulas F=9/5 * C +32 and K=C+273.1. Uranus. Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun. This huge, icy planet is covered with clouds and is encircled by a belt of 11 rings and 18 moons. This gas giant is the third-largest planet in our Solar System (after Jupiter and Saturn), and is about 4 times the diameter of Earth and 14 times as massive. volatile substances. Element or compound that vaporizes at low temperature. Water and carbon dioxide are examples of volatiles. a) A volatile liquid or substance changes easily into a gas. water. a) LIQUID the clear liquid without colour, smell, or taste that falls as rain and that is used for drinking, washing, etc. b) AREA OF WATER 1) an area of water such as the sea, a lake, etc.

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years. A planetary year is the length of time it takes that planet to revolve around the sun. Texto 4 Imaging Diagnosis angioplasty the use of a small balloon on the tip of a catheter inserted into a blood vessel to open up an area of blockage inside the vessel. arteriogram (also called an angiogram) an x-ray of the arteries and veins to detect blockage or narrowing of the vessels. barium a metallic chemical (chalky liquid) used to coat the inside of the organs so that they will show up on an x-ray. barium x-rays a type of diagnostic x-ray in which barium is used to diagnose abnormalities of the digestive tract. biopsy a procedure in which tissue samples are removed (with a needle or during surgery) from the body for examination under a microscope; to determine if cancer or other abnormal cells are present. brachytherapy a type of radiation treatment in which the radioactive substance is placed inside the patient as close as possible to the area being treated. computed tomography scan (also called a CT or a CAT scan) a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays. diagnostic radiology the use of various radiology techniques, mostly non-invasive, to diagnose an array of medical conditions. Diagnostic radiology includes the use of x-rays, Ct scans, MRI scans, and ultrasound. embolization the insertion of a substance through a catheter into a blood vessel to stop hemorrhaging, or excessive bleeding. fluoroscopy a study of moving body structures, similar to an x-ray movie. A continuous x-ray beam is passed through the body parts being examined, and is transmitted to a TV-like monitor so that the body part and its motion can be seen in detail. gamma camera a device used in nuclear medicine to scan patients who have been injected with small amounts of radioactive materials. gastrostomy tubes a gastrostomy tube (feeding tube) is inserted into the stomach if the patient is unable to take food by mouth. interventional radiology an area of specialty within the field of radiology which uses various radiology techniques (such as x-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds) to place wires, tubes, or other instruments inside a patient to diagnose or treat an array of conditions. intravascular ultrasound the use of ultrasound inside a blood vessel to better visualize the interior of the vessel in order to detect problems inside the blood vessel. intravenous pyelogram (IVP) a series of x-rays of the kidney, ureters, and bladder with the injection of a contrast dye into the vein to detect tumors, abnormalities, kidney stones, or any obstructions, and to assess renal blood flow. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body. mammogram an x-ray of the breast used to detect and diagnose breast disease. needle biopsy a small needle is inserted into the abnormal area in almost any part of the body, guided by imaging techniques, to obtain a tissue biopsy. This type of biopsy can provide a diagnosis without surgical intervention. An example of this procedure is called the needle breast biopsy. nuclear medicine a specialized area of radiology that uses very small amounts of radioactive substances to examine organ function and structure.

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position emission tomography (PET) in nuclear medicine, a procedure that measures the metabolic activity of cells. radiologist a physician specializing in the medical field of radiology. radiopharmaceutical (also called a tracer or radionuclide) basic radioactively-tagged compound necessary to produce a nuclear medicine image. stent a tiny, expandable coil that is placed inside a blood vessel at the site of a blockage. The stent is expanded to open up the blockage. tomography from the Greek words to cut or section ( tomos) and to write (graphein), in nuclear medicine, it is a method of separating interference from the aarea of interest by imaging a cut section of the body. ultrafast CT (computed tomography) scan a type of radiology diagnostic procedure in which an x-ray beam moves in a circle around the body. This allows many different views of the same organ or structure, and provides much greater detail. The x-ray information is sent to a computer that interprets the x-ray data and displays it in 2-dimensional form on a monitor. ultrasound a diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of the internal organs. x-ray a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film.

Texto 5 RENE DESCARTES THE WORLD or TREATISE ON LIGHT Translated by Michael S. Mahoney CHAPTER ONE: On the Difference Between Our Sensations and the Things That Produce Them In proposing to treat here of light, the first thing I want to make clear to you is that there can be a difference between our sensation [1] of light (i.e. the idea that is formed in our imagination through the intermediary of our eyes) and what is in the objects that produces that sensation in us (i.e. what is in the flame or in the sun that is called by the name of "light"). For, even though everyone is commonly persuaded that the ideas that are the objects of our thought are wholly like the objects from which they proceed, nevertheless I can see no reasoning that assures us that this is the case. On the contrary, I note many experiences that should cause us to doubt it. You well know that words bear no resemblance to the things they signify, and yet they do not cease for that reason to cause us to conceive of those things, indeed often without our paying attention to the sound of the words or to their syllables. Thus it can happen that, after having heard a discourse, the sense of which we have very well understood, we might not be able to say in what language it was uttered. [2] Now, if words, which signify nothing except by human convention, suffice to cause us to conceive of things to which they bear no resemblance, why could not nature also have established a certain sign that would cause us to have the sensation of light, even though that sign in itself bore no similarity to that sensation? Is it not thus that she has established laughter and tears, to cause us to read joy and sorrow on the faces of men? But perhaps you will say that our ears in fact cause us to hear only the sound of the words, or our eyes to see only the countenance of him who laughs or cries, and that it

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is our mind that, having remembered what those sounds and that countenance signify, represents their meaning to us at the same time.[3] To that I could respond that it is nonetheless our mind that represents to us the idea of light each time the action that signifies it touches our eye. But, rather than lose time in disputation, I would do better to adduce another example. Do you think that, even when we do not pay attention to the meaning of words and hear only their sound, the idea of that sound, which forms in our thought, is anything like the object that is the cause of it? A man opens his mouth, moves his tongue, forces out his breath: in all these actions I see nothing that is not very different from the idea of the sound that they cause us to imagine. Also, most philosophers assure us that sound is nothing other than a certain vibration of air that strikes against our ears. Thus, if our sense of hearing were to report to our mind the true image of its object, then, instead of causing us to conceive of sound, it would have to cause us to conceive of the motion of the parts of air that then vibrate against our ears. But, because not everyone will perhaps want to believe what the philosophers say, I will adduce another example. Of all our senses, touch is the one thought least misleading and most certain, so that, if I show you that even touch causes us to conceive many ideas that in no way resemble the objects that produce them, I do not think you will find it strange if I say that sight can do the same. Now, there is no one who does not know that the ideas of tickling and of pain, which are formed in our thought when bodies from without touch us, bear no resemblance whatever to those bodies. One passes a feather lightly over the lips of a child who is falling asleep, and he perceives that someone is tickling him. [4] Do you think the idea of tickling that he conceives resembles anything in this feather? A soldier returns from battle; during the heat of combat he could have been wounded without being aware of it. But now that he begins to cool off, he feels pain and believes he has been wounded. A surgeon is called, the soldier's armor is removed, and he is examined. In the end, one finds that what he felt was nothing but a buckler or a strap, which was caught under his armor and was pressing on him and making him uncomfortable. If, in causing him to feel this strap, his sense of touch had impressed its image on his thought, there would have been no need of a surgeon to show him what he was feeling. Now, I see no reason that forces us to believe that what is in the objects from which the sensation of light comes to us is any more like that sensation than the actions of a feather and of a strap are like tickling and pain. Nevertheless, I have not adduced these examples to make you believe absolutely that this light is something different in the objects from what it is in our eyes, but only so that you will doubt it and so that, forbearing from being preoccupied by the contrary, you can now better examine with me what light is. CHAPTER TWO In What the Heat and Light of Fire Consists I know of only two sorts of bodies in the world in which light is found, to wit, the stars and flame, or fire.[5] And, because the stars are without a doubt farther from human knowledge than is fire or flame, I shall try first to explicate what I observe regarding flame. When flame burns wood or some other similar material, we can see with our eyes that it moves the small parts of the wood and separates them from one another, thus transforming the subtler parts into fire, air, and smoke, and leaving the grosser parts as ashes. Hence, someone else may, if he wishes, imagine the form of "fire," the quality of "heat," and the action that "burns" it to be completely different things in this wood. [6] For my part, afraid of misleading myself if I suppose anything more than what I see must of necessity be there, I am content to conceive there the motion of its parts. For, posit "fire" in the wood, posit "heat" in the wood, and make the wood "burn" as much as you please. If you do not suppose in addition that some of its parts are moved or detached from their neighbors, I cannot imagine that it would undergo any alteration or

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change. By contrast, remove the "fire," remove the "heat," prevent the wood from "burning:" provided only that you grant me that there is some power that violently moves the subtler of its parts and separates them from the grosser, I find that that alone will be able to cause in the wood all the same changes that one experiences when it burns. Now, insofar as it does not seem to me possible to conceive that one body could move another unless it itself were also moving,[7] I conclude from this that the body of the flame that acts against the wood is composed of small parts, which move independently of one another with a very fast and very violent motion. Moving in this way, they push and move with them the parts of the body that they touch and that do not offer them too much resistance. I say that its parts move independently of one another because, even though several of them often act in accord and conspire together to bring about a single effect, we gee nonetheless that each of them acts on its own against the bodies they touch. I say also that their motion is very fast and very violent because, being so small that we cannot distinguish them by sight, they would not have the force they have to act against other bodies if the quickness of their motion did not compensate for their lack of size.[8] I add nothing concerning the direction in which each moves. For, if you consider that the power to move and the power that determines in what direction the motion should take place are two completely different things and can exist one without the other (as I have set out in the Dioptrics),[9] you will easily judge that each part moves in the manner made least difficult for it by the disposition of the bodies surrounding it. [10] Moreover, in the same flame there can be some parts going upward, and others downward, some in straight lines, and others in circles; indeed, they can go in all directions, without changing anything of the flame's nature. Thus, if you see almost all of them tending upward, you need not think that this is for any other reason than that the other bodies touching them are almost always disposed to offer them greater resistance in any other direction. But, having recognized that the parts of the flame move in this manner, and that it suffices to conceive of their motions in order to understand how the flame has the power to consume the wood and to burn, pray let us examine if the same will not also suffice to make us understand how the flame heats us and how it sheds light for us. For, if that is the case, it will not be necessary for the flame to possess any other quality, and we will be able to say that it is this motion alone that is called now "heat" and now "light" according to the different effects it produces. Now, as regards heat, the sensation that we have of it can, it seems to me, be taken for a type of pain when it is violent, and sometimes for a type of tickling when it is moderate.[11] Since we have already said that there is nothing outside our thought that is similar to the ideas we conceive of tickling and pain, we can well believe also that there is nothing that is similar to that which we conceive of heat; rather, anything that can move the small parts of our hands, or of any other part of our body, can arouse this sensation in us. Indeed, many experiences favor this opinion. For merely by rubbing our hands together we heat them, and any other body can also be heated without being placed close to a fire, provided only that it is shaken and rubbed in such a way that many of its small parts are moved and can move with them those of our hands. As regards light, one can also well imagine that the same motion that is in the flame suffices to cause us to sense light. But, because it is in this that the main part of my design consists, I want to try to explain it at some length and to take up my discourse from anew. Texto 6 The History of Nuclear Power Safety Safety has been an important consideration from the very beginning of the development of nuclear reactors. On December 2, 1942, when the first atomic reactor was brought to criticality, Enrico Fermi

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had already made safety an important part of the experiment. In addition to the shutoff rod, other emergency procedures for shutting down the pile were prepared in advance. Fermi also considered the safety aspect of reactor operation. Shortly before the reactor was expected to reach criticality, Fermi noted the mounting tension of the crew. To make sure that the operation was carried out in a calm and considered manner, he directed that the experiment be shut down and that all adjourn for lunch. With such leadership in safety at the very beginning, it is no wonder that the operation of reactors to date has such an impressive track record. The series of WWW pages given here are intended to present a chronology of nuclear safety research and development. Above is a clickable map of a timeline beginning with Fermis Chicago Pile experiment until today and beyond. Much of the context does not have the glamour of high profile nuclear industry stories such as the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. Instead, the history gives insight into the culture of the scientists, engineers, and technocrats faced with the challenges of a totally new and powerful technology. In the early years, these pioneers wandered into a brave new world of first-of-a-kind research and development. Today, nuclear industry participants must deal with the ramifications of the discussions and actions made by those pioneers. Texto 7 The Thyroid Gland The thyroid (from the Greek word for "shield", after its shape) is one of the larger endocrine glands in the body. It produces hormones, principally thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which regulate the rate at which your body carries on its necessary functions. The hormone calcitonin is also produced and controls calcium blood levels. Iodine is necessary for the production of both hormones. Other endocrine glands are the pancreas, the pituitary, the adrenal glands, the parathyroid glands, the testes, and the ovaries. Anatomy The thyroid gland is situated on the front side of the neck, starting at the oblique line on the thyroid cartilage (just below the laryngeal prominence orAdams apple), and extending to the 6th Tracheal ring (C-shaped cartilagenous ring of the trachea). Vertebral levels are inappropriate to demarcate the gland's upper and lower border with vertebral levels as it moves position in relation to these during swallowing. It lies over the trachea and is covered by layers of pretracheal fascia (allowing it to move), muscle and skin.

The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands - 10-20 grams in adults. It is shaped like a "bow tie," having two halves (lobes): a right lobe and a left lobe joined by an "isthmus". However, you can't always feel a normal thyroid gland. It may enlarge substantially during pregnancy and when affected by a variety of

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diseases.Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) and hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) are the most common problems of the thyroid gland. Specialists are called Thyroidologists. Blood Supply The thyroid gland is supplied by two pairs of arteries: the superior and inferior thyroid arteries of each side. The superior thyroid artery is the first branch of the external carotid and supplies mostly the upper half of the thyroid gland, while the inferior thyroid artery is the major branch of the thyrocervical trunk, which comes off of the subclavian artery. In 10% of people, there is an additional thyroid artery, the thyreoidea ima, that arises from the brachiocephalic trunk or the arch of the aorta. Lymph drainage follows the arterial supply. There are three main veins that drain the thyroid to the superior vena cava: the superior, middle and inferior thyroid veins. In comparison to the other organs of the body, the Thyroid receives one of the largest blood supplies per gram weight. The largest blood supply is seen in the Carotid arch baroreceptor organ. Texto 8 INTESTINAL PARASITES The Amebae The intestinal amebae multiply only by binary fission. The life cycles of many species alternate between very fragile, vegetative trofozoites, intermediate precysts and dormant cysts. Some do not form cysts. Many species are minor pathogens or commensals: Entamoeba coli, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Dientamoeba fragilis. These are of importance mainly because of possible confusion with Entamoeba histolyca, the only important pathogenic ameba of man, during microscopic examination of stools. Entamoeba histolyca causes amebiasis, including amebic dysentery. The fragile, pleomorphic, motile trophozoites, around 8 by 60 nm.in size, are seen only (except when cultivated in special media) in acute diarrheic (or purged) stools and in invaded tissues. They sometimes contain ingested erythrocytes. The more resistant, diagnostically distinctive cysts (5 to 20 nm.) are the forms most commonly seen in normal feces: round, quadrinucleate (when mature), with glycogen chromatoids and thick, cyst membrane. Stained with iodine the nuclei are diagnostically distinctive in appearance. Texto 9 Tetanus. Clostridium Tetani, the cause of tetanus or lockjaw, has the general properties of the genus. It is not invasive but grows well in dead tissue; there it can produce its soluble exotoxin, i.e., it is a pathogenic saprophyte. It normally inhabits superficial layers of the soil, especially of cultivated and manured fields, because of its regular presence in the excreta of domestic and wild animals and sometimes of man. The spores of C. Tetani resist dry heat at 150 C. for 1 hour, autoclaving at 121 C. for 5 to 10 minutes and 5 per cent phenol for 12 to 15 hours. Protected from sunlight (ultraviolet light), the dried spores remain viable for many years. The fraction of the toxin responsible for tetany is called tetanospasmin. This has marked affinity for nervous tissue and reaches the CNS (spinal cord) along peripheral nerves and possibly in part via blood and lymph. Tetanus bacilli or spores are doubtless frequently introduced into wounds. The nature of the wound determines whether the bacilli can proliferate. Deep (anaerobic), soil-

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contaminated wounds in which there has been considerable tissue destruction are specially likely to supply these conditions. Tetanus neonatorum occurs especially when filthy conditions surround parturition. Infection of the umbilical stump by feces and soil containing C. Tetani spores is the most common cause. In the acute form of tetanus the incubation time ranges from 3 to 14 days; in the chronic form the incubation period may exceed a month. In treatment, prompt surgical debridement of wounds is essential. Human immune globulin is available and is preferable to bovine or equine serum, being very much more effective, not so quickly rejected as foreign protein, and avoiding the problems of allergy. Prevention of tetanus is based primarily on prompt surgical opening, cleansing and disinfecting of wounds. A preliminary dose of 1,000 units of tetanus immune globulin (human [TIG]) is given when conditions are unfavourable to the patient. Equine or bovine antitoxic serums are much less effective and introduce problems of allergy. The use of prophylactic tetanus toxoid AP as a primary antigenic stimulus is early childhood (usually combined with diphteria toxoid, pertussis vaccine [DPT]) is generally recommended. A booster (or a primary) dose of toxoid should also be given at the time of a wound. Excessive booster dosing can evoke severe allergy; it should be used at 5- to 10-year intervals after intradermal test with fluid toxoid (0.05 ml). Diagnostic procedures are usually clinical only. Gram-stained smears from an infected wound may reveal the presence of the organism (also anaerobic streptococci, C. perfringens of gas gangrene, etc.). Cultures are usually only of retrospective interest. Texto 10 Prenatal Care This term has a wider application than the words imply and may be defined as such supervision and care of the pregnant and parturient woman that will enable her to pass through the dangers of pregnancy and labor with the least possible risk, to give birth to a living child and to be discharged in such a condition that she will be able to nurse it. Women who have demonstrated disproportionate obstetric problems should have the benefit of preconceptional work-up and care and interpregnancy supervision, which includes responsible family planning. Proper antepartal care requires: 1. A preliminary medical and obstetric history and a complete physical examination, including blood pressure, weight, measurement of the pelvis, urinalysis, blood type, Rh determination, complete blood count and serologic test for syphilis. It is advisable to screen patients for a metabolic disorder by obtaining a two-hourpostprandial blood sugar determination. The detection of anti-Rh antibodies should be attempted in all Rh-negative patients and the zygosity of the husband evaluated. Patients with blood group 0 should have the husbands blood group determined for possible AB0 incompatibility in the fetus. A screen for bacteriuria is helpful and mandatory if there is a history of urinary infection or abnormal urine sediment. A check for the presence of glucose in the urine should be made repeatedly during pregnancy and, if present, or if the 2-hour postprandial blood sugar level is borderline or elevated, a glucose tolerance test is indicated. A routine test x-ray examination with proper pelvic shielding is sometimes rewarding as a screening procedure, and such evaluations are mandatory when chest symptoms are present.

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The patient should be instructed regarding diet, rest, exercise, bowel habits, bathing, clothing, smoking, alcohol, douches, breast care, coitus, recreation and dental care; and she should be cautioned tactfully about certain danger signals that include vaginal bleeding, however slight; edema; persistent headaches; visual disturbances; pain; persistent vomiting; chills and fever; urinary discomfort; sudden escape of fluid from the vagina; and persistent constipation. Vaginal and cervical smears should be obtained for cancer and hormonal screening. A careful colpocytogram is a screening method that is helpful in giving some indication of the degree of progestational domination and of the likelihood of abortion. A high proportion of cornified karyopyknotic, eosinophilic cells appearing in the smear portends poorly for the pregnancy if this pattern persists. Determination of urinary steroid may also provide valuable information in selected cases. 2. The normal patient should be seen at least once a month for the first seven months, then semimonthly until the last month, when weekly visits are essential to her safety. Patients with particular problems are seen more often during the earlier stages of pregnancy. Any of the standard immunization procedures can be safely administered in pregnancy, including those for poliomyelitis and influenza, and these should be instituted in susceptible women and at the time of epidemics. Texto 11 PEDIATRICS Recognition of disease in the newborn infant is dependent upon knowledge and appraisal of a limited number of relatively nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms. Cyanosis usually indicates respiratory insufficiency, which may be due to pulmonary conditions or may be secondary to intracranial hemorrhage, or anoxic injury to the brain. Cyanosis persisting for several days, when unaccompanied by obvious signs of respiratory difficulty, is suggestive of cyanotic congenital heart disease or methemoglobinemia. Episodes of cyanosis may be the presenting sign of hypoglycemia, bacteremia or meningitis. Convulsions usually point to a disorder of the central nervous system and suggest anoxic brain damage, intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral anomaly, subdural effusion, meningitis, tetany or, rarely, pyridoxine dependency, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia or hypernatremia. They may also be the first sign of bacteremia or other severe infection and may occur as a nonspecific sign in any severe illness, particularly if there is circulatory insufficiency. Infants of mothers addicted to narcotics may also develop seizures as part of their withdrawal syndrome. Apnea may be the first manifestation of seizure activity, particularly in a premature infant. Lethargy may be a manifestation of anoxia, of sedation from maternal analgesia or anesthesia, of cerebral defect, of severe infection and, indeed, of almost any severe disease. Lethargy appearing after the second day should, in particular, suggest infection. Irritability may be a sign of discomfort accompanying intra-abdominal conditions, meningeal irritation, infections, or any condition producing pain. As in later infancy, the eardrums should always be examined as a possible source of pain.

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Hyperactivity, especially of the premature infant, may be a sign of hypoxia, pneumothorax, emphysema, hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia or central nervous system damage . Texto 12 Vitamin A Vitamin A is a pale yellow primary alcohol derived from carotene. It affects the formation and maintenance of skin, mucous membranes, bones, and teeth; vision; and reproduction. An early deficiency symptom is night blindness (difficulty in adapting to darkness); other symptoms are excessive skin dryness; lack of mucous membrane secretion, causing susceptibility to bacterial invasion; and dryness of the eyes due to a malfunctioning of the tear glands, a major cause of blindness in children in developing countries. The body obtains vitamin A in two ways. One is by manufacturing it from carotene, a vitamin precursor found in such vegetables as carrots, broccoli, squash, spinach, kale, and sweet potatoes. The other is by absorbing ready-made vitamin A from plant-eating organisms. In animal form, vitamin A is found in milk, butter, cheese, egg yolk, liver, and fish-liver oil. Although one-third of American children are believed to consume less than the recommended allowance of vitamin A, sufficient amounts can be obtained in a normally balanced diet rather than through supplements. Excess vitamin A can interfere with growth, stop menstruation, damage red blood corpuscles, and cause skin rashes, headaches, nausea, and jaundice. Texto 13 Proteins Proteins are organic compounds that contain oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, and often sulfur atoms. Some of the largest molecules that naturally exist in living organisms, are composed of amino acids arranged in a pattern specific to a protein type. The various amino acid arrangements create thousands of proteins, including enzymes, globulins, and antibodies. Approximately 80 amino acids are found in nature; of these, humans need 20 for metabolism or growth of body tissues. The human body can manufacture 9 of the amino acids; the rest (called essential amino acids) are obtained from animal or plant tissues in the diet. Proteins are essential for the functioning of cells. They are used as structural materials for muscles and organs and help form hair and fingernails. Some proteins work in harmony with other materials. For example, clotting proteins work with platelets to control bleeding, and antibodies help white blood cells fight infections. Sugar Sugar contains energy (in the form of calories), but thats all. Very sweet foods dont give you any vitamins, minerals, fiber, fat or protein. So, although sweets, cakes, cola drinks and chocolate are delicious, theyre not very healthy in fact, just the oppositethey cause obesity and theyre also bad for your teeth. If youd like to reduce the amount of sugar in your diet, here are some tips to help you. Eat more fruit (it contains all the sugar your body needs) and fewer cakes, biscuits and chocolate. Reduce (or preferable cut out completely) the sugar you take in tea/coffee.

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Choose breakfast cereals which are less sugary. Salt On average we eat about 10 grammes of salt per day. Twenty-five per cent of this consists of the salt we add to food ourselves. Twenty-five per cent occurs naturally in our diet. Fifty per cent is added to products by food manufacturers. So-thats how much salt we eat and where it comes from, but how much salt do we actually need? The answer is one gramme per day. And what happens if we eat far too much? Well, too much salt causes high blood pressure, which increases the risk of heart attacks and strokes. Here are some ways to reduce the amount of salt in your diet: When you buy tinned vegetables, look for ones with No added salt on the label. Eat fewer crisps, salted peanuts, etc. Dont add salt to food (a) while youre cooking it, (b) at the table. Add lemon juice, herbs or spices instead. Texto 14 Protein Metabolism Proteins contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes other atoms. They form the cellular structural elements, are biochemical catalysts, and are important regulators of gene expression. Nitrogen is essential to the formation of twenty different amino acids, the building blocks of all body cells. Amino acids are characterized by the presence of a terminal carboxyl group and an amino group in the alpha position, and they are connected by peptide bonds. Digestion breaks protein down to amino acids. If amino acids are in excess of the body's biological requirements, they are metabolized to glycogen or fat and subsequently used for energy metabolism. If amino acids are to be used for energy their carbon skeletons are converted to acetyl CoA, which enters the Krebs cycle for oxidation, producing ATP. The final products of protein catabolism include carbon dioxide, water, ATP, urea, and ammonia. Vitamin B6 is involved in the metabolism (especially catabolism) of amino acids, as a cofactor in transamination reactions that transfer the nitrogen from one keto acid (an acid containing a keto group [-CO-] in addition to the acid group) to another. This is the last step in the synthesis of nonessential amino acids and the first step in amino acid catabolism. Transamination converts amino acids to L-glutamate, which undergoes oxidative deamination to form ammonia, used for the synthesis of urea. Urea is transferred through the blood to the kidneys and excreted in the urine. The glucose-alanine cycle is the main pathway by which amino groups from muscle amino acids are transported to the liver for conversion to glucose. The liver is the main site of catabolism for all essential amino acids, except the branched-chain amino acids, which are catabolized mainly by muscle and the kidneys. Plasma amino-acid levels are affected by dietary carbohydrate through the action of insulin, which lowers plasma amino-acid levels (particularly the branched-chain amino acids) by promoting their entry into the muscle. Body proteins are broken down when dietary supply of energy is inadequate during illness or prolonged starvation. The proteins in the liver are utilized in preference to those of other tissues such as the brain. The gluconeogenesis pathway is present only in liver cells and in certain kidney cells. Disorders of amino acid metabolism include phenylketonuria, albinism, alkaptonuria, type 1 tyrosinaemia, nonketotic hyperglycinaemia, histidinaemia, homocystinuria, and maple syrup urine disease.
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Texto 15 Fat (Lipid) Metabolism Fats contain mostly carbon and hydrogen, some oxygen, and sometimes other atoms. The three main forms of fat found in food are glycerides (principally triacylglycerol [triglyceride], the form in which fat is stored for fuel), the phospholipids, and the sterols (principally cholesterol). Fats provide 9 kilocalories per gram (kcal/g), compared with 4 kcal/g for carbohydrate and protein. Triacylglycerol, whether in the form of chylomicrons (microscopic lipid particles) or other lipoproteins, is not taken up directly by any tissue, but must be hydrolyzed outside the cell to fatty acids and glycerol, which can then enter the cell. Fatty acids come from the diet, adipocytes (fat cells), carbohydrate, and some amino acids. After digestion, most of the fats are carried in the blood as chylomicrons. The main pathways of lipid metabolism are lipolysis, betaoxidation, ketosis, and lipogenesis. Lipolysis (fat breakdown) and beta-oxidation occurs in the mitochondria. It is a cyclical process in which two carbons are removed from the fatty acid per cycle in the form of acetyl CoA, which proceeds through the Krebs cycle to produce ATP, CO2, and water. Ketosis occurs when the rate of formation of ketones by the liver is greater than the ability of tissues to oxidize them. It occurs during prolonged starvation and when large amounts of fat are eaten in the absence of carbohydrate.

Texto 16 Anemia Anemia is the condition in which there is a reduction in the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter or of the hemoglobin content of the red cells, or both, with corresponding reduction in the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. The main causes are: (1) blood loss due to hemorrhage either (a) external or (b) internal; (2) excess red cell destruction as in hemolytic anemias and sickle cell anemia and (3) diminished or defective red cell production as in iron deficiency anemias, vitamin C deficiency anemia, pernicious anemia and bone marrow toxicity anemias. Anemia from Blood Loss. Hemorrhage with loss of blood from the body removes cell forming elements, especially iron, and blood replacement is necessary. Internal hemorrhage preserves the iron. Excess Red Cell Destruction Anemias. Sickle cell anemia is determined by the presence of type S hemoglobin and occurs mainly in blacks but may occur in whites where there is always the possibility that the type S hemoglobin may have come from a black ancestor. There is a hereditary and familial tendency to the formation of sickleand-stellate-shaped red blood corpuscles (sicklemia), sometimes accompanied by profound anemia (sickle cell anemia) that may prove to be fatal. There are signs of hemolysis, with hemosiderosis in various organs. The spleen shows lakes of blood around the malpighian corpuscles in the earlier stages, but in the later stages the organ may be small, fibrotic and even calcified. An important complication is the tendency to thrombosis with resulting capillary stasis and even infarction in various organs. Hereditary spherocytosis, transmitted as a dominant trait, is characterized by biconvex red cells that are excessively fragile, leading to rupture and hemolysis. The spleen is greatly enlarged, and splenectomy results in improvement. Thalassemia (Mediterranean anemia), a disease primarily of children of Italian or Greek descent, may be serious (T. major) or slight (T. minor). In the serious form,

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anemia is marked, skin is faintly yellow, spleen is enlarged, and there may be hemosiderosis of various organs. Erythroblastosis fetalis results from hemolysis of red blood cells in the fetus as a result of maternal antibodies against Rh factor in fetal red cells. Hemolytic anemia. This condition may be caused by acute (frequently fatal) intravascular hemolysis that occurs during septicemia, as by Clostridium perfringens; by direct infection of the red blood corpuscles by Bartonella bacilliformis; by the formation of antibodies to red blood cells (autoimmune hemolytic anemia) and, finally, by repeated passage through an enlarged spleen of any infection that causes splenomegaly with increased sequestration of red blood corpuscles. 1.4 Artculos cientficos de divulgacin general El texto cientfico tiene como objetivo expresar y transmitir conocimiento especializado sobre un rea de conocimiento. En el plano textual, las caractersticas del texto cientfico puro son la despersonalizacin y estilo neutro u objetivo, lo que lleva a lograr claridad y precisin en la exposicin de los contenidos. La funcin es referencial y la organizacin estructurada. En nuestro anlisis textual deberemos detectar elementos apelativos, argumentativos o subjetivos, si los hubiere, aunque en ese caso estaramos ante un texto con una intencionalidad particular. A nivel pragmtico, el texto cientfico versa sobre temas especficos del conocimiento que deben estar explicitados en el ttulo. Es esencial tener en claro quines son los interlocutores que participan en la situacin comunicativa en la que se emite el texto. Si el texto es una comunicacin a pares, una divulgacin educativa a estudiantes de esa especializacin, o una informacin masiva a la poblacin sobre el tema, son factores que determinan su densidad terminolgica, su organizacin textual y hasta su sintaxis. El traductor debe tener en cuenta tambin las caractersticas formales externas del texto: la organizacin en apartados y subapartados, la pertinencia de ttulos y subttulos, la tipografa y la presencia de grficos y esquemas, que variarn de acuerdo con el destinatario. El texto cientfico de divulgacin masiva se encuentra en el nivel ms bajo de especializacin y se expresa en lengua comn con el fin de llegar al pblico en general. Aunque no se requiere que el destinatario tenga conocimiento previo sobre el tema, la intencin es que pueda comprender el mensaje. Pero cul es el hilo que une el texto cientfico especializado con la lengua comn? En este punto es importante aclarar que entre los dos extremos hay un sinnmero de variables intermedias determinadas por el tipo de destinatario y el conocimiento previo que tenga sobre el tema. La divulgacin cientfica nace de una necesidad social, es decir, la necesidad cada vez mayor de gran parte de la sociedad por adquirir conocimiento cientfico. En su conferencia sobre Efecto del glifosato sobre los embriones, el doctor Carrasco () expres: El cientfico debe divulgar los resultados a la sociedad que le ha posibilitado sus estudios. Texto 17 A. Blizzard of litter By Tian Xuzhen, Shanghai Star. 2001-03-29 People use them and then throw them away... The cheap, styrofoam food containers are everywhere, posing a severe hazard to the environment.

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A migrant worker picks through trash collected under Xupu Bridge in Pudong. The trash, much of it styrofoam lunch boxes, was removed from the Huangpu River. As warm spring rains hasten the decay of last year's leaves and bring forth the green of the new season, one thing remains unchanged - the white styrofoam food containers people buy snacks and take-out meals every day. And if scientists are right, they will remain unchanged for 200 years, despite man's efforts to hide them away in dumps. Look under a tree, in the grass or along the rivers and the future of Shanghai is written in garbage, the kind that will last until our great-great-grandchildren's grandchildren clean it up. "I know very well it is a big waste to use plastic boxes or disposable chopsticks," said Shirley Xu, a Shanghai native working in a State-owned company. "But I do worry about the sanitary quality of the plates and spoons in ordinary restaurants. So I have no other choices but to use these styrofoam lunch boxes and disposable chopsticks," Xu said. The food stands on the street are reluctant to cut into their profit margin by using biodegradable plastic containers that cost several times more than the ones made of styrofoam that they prefer to use. Every day, consciously and subconsciously, people use over 800,000 pieces of disposable eating utensils, accounting for 70 per cent of the city's "white pollution," a problem that haunts most cities. Billions are used nationwide every year. Texto 18 Cholesterol Cholesterol is a type of fat (lipid). It is essential to normal construction and function of all cells in your body. Your liver manufactures most of the cholesterol transported in your blood plasma, Your diet provides a smaller portion. Protein transporters (apoproteins) combine with cholesterol to form lipoproteins. This is the form in which cholesterol circulates within your blood. Lipoproteins vary in size, weight and density. As the amount of cholesterol in the highdensity lipoprotein form (HDL cholesterol) increases in the blood, the risk of developing coronary artery disease diminishes. Conversely, with increased levels of the lowdensity lipoprotein form (LDL cholesterol) the risk of coronary artery disease rises. Thus, good cholesterol is HDL cholesterol and bad cholesterol is LDL cholesterol. If your blood cholesterol levels place you at moderate to high risk of coronary artery disease, your first step is to cut down on saturated fat and cholesterol. Eggs, butter, salad dressings, many oils and shortenings head the list of products that are high in saturated fat and cholesterol. Whole milk and its by-products, such as icecream and cheese, also contain appreciable quantities. Although meat contains less saturated fats and cholesterol, its total contribution to your diet es a special concern. Red meat is highest, followed by fowl and fish. When choosing meat, remember: swimmers are better than flyers, which are better than walkers. For most people with a cholesterol problem, physicians recommend a low saturated fat/low cholesterol diet. If the desired result is not achieved within six months, doctors often add medications.

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Texto 19 Stroke, damage of the brain due to a blockage in blood flow, or to a hemorrhage of blood vessels in the brain. Without blood, sections of brain tissue quickly deteriorate or die, resulting in paralysis of limbs or organs controlled by the affected brain area. Most strokes are associated with high blood pressure or arteriosclerosis, or both. Some of the signs of major stroke are facial weakness, inability to tald, loss of bladder control, difficulty in breathing and swallowing, and paralysis or weakness, particularly on one side of the body. Stroke is also called cerebral apoplexy and cerebrovascular accident. The majority of stroke cases are due to arterial blockage caused by either thrombosis or embolism. Thrombosis involves the gradual building up of fatty substances, or arteriosclerotic plaque, in one or more of the four arteries leading to the brain. As these arteries become narrowed, a potential stroke victim often experiences recurrent warnings of transient paralysis, such a in one arm or leg or on one side of the face, or discovers impairments in speech, vision, or other motor functions. At this stage, deposits in the linings of the cerebral arteries can often be treated by surgery, including laser surgery and microsurgical bypass of blockages. Anticoagulant drugs, changes in diet, and even daily doses of aspirin are also used. Actual thrombosis occurs when an artery has occluded, leading to permanent brain damage. Embolism occurs when a cerebral artery suddenly becomes blocked by material coming from another part of the bloodstream. Such solid masses, or emboli, often form as clots in a diseased or malfunctioning heart, but can also come from dislodged fragments of arteriosclerotic plaque or even an air bubble. Treatment is largely preventive, consisting of monitoring of the diet, and, if possible, use of anticoagulants. Hemorrhaging of cerebral blood vessels, a less frequent cause of stroke, occurs most often where aneurysms, or blisterlike bulges, develop on the forks of large cerebral arteries on the brain surface. The rupture of aneurysms causes brain damage, due to either the seeping of blood into brain tissue or the reduced flow of blood to the brain beyond the point of rupture. Texto 20 Spectrometer From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the light measuring instrument. For sound waves, see Spectrogram. Spectroscope

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Other names

Spectrog raph Mass spectrogr aph

Related items

A spectrograph is an optical instrument used to measure properties of light over a specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, typically used in spectroscopic analysis to identify materials. The variable measured is most often the light's intensity but could also, for instance, be the polarization state. The independent variable is usually the wavelength of the light, normally expressed as a fraction of a meter, but sometimes expressed as a unit directly proportional to the photon energy, such as wavenumber or electron volts, which has a reciprocal relationship to wavelength. A spectrometer is used in spectroscopy for producing spectral lines and measuring their wavelengths and intensities. Spectrometer is a term that is applied to instruments that operate over a very wide range of wavelengths, from gamma rays and X-rays into the far infrared. If the region of interest is restricted to near the visible spectrum, the study is called spectrophotometry. In general, any particular instrument will operate over a small portion of this total range because of the different techniques used to measure different portions of the spectrum. Below optical frequencies (that is, at microwave and radio frequencies), the spectrum analyzer is a closely related electronic device.

[edit] Spectroscopes
Comparison of different diffraction based spectrometers: Reflection optics, refraction optics, fiber optics Spectroscopes are often used in astronomy and some branches of chemistry. Early spectroscopes were simply prisms with graduations marking wavelengths of light. Modern spectroscopes, such as monochromators, generally use a diffraction grating, a movable slit, and some kind of photodetector, all automated and controlled by a computer. The spectroscope was invented by Joseph von Fraunhofer. When a material is heated to incandescence it emits light that is characteristic of the atomic makeup of the material. Particular light frequencies give rise to sharply defined bands on the scale which can be thought of as fingerprints. For example, the element sodium has a very characteristic double yellow band known as the Sodium D-lines at 588.9950 and 589.5924 nanometers, the color of which will be familiar to anyone who has seen a low pressure sodium vapor lamp. In the original spectroscope design in the early 19th century, light entered a slit and a collimating lens transformed the light into a thin beam of parallel rays. The light was then passed through a prism (in hand-held spectroscopes, usually an Amici prism) that refracted the beam into a spectrum because different wavelengths were refracted different amounts due to dispersion. This image was then viewed through a tube with a scale that was transposed upon the spectral image, enabling its direct measurement. With the development of photographic film, the more accurate spectrograph was created. It was based on the same principle as the spectroscope, but it had a camera in place of the viewing tube. In recent years the electronic circuits built around the photomultiplier tube have replaced the camera, allowing real-time spectrographic analysis with far greater accuracy. Arrays of photosensors are also used in place of film

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in spectrographic systems. Such spectral analysis, or spectroscopy, has become an important scientific tool for analyzing the composition of unknown material and for studying astronomical phenomena and testing astronomical theories. The wavelengths are measured with the spectrometer. Texto 21

Espectrmetro
De Wikipedia, la enciclopedia libre
(Redirigido desde Espectroscopio) Saltar a navegacin, bsqueda Para usos acsticos de los espectrgrafos de ondas sonoras, ver ms abajo.

Espectrmetro El Espectrmetro es un aparato capaz de analizar el espectro caracterstico de un movimiento ondulatorio. Se aplica a variados instrumentos que operan sobre un amplio campo de longitudes de onda. ==EspectrEn general, un instrumento concreto slo operar sobre una pequea porcin de ste campo total, debido a las diferentes tcnicas necesarias para medir distintas porciones del espectro. Por debajo de las frecuencias pticas (es decir, microondas, radio y audio), el analizador de espectro es un dispositivo electrnico muy parecido. Los espectrmetros conocidos con el nombre de espectroscopios se utilizan en el anlisis espectroscpico para identificar materiales. El espectroscopio fue inventado por Gustav Kirchhoff y Robert Wilhelm Bunsen. Se usan espectroscopios en astronoma y en algunas ramas de la qumica. Los primeros espectroscopios eran un simple prisma con graduaciones que marcaban las distintas longitudes de onda de la luz. Los espectroscopios modernos suelen utilizar una rejilla de difraccin, ranuras mviles, y algn tipo de fotodetector, todo ello automatizado y controlado por un ordenador. Cuando se calienta un material hasta la incandescencia emite una luz cuyo espectro depende de la configuracin atmica del material. Cada grupo de frecuencias de luz hace aparecer bandas claramente definidas en la escala que son su huella caracterstica (algo as como las huellas digitales de los humanos). Por ejemplo, el sodio tiene una banda doble amarilla muy caracterstica conocida como las lneas-D del sodio a 588,9950 y 589,5924 nanmetros, y cuyo color le resultar familiar a quien haya visto una lmpara de vapor de sodio de baja presin. En el diseo original del espectroscopio del siglo XIX, la luz atravesaba una rendija y una lente colimadora transformaba la luz en un un haz de rayos paralelos. La luz pasaba entonces a travs de un prisma que refractaba el haz en un espectro, debido a que las distintas longitudes de onda se refractaban de diferente manera por la dispersin. Esta

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imagen se puede ver a travs de un tubo con una escala superpuesta sobre la imagen espectral, permitiendo su lectura directa. Con el desarrollo de la pelcula fotogrfica, pudieron disearse espectrgrafos ms precisos. Se basaban en el mismo principio que el espectroscopio, pero tenan una cmara en lugar de un tubo para mirar. En los ltimos aos, los circuitos electrnicos construidos junto al tubo fotomultiplicador han sustituido a la cmara, permitiendo el anlisis espectrogrfico en tiempo real con mucha ms precisin. Tambin se utilizan hileras de fotosensores en lugar de pelculas fotogrficas. Dicho anlisis espectral, o espectroscopia, se ha convertido en una importante herramienta cientfica para analizar la composicin de materiales desconocidos y para el estudio de fenmenos astronmicos y probar teoras astronmicas. Texto 22 Recycling of Plastic Materials Introduction
What is plastic? Plastic is the general term for a wide range of synthetic or semi synthetic polymerization products. They are composed of organic condensation or addition polymers and may contain other substances to improve performance or economics. Plastics can be formed into objects or films or fibers. Their name is derived from the fact that many are malleable, having the property of plasticity What is recycling of plastic materials? To begin with, plastic recycling is the process of recovering scrap or waste plastics and reprocessing the material into useful products, sometimes completely different from their original state. The Challenges of Plastic Recycling Unlike glass or metallic materials, plastic can be very difficult to recycle. One of the most important obstacles is their low entropy of mixing, which is due to the high molecular weight of large polymer chains. Another way of stating this problem is that, since a macromolecule interacts with its environment along its entire length, its enthalpy or heat content of mixing is very large compared to that of a small organic molecule with a similar structure; thermal excitations are often not enough to drive such a huge molecule into solution on their own. Due to this uncommon influence of mixing enthalpy, polymers must often be of nearly identical composition in order to mix with one another. It would be useful at this point to define the term polymer. A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. Although one tends to think that polymers can be found only in plastic materials, there can be natural polymers such as hair or skin. One of the drawbacks of plastic recycling is that in the case of samples from beverages containers, the many aluminium-based alloys all melt into the same liquid phase, but the various copolymer blends of PET from different manufacturers do not dissolve into one another when heated. Instead, they tend to phase-separate, like oil and water. Phase boundaries weaken an item made from such a mixture considerably, meaning that most polymer blends are only useful in a few, very limited contexts. Another obstacle to recycling is the widespread use of dyes, fillers, and other additives in plastics. The polymer is generally too viscous to economically remove fillers, and would be damaged by many of the processes that could cheaply remove the added dyes. The fact that additives are less commonly used in beverage containers and plastic bags, allows them to be recycled more frequently. Biodegradable Plastic

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The use of biodegradable plastics is increasing. If some of these are mixed in the other plastics for recycling, the recycled plastic is less valuable. For instance, in the UK, a number of retailers have recently introduced degradable carrier bags. These bags are made from plastic which degrades under certain conditions or after a predetermined length of time. There are two types of degradable plastic: bio-degradable plastics, which contain a small percentage of non oil-based material, such as corn starch; and photodegradable plastics, which will break down when exposed to sunlight. Degradable plastics are already being used successfully in Austria and Sweden, where McDonalds has been using bio-degradable cutlery for three years. This enables all catering waste to be composted without segregation. Carriers for packs of beer cans are now being manufactured in a plastic which photo-degrades in six weeks. There is also potential to use such plastics in non-packaging applications such as computer or car components. There are a number of concerns over the use of degradable plastics. First, these plastics will only degrade if disposed of in appropriate conditions. For example, a photodegradable plastic product will not degrade if it is buried in a landfill site where there is no light. Second, they may cause an increase in emissions of the greenhouse gas methane, as methane is released when materials biodegrade anaerobically. Third, the mixture of degradable and non-degradable plastics may complicate plastics sorting systems. Finally, the use of these materials may lead to an increase in plastics waste and litter if people believe that discarded plastics will simply disappear.

Texto 23 FALKLAND OIL


From Bloody Rags to Black Riches By Susanne Koelbl
60 billion barrels of oil lie under the ocean around the Falkland Islands, say experts. Twenty years after the war in the South Atlantic, the islands have struck it rich. But who does the oil belong to? Argentina continues to eye the archipeligo even as British oil companies start moving in for the drill. It's a glorious summer day on the Bay of Fitzroy. The deep blue waters of Port Pleasant fjord shimmer in the bright midday sun, as a formation of gray-headed geese rises into the sky above the distant hills. It's a peaceful, idyllic scene. Billy Baynham, 46, doesn't notice. An entirely different scene is running through his mind as he gazes out at the bay -- a scene from 20 years ago: An Argentine Skyhawk fighter jet swoops low over the surface of the bay and discharges its belly full of bombs onto the British landing craft "Sir Galahad," lying at anchor in the bay. Within seconds, the vessel is transformed into a raging fireball as the ship's cargo -- tons of ammunition and weapons -- goes up in violent detonation. Michael Dunphy -- a thin, quiet, 22-year-old from Wales and a member of the First Welsh Guards -- is one of the 47 crew members who perish on that day. The memory triggers irrational feelings of guilt to well up inside of Bahnham. "Why him, why not me?" he implores. His powerful 6'6" figure shakes as he kneels, weeping, on the hard tufts of grass that grow along Fitzroy's shoreline. Today, Baynham has returned for the first time to this place where he and Dunphy fought against the Argentines, more than 22 years ago. He has

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been haunted by the bloody images of that battle -- fought in one of the most remote corners of the world -- ever since. On April 2, 1982, Argentine dictator Leopoldo Galtieri ordered his troops to occupy the archipelago, about 375 miles over the Atlantic Ocean from Buenos Aires. In response, then British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher dispatched the largest British fleet assembled since the end of World War II. Its mission? To liberate the 1,800 inhabitants of the Falkland Islands, a barren collection of rocky islets governed by the British Empire since 1835. Together, the two sides lost about a thousand troops, or more than half the territory's population. The war -- like the Falklands themselves -- was quickly forgotten by the rest of the world.

3.

CAPTULO II MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO DE DIVULGACIN CIENTFICA

2.1Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales LENGUAJE CIENTFICO Y TCNICO EN ESPAOL Sus cualidades son: La objetividad. Se diluye la importancia del sujeto y se destacan hechos y datos, determinando las circunstancias que acompaan a los procesos. La universalidad. Generalmente se trata de conceptos aplicables o que estn presentes en todos los casos o en todas partes, o en todos los tiempos, etc. La verificabilidad, que se hace posible mediante grficos, frmulas, smbolos, etc. La claridad en que se expresan los textos para una fcil percepcin o comprensin. La finalidad de estos textos es lograr el conocimiento del lector sobre un tema en los diferentes campos del saber. Pretenden, por lo general, un aporte al conocimiento existente sobre la cuestin y presuponen, si no un experto, al menos un lector actualizado en la materia. Su estilo est condicionado por la aspiracin de lograr la mayor objetividad posible mediante un uso unvoco del lenguaje: la definicin en trminos y conceptos que van a significar siempre exactamente lo mismo cada vez que vuelvan a aparecer en el texto. Ms preocupados por no ser mal entendidos por otros experto que por no ser entendido por un nefito, estos textos son a menudo densos y crpticos. Some gramatical features of scientific English

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The extract below is from an article in Neurolinguistics, chosen because its subjectmatter is to do with scientific language at a point where the issues are anatomical and technological (and thus unfamiliar to all, but specialists). It is also selected as an example of international scientific English (its authors are French), processed in an English-language journal, and thus likely to avoid stylistic idiosyncrasy. The paragraph illustrates several features typical of the grammar of scientific English, as well as some lexical characteristics (abbreviations, numerals, special symbols, etc.). The style is lexically quite dense: 62 per cent of the words are lexical, and only 38 per cent are grammatical. The style is fairly typical of academic scientific writing. There are 12 sentences, with a mean of 22.2 words. Sentences range from 8 to 50 words. The extract begins with we, but this is anomalous within the article as a whole, which uses an impersonal style in over 99 per cent of its clauses. The norm here is the passive, used in two-thirds of the sentences -a widely-quoted stereotype of scientific English syntax. Nouns phrases with complex structure are usual, as in a transparent removable alignment grid for drawing external landmarks on the skin. There is a compactness of structure, illustrated by the use of parentheses, and the descriptive succinctness of the third sentence. Thee are no features of narrative style, such as sentence-connecting items (e.g. however, secondly). The logic governing the order of topics is not supported by linguistic sequencing features. 2.2 Identificacin del destinatario 2.3 Grados de divulgacin 2.4 Artculos de investigacin cientfica o papers

Texto 24

The light of evolution


Miranda Robertson Journal of Biology 2009, 8:10doi:10.1186/jbiol124 The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://jbiol.com/content/8/2/10 27 February 200 Published: 9 2009 BioMed Central Ltd

Editorial
This month, Journal of Biology, like almost everyone else, has some specially commissioned articles to mark the 200th anniversary of Darwin's birth, although it may not be immediately obvious where the Darwin articles end and our usual review content begins. This is in part a reflection of the admirable strength of our sister BMC journals, from which the subject matter of our minireviews is largely drawn, in evolutionary biology and in genomics; but it is also in large part, of course, a tribute to the pervasiveness of what Paul Harvey [1] calls the Darwinian agenda.

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Paul Harvey's is one of the two specially commissioned articles that is about Darwin himself rather than his legacy. We asked him to write on what Darwin actually proved, a question that arises from time to time in the context of the Popperian definition of the scientific process but that Harvey has adroitly sidestepped in favour of a selection of vivid examples of Darwin's singular character as a thinker and an experimental biologist. Of course Darwin didn't get everything right. In some cases, given what was not known at the time, he couldn't have. An egregious case in which arguably he could have, but notably he didn't, was the Mendelian segregation of inherited characteristics. Harvey finds this failure surprising; Jonathan Howard, in the second of our two articles on Darwin [2], explains why Darwin failed, despite, in the course of extensive and meticulous breeding experiments with plants, having what we should recognize as Mendelian segregation patterns under his nose. I am not sure, especially after reading Howard's article, that it isn't more surprising that Mendel did see them, and realized, before the discovery of the chromosomal basis of inheritance at the beginning of the 20th century, what they must mean. The usual explanation for Mendel's success is his strong background in statistics and probability theory; Howard's explanation for Darwin's failure is that he was completely preoccupied with continuously varying traits, which were understood in Mendelian terms only with the mathematical analyses of the great population geneticists Fisher, Haldane and Sewall Wright, whose acrimonious relationship with Ernst Mayr - who did not believe in mathematics as a tool for investigating evolution - provides the starting point for James Crow's [3] lively account of how profoundly important mathematical analysis has been in the study of evolution, from the construction of phylogenetic trees to the reconstruction of the migratory routes by which H. sapiens left his cradle in Africa to colonize the rest of the world - a recent contribution to which is discussed by Stanyon et al. in this issue [4]. We asked Paul Harvey and Jonathan Howard to write on Darwin; James Crow, Charles Stevens [5] and Laurence Hurst [6] were asked to write for our Darwin issue on evolutionary topics of special interest to them. Stevens, as a neurobiologist, is interested in how the neural circuitry of the brain is constructed so that its computational power is scaled to process input from sensory organs of sizes that vary across species and change during growth. He has chosen to revisit the principle of allometry, arguing that the power laws that describe the relationship of the relative sizes of parts of an organism to its absolute size are a consequence of the way that evolution works. Hurst, who is an evolutionary geneticist, asks how genomic tools and a modern understanding of molecular mechanisms can start to answer the question of how much of the genome is under selection - incidentally drawing attention to the limitations of the statistical tests that have been instrumental in the advances made by population geneticists in the study of evolution. One of their central achievements was to establish the role of so-called neutral mutations in evolution, now a linch pin of molecular horology and the kind of analysis described by Hurst, but fiercely contested by defenders of the Darwinian canon when first proposed (although Darwin himself was less doctrinaire, and willingly entertained the notion of selectively neutral variation - indeed Darwin's extraordinary open-mindedness is one of the notable features remarked by Paul Harvey [1]). In our review this month, Robin Weiss [7] invites us on a breif trip into human prehistory with some original speculation on the unanswerable question of the evolutionary origin of human pubic hair, and draws some interesting parallels between the conjectured intraspecies promiscuity of human lice and the generally accepted

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intraspecies infidelities of microbial pathongens, and in particular the immunodeficiency viruses in which Weiss is an expert. Our eclectic collection of Darwin articles and relevant minireviews does not begin to do justice to Darwin's vast, wide-reaching and absorbing legacy. We do not say anything (except in passing) about speciation, and only touch, quite briefly, in Crow [3] and less briefly - in Stevens [5] on what has become universally known as evo-devo. On evo-devo there is a highly readable review by Shubin et al. in the Darwin issue of Nature [8]. On Darwin, and his failure to tackle speciation, there is more from Greg Petsko in our sister journal Genome Biology [9]. But it would be nice to think that this bicentennial may provoke biologists in the hectic 21st century to revisit the writings of the man himself, which testify better than anyone can to his intellectual breadth, clarity and tenacity. Texto 25 Human Population: The Next Half Century
Joel E. Cohen By 2050, the human population will probably be larger by 2 to 4 billion people, more slowly growing (declining in the more developed regions), more urban, especially in less developed regions, and older than in the 20th century. Two major demographic uncertainties in the next 50 years concern international migration and the structure of families. Economies, nonhuman environments, and cultures (including values, religions, and politics) strongly influence demographic changes. Hence, human choices, individual and collective, will have demographic effects, intentional or otherwise. It is a convenient but potentially dangerous fiction to treat population projections as exogenous inputs to economic, environmental, cultural, and political scenarios, as if population processes were autonomous. Belief in this fiction is encouraged by conventional population projections, which ignore food, water, housing, education, health, physical infrastructure, religion, values, institutions, laws, family structure, domestic and international order, and the physical and biological environment. Other biological species are recognized explicitly only in the recent innovation of quantifying the devastating demographic impacts of HIV and AIDS. The absence from population projection algorithms of influential external variables indicates scientific ignorance of how external variables influence demographic rates rather than any lack of influence (1). Demographic projections stimulate fears of overpopulation in some, fears of demographic decline and cultural extinction in others ( 2). This review of current projections for the next half century will not attempt to assess the implications of likely demographic changes for health, nutrition, prosperity, international security, the physical, chemical and biological environment, or human values. Other articles in this series cover such topics. Past Population Earths population grew about 10-fold from 600 million people in 1700 to 6.3 billion in 2003 (3). These and all demographic statistics are estimates; repeated qualifications of uncertainty will be omitted. It took from the beginning of time until about 1927 to put the first 2 billion people on the planet; less than 50 years to add the next 2 billion people (by 1974); and just 25 years to add the next 2 billion (by 1999). The population doubled in the most recent 40 years. Never before the second half of the 20th century had any person lived through a doubling of global population. Now some have lived

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through a tripling. The human species lacks any prior experience with such rapid growth and large numbers of its own species. From 1750 to 1950, Europe and the New World experienced the most rapid population growth of any region, while the populations of most of Asia and Africa grew very slowly. Since 1950, rapid population growth shifted from Western countries to Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. The most important demographic event in history occurred around 196570. The global population growth rate reached its all-time peak of about 2.1% per year (pa). It then gradually fell to 1.2% pa by 2002 (4). The global total fertility rate fell from 5 children per woman per lifetime in 195055 to 2.7 children in 200005. The absolute annual increase in population peaked around 1990 at 86 million and has fallen to 77 million. Concurrent trends included worldwide efforts to make contraception and reproductive health services available, improvements in the survival of infants and children, widespread economic development and integration, movements of women into the paid labor market, increases in primary and secondary education for boys and girls, and other cultural changes. In 1960, five countries had total fertility rates at or below the level required to replace the population in the long run. By 2000, there were 64 countries such countries, with about 44% of all people (4, 5). Worldwide urbanization has taken place for at least two centuries and accelerated greatly in the 20th century. In 1800, roughly 2% of people lived in cities; in 1900, 12%; in 2000, more than 47%, and nearly 10% of those city dwellers lived in cities of 10 million people or larger. Between 1800 and 1900, the number of city dwellers rose more than 11-fold, from 18 million to 200 million; between 1900 and 2000, the number of city dwellers rose another 14-fold or more, from 200 million to 2.9 billion. In 1900, no cities had 10 million people or more. By 1950, one city did: New York. In 2000, 19 cities had 10 million people or more. Of those 19 cities, only four (Tokyo, Osaka, New York, and Los Angeles) were in industrialized countries (6). Demographic Projections of the Next 50 Years Projections of future global population prepared by the United Nations Population Division, the World Bank, the United States Census Bureau, and some research institutions assume business as usual (79). They include recurrent catastrophes to the extent that such catastrophes are reflected in past trends of vital rates, but exclude catastrophes of which there is no prior experience, such as thermonuclear holocaust or abrupt, severe climate change. The following summary relies mainly on the United Nations Population Divisions urbanization forecasts (6) and World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision (4). Alternative projections prepared by the UN include low, medium, high and constant-fertility variants. Estimates of present levels of demographic variables are projections based on measurements in recent years, rather than global current measurements. According to the medium variant, the worlds population is expected to grow from 6.3 billion today to 8.9 billion in 2050. Whereas the first absolute increase by 1 billion people took from the beginning of time until about 1800, the increase by one billion people from 6.3 billion to 7.3 billion is projected to require 13 to 14 years. The anticipated increase by 2050 of 2.6 billion over todays population exceeds the total population of the world in 1950, which was 2.5 billion. Current absolute and relative global population growth rates are far higher than any experienced before World War II. The annual addition of 77 million people poses formidable challenges of food, housing, education, health, employment, political organization and public order. Virtually all of the increase is and will be in the economically less-developed regions. More than half of the annual increase currently occurs in six countries: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria, and the United States. Of the total annual increase, the United States accounts for 4%. Were fertility to remain at present levels, the population would grow to 12.8 billion by 2050, more than double its present size. The medium projection of 8.9 billion people in 2050

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assumes that efforts to make means of family planning available to women and couples will continue and will succeed, and that after 2010 high-risk behaviors related to AIDS will become less frequent and chances of infection among those engaging in high risk behaviors will decline. The UNs 2002 estimate of 8.9 billion people in 2050 is 0.4 billion lower than that in their 2000 medium variant. About half of the decrease in the projection for 2050 is due to fewer projected births and about half to more projected deaths, notably from AIDS. Global statistics conceal vastly different stories in different parts of the world. In 2000, about 1.2 billion people lived in the economically rich, more developed regions: Europe, Northern America, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. The remaining 4.9 billion lived in the economically poor, less developed regions. The current annual growth rate of global population is 1.22%. Rich regions population currently increases 0.25% annually. Poor regions population grows 1.46% annually, nearly six times faster. The population of the least developed regions, the 49 countries where the worlds poorest 670 million people lived in 2000, annually increases 2.41%. By 2050, the projected annual growth rate of global population is 0.33%. The poor countries population will still be increasing 0.4% annually, whereas the population of the rich countries will have been declining for 20 years and will then be falling at 0.14% annually. Thirty of the more developed countries are expected to have lower populations in 2050 than today, including Japan (14% smaller), Italy (22% smaller), and the Russian Federation (29% smaller). By contrast, the population of todays poor countries is projected to rise to 7.7 billion in 2050 from 4.9 billion in 2000. Fertility in the less developed regions is expected to fall to replacement level in 20302035 but to remain above 2 children per woman by 2050 because some of the least developed countries will still have total fertility rates well above replacement level. The population of these high-fertility poor countries will be an increasing proportion of the population of the less developed regions. The worlds average population density of 45 people/km2 in 2000 is projected to rise to 66 people/km2 by 2050. Globally, perhaps 10% of land is arable, so population densities per unit of arable land are roughly 10 times higher. In the rich countries, the population density was 23 people/km2 in 2000half the global average and was projected not to change at all by 2050. In the poor countries, the population density was 59 people/km2 in 2000 and was projected to rise to 93 people/km2 in 2050. For comparison, the population density of Liechtenstein was 204 people/km2 in 2000 and that of the United States was 30. A population density of 93 people/km2 over the entire developing world will pose unprecedented problems of land use and preservation. According to these projections, the ratio of population density in the poor countries to that in the rich countries is projected to rise from 2.6 in 2000 to 4.0 in 2050. Over the same interval, while the population density of Europe is projected to drop from 32 to 27 people/km2, that of Africa is projected to rise from 26 to 60 people/km2. The ratio of population density in Africa to that in Europe is projected to rise from 0.8 in 2000 to 2.2 in 2050. It seems plausible to anticipate increasing human effects on the natural environment in Africa and increasing pressure of migrants from Africa to Europe. The difference in population growth rate between rich and poor countries affects both population size and age structure. If a population grows slowly, the number of births each year nearly balances the number of deaths. As most deaths occur at older ages, the numbers of individuals in different age groups are roughly equal up to older ages. The so-called population pyramid of a slowly growing population resembles a column (Fig. 1, middle row left) (10). If a population grows rapidly, each birth cohort is larger than its predecessor and the population pyramid is triangular (Fig. 1, middle row right). The projected difference in age structures between the European Union versus North Africa and western Asia (Fig. 1, bottom) has obvious implications for the supplies of military personnel and ratios of elderly to middle-aged. Inequality in the face of death between rich and poor

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will decrease but remain large if survival improves everywhere as anticipated in the coming half century. Global life expectancy in 200005 is estimated at 65 years; in 204550, at 74 years. Over the same interval, life expectancy in the rich countries is expected to rise from 76 years to 82 years and in the poor countries from 63 years to 73 years. The average infant born in a poor country had a chance of dying before age 1 that was 8.1 times higher than that in a rich country in 200005; the same ratio is projected to be 5.2 in 204550. Despite higher death rates, poor countries populations grow faster than those of rich because birth rates in poor countries are much higher. At current birth rates, during her lifetime, the average woman in the poor countries bears nearly twice as many children (2.9) as in the rich countries (1.6). By 2050, according to the medium variant, the total fertility rate in todays poor countries will drop to 2.0. The total fertility rate in todays more developed countries is projected to rise to almost 1.9 children per woman, as timing effects that currently depress the total fertility rate cease to operate. In the coming decade, more than half of all people will live in cities, for the first time in human history. Almost all population growth in the next half century will be in cities in poor countries while the worlds rural population will remain flat, near 3 billion people. The United Nations Population Division projects urban population only as far as 2030 (6). Its figures on urbanization disguise major ambiguities and variations among countries in definitions of cities and urban. Nevertheless, the trend toward urbanization is clear. Of the projected 2.2-billion increase in population from 2000 to 2030, 2.1 billion will be in urban areas, and all but 0.1 billion of that urban increase will be in developing countries. The annual rate of increase of urban population over the next 30 years, 1.8%, is nearly twice the projected annual rate of increase of global population during that period. The urban population of developing regions will grow rapidly as people migrate from rural to existing urban areas and transform rural settlements into cities. The rural population of the rich countries peaked around 1950 and has slowly declined since then. The rural population of the presently poor countries is expected to peak around 2025 and then gradually decline. Urbanization of the rich countries will continue, rising from 75% of people in 2000 to 83% in 2030. Over the same period, urbanization of the poor countries will rise from 40% to 56%, similar to the level of urbanization in the rich countries in 1950. The coming half century will see dramatic population aging, which means a higher proportion of the population in elderly age groups. The proportion of children aged 4 years and under peaked in 1955 at 14.5% and gradually declined to 10.2% in 2000. By contrast, the fraction of people aged 60 years and older gradually increased from a low of 8.1% in 1960 to 10.0% in 2000. Each group constitutes about 10% of humanity today. The 20th century will probably be the last in which younger people outnumbered older ones. Children aged 0 to 4 are projected to decline to 6.6% of global population by 2050, whereas people aged 60 years and older are projected to more than double to 21.4%. By 2050, there will be 3.2 people aged 60 years or older for every child 4 years old or younger. This reversal in the numerical dominances of old and young reflects improved survival and reduced fertility. Improved survival raised the global average length of life from perhaps 30 years at the beginning of the 20 th century to 65 years at the beginning of the 21st. Reduced fertility rates added smaller cohorts to the younger age groups. Because the populations of the poor countries have been growing more rapidly than those of the rich, they have a much higher fraction of people under the age of 15 years (33% versus 18% in 2000). By 2050, in the medium variant, these fractions will drop to 21% and 16% in poor and rich countries, respectively. The global fraction of the elderly population (aged 65 years or more) will rise from 7% in 2000 to 16% by 2050. Over the same period, the elderly fraction will rise from 5 to 14% in the presently poor countries and from 14 to 26% in the rich countries. Though the fraction of children in the population will decrease by more in the poor countries than in the

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rich, the fraction of elderly will increase by more in the rich countries than in the poor. Both shifts will have consequences for spending on the young and the old. Slowly growing populations have a higher elderly dependency ratio (the ratio of the number of people aged 65 and older to the number aged 15 to 64), while rapidly growing populations have a higher youth dependency ratio (the ratio of the number of people aged 0 to 14 to the number aged 15 to 64). The elderly dependency ratio rose from 1950 to 2000 at a rapid rate in the more developed countries, slightly less rapidly in the United States, and still less rapidly in the world as a whole. The ratio rose only slightly in the less developed countries, and hardly at all in the least developed countries. After 2010, in the more developed countries, the United States, and the less developed ountries, the elderly dependency ratio will increase sharply faster; this acceleration will be greater in the more developed countries and the United States. The least developed countries will experience a slow increase in the elderly dependency ratio after 2020 and, by 2050, will be approaching the elderly dependency ratio of the more developed countries in 1950. Demographic Uncertainties: Migration and the Family According to the United Nations Population Division, International migration is the component of population dynamics most difficult to project reliably. This occurs in part because the data available on past trends are sparse and partial, and in part because the movement of people across international boundaries, which is a response to rapidly changing economic, geopolitical or security factors, is subject to a great deal of volatility (11). The UNs 2002 medium variant posits migration from less to more developed regions of 2.6 million people annually during 19952000, declining to nearly 2.0 million by 202530, and remaining constant at that level until 2050. The United States is anticipated to increase annually by 1.1 million of these 2 million migrants, more than five times the number expected to be added annually to the next largest recipient, Germany (211,000). The major sending countries are expected to be China, Mexico, India, the Philippines, and Indonesia. International migration is likely to remain important for specific countries, including the United States. In the mid-1990s, about 125 million people (2% of world population) resided outside of their country of birth or citizenship. In 1990, only 11 countries in the world had more than 2 million migrants, and they collectively had almost 70 million migrants. The largest numbers of migrants were in the United States (19.6 million), India (8.7 million), Pakistan (7.3 million), France (5.9 million), and Germany (5.0 million). The countries with the highest percentage of international migrants in the total population were countries with relatively small populations. In the United Arab Emirates, Andorra, Kuwait, Monaco, and Qatar, 64 to 90% of the population were immigrants. If predicting international migration is difficult, predicting change in family structure is more difficult. Goldscheider (12) suggested that the fall in fertility during the demographic transition weakened the ties between men and women based on parenthood and that the rise in divorce and cohabitation is weakening the ties between fathers and children. Nonmarital births increased as a percentage of all births in the United States from 5.3% in 1960 to 33.0% in 1999. In 1999, the United States had 1.3 million births to unmarried women ( 13). In 1998, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, and Finland all had higher proportions of nonmarital births than the United States. By contrast, in Germany, Italy, Greece, and Japan, less than 15% of births were nonmarital (13). Among United States women aged 15 to 29 years at first birth, when that first birth was conceived before marriage, the fraction who married before the birth fell from 60% in 196064 to 23% in 199094 ( 14). By 1994, about 40% of children in the United States did not live with their biological father (12). In the United States, the number of widowed males aged 55 to 64 per thousand married persons fell from 149 in 1900 to 35 in 2000, whereas the number of divorced males aged 55 to 64 per thousand married persons rose from 7 to 129. Divorced

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males became more frequent than widowed males between 1970 and 1980. Divorced females became more frequent than widowed females between 1990 and 2000. By 2000, the number of divorced and widowed persons aged 55 to 64 per thousand married persons was 164 males and 426 females (2.6 such females for each such male) (15). Remarriages and stepfamilies are becoming increasingly common. Three factors set the stage for further major changes in families: fertility falling to very low levels; increasing longevity; and changing mores of marriage, cohabitation, and divorce. In a population with one child per family, no children have siblings. In the next generation, the children of those children have no cousins, aunts, or uncles. If adults live 80 years and bear children between age 20 and 30 on average, then the parents will have decades of life after their children have reached adulthood and their children will have decades of life with elderly parents. The full effects on marriage, child bearing, and child rearing of greater equality between the sexes in education; earnings; and social, legal, and political rights have yet to be felt or understood.

Texto 26

Reviewer: 1 Except for English that should be improved, I have also some other remarks concerning the manuscript. They are the following: (i) Page 2 (Abstract) - Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) instead of Neutron Activation Anlisis The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - (K, Sb and Zn) instead of (K, Sb y Zn) The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - industries instead of industries The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - rubber tyres instead of rubbers tyres The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. (ii) Page 2 (Keywords). I guess that the sequence: Tillandsia capillaris, biomonitoring, INAA, variogram and factor analyses, Crdoba province, Argentina would sound much better. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. (iii) Page 3 (Introduction section) - First paragraph. By contrast to biogeochemical studies, geobotanical studies are cheap, but they do not give any information on the plant chemistry. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - Second paragraph. The authors claim that Epiphytic plants are efficient air pollution biomonitors because they have no contact with soil, obtaining their nutrients from the atmosphere. Dont quite agree with this statement. Lichens, mosses, liverworts, not to mention some of the vascular plants, e.g. conifers, at least partly reflect the chemistry of their substratum including soil (It is also confirmed in this manuscript see Ramalina celastri on page 6). Some of the case studies carried out in the States and Europe suggest that the influence of geogenic/geologic sources on epiphytic plants is even

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greater than previously indicated. Considering this, it is an oversimplification to say that epiphytic plants monitor air pollution only. This paragraph was modified as suggested: Epiphytic plants are efficient air pollution biomonitors because they have no functional roots in contact with the soil, obtaining their nutrients from the atmosphere. We should point out that even if we acknowledge that some plants may reflect the geogenic effect, previous studies carried out with different species of epiphytes have shown that there is a relevant anthropogenic contribution, as can be seen in Figueiredo et al (2001). On the other hand, in the last 30 years, plant leaves, lichens and mosses have been increasingly used for assessing atmospheric deposition of trace elements and/or biological effects of airborne pollutants (Bargagli, 1989, Nimis, 1990, Henderson, 1996, Palmieri et al., 1997, Conti and Cecchetti, 2001, Bargagli et al., 2002, Carreras and Pignata, 2002 and Figueira et al., 2002). In fact, a purely instrumental approach to pollution monitoring has several weak points: despite the precision of measurement, recording gauges do not give information either on the bioavailability of pollutants or on their biological effects, and pollutants occurring at very low concentrations, such as trace elements, are often neglected. This can lead to gross underestimation of possible health effects, as some metals have synergistic toxicity and the hazard may exist even under low-dose exposure conditions (Bargagli et al., 1997). Compared with instrumental monitoring, concentrations of trace elements in the biomonitors are easily quantifiable with common analytical procedures and are related to those in wet and dry atmospheric depositions (Bargagli et al., 1997; Berg and Steinnes, 1997). We do not agree with the reviewers opinion when he says: Lichens, mosses, liverworts, not to mention some of the vascular plants, e.g. conifers, at least partly reflect the chemistry of their substratum including soil. This is a generalization. Every living organism reflects the chemical composition of the environment where it lives; however, vascular plants that grow on the soil and epiphytic vascular plants that have no contact with the soil reflect it in a different way. The latter, in turn, show a different behavior than that of lichens, mosses or liverworts. Among different groups or genres there exist different processes of captacin/incorporacin of metals depending on their physiology, morphology, lifecycle, etc. - Third paragraph. Bioindicators record not only atmospheric aerosols, but also gases and airborne dusts (geogenic, technogenic and biogenic particulates). This paragraph was corrected in the manuscript. (iv) Page 4 ( Study area and sampling procedure section) - 250 m a.s.l. .. 2,500 m a.s.l. instead of 2500 m amsl .. 2 500 m amsl! The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - The study area should contain brief information (3 4 sentences) on the bedrock geology (sandstones, limestones, igneous or metamorphic rocks?) and habitat (grasslands, forests, bogs, lakes etc.). Information was added about the physical environment of the study area. - The sampling design did not cover the entire Crdoba province, but only its southern and northernmost parts. The sampling area covers 1/3 of Crdoba province, with a total area of 50,000 km2. Within the area, samples of Tillandsia were collected at the sampling points where the species was available (52 points out of 81 sampled). - The authors must have added when and how long the samples were collected (plants show seasonal changes in element distribution pattern!).
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The dates the samples were collected and the period it took have been added. (v) Page 5 ( Instrumental neutron activation analysis section) - INAA in parentheses instead of NAA. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - How about the analytical uncertainty (in %)? Table 1 including these data has been added to the manuscript. (vi) Page 5 (section Summary statistics) + table 1 - Observed range. I think that the authors should also calculate expected 0.05 range The range 0.05 was not calculated for we considered it would not add information relevant to the aims of this study. (vii) Page 6 ( Variogram analysis section) - The authors claim as follows: On the other hand, the variograms of Br, K, Na, Sb, Se and Zn have positive slopes (Fig. 3). These tendencies could be associated with the non-natural emission sources of the study area, but, on page 7 they say: Na could be related to the Salinas Grandes, a large salt pan in the North-western area of the study area, or Laguna Mar Chiquita, an extensive salt-lake in the Northeast [this is a geogenic (geologic) source!!]. The sentence has been changad, pointing out that the variogram with positive slopes may be due to geogenic as well as anthropogenic natural sources. - In all, maybe you are right, but the conclusion on the absence or presence of anthropogenic vs. geogenic emission sources is not totally convincing. You should have analyzed soil samples at the same sites or refer to the references cited. We do not have soil samples available; however, we have compared our data with the data quoted by some other authors. (viii) Page 6 (Factor analysis section) - Subsitute rare elements for REE and place a comma between REE, Fe and Rb The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. The conclusions in this section are quite obvious. I do not have to use factor analysis. Although the PCA anlisis could have been avoided, it was carried out for the sake of contrast and to confirm the results obtained in the Variogram analysis, for this method had not been used previously in biomonitoring studies. (ix) Page 7 (Mapping section) - This section is the most controversial to me. The study area is about 50,000 km2 (sampling design actually covers about half of it see Figs. 4 through 7) and the number of samples does not exceed 52, so plotting the maps showing element distribution patterns is some sort of science fiction. In Europe geochemical or biogeochemical maps of smaller areas are based on hundreds or thousands of soil or plant samples. But, if we assumed that it is OK for the purpose of this study, I would suggest that the authors explain in more detail (give elements in parentheses) what they mean by the first and second component (component group?), and why they split the elements examined into these four groups, for example, it is unclear why Na and Ca have been assigned to the fourth group provided they have been derived from different sources (salt lake vs. limestone quarrying). We know that the more samples we can collect from the saimpling area, the more true-to-life the results obtained will be. However, 52 is a high number for our analytic capacity. Although a higher number of samples will allow for a

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better representation of the area, this design and the number of samples is not inadequate for exploratory aims. Regarding Na and Ca, even though they significantly contribute to the fourth component, they appear with an opposite sign, which reflects that the emission sources for these elements are located in different areas. That is to say, in areas with high concentrations of Ca, Na has low concentrations, and viceversa - Page 8 extraction plants , I guess quarries? Quarries: the manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. (x) Page 8 (Conclusion section) - The potential instead of the capacity. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - Confirmed instead of corroborated. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. (xi) Page 9 (References) - Page 9 environ. instead of environm. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. - Page 10 should be Mazurek instead of Marurek. The manuscript was modified as suggested by the reviewer. (xii) Figure 1 It would be simpler to write: Localization of study area with sampling sites. Insert the symbol into the map legend; besides, explain what that black spot in the upper right corner means. Guess, this is a salt lake/pan. The caption below Fig. 1 was modified as suggested by the reviewer. (xiii) Figures 4 through 7 As a whole, these figures are not clear to me (see comments for the Mapping section). Moreover, these maps extrapolate the results obtained far beyond the sampling design (!!). The captions should be more specific. The reader may not understand Distribution map of the scores of the first main component in the study area etc. The captions below the figures were modified so as to be more specific. For each component, the elements included are mentioned. 2.5 Resmenes de artculos de investigacin cientfica o abstracts

El resumen/abstract es un gnero dentro de otro gnero que es el artculo de investigacin. Estos gneros aunque son muy similares porque pertenecen a una misma investigacin, cumplen distintas funciones comunicativas, y por lo tanto, contienen distintas estructuras y expresiones. De acuerdo con lo establecido por The American National Standard Institute (ANSI), ...el resumen es una representacin condensada, precisa de los contenidos de un documento, preferiblemente elaborado por su autor o autores para incluirlo con la publicacin del artculo . (ANSI, 1979:1). En este sentido, la organizacin y la escritura del abstract dependern no slo de nuestro artculo de investigacin sino tambin del destinatario de la publicacin. El resumen descriptivo describe el contenido del artculo de manera muy abreviada ya que no proporciona resultados, conclusiones ni recomendaciones del autor. Generalmente se utilizan en los programas de los congresos y tienen una extensin no superior a las 100 palabras (5-10 lneas). El resumen informativo es una versin condensada del artculo completo ya que incluye los principales resultados de la investigacin. Se utilizan como headings en la

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mayora de los journals y deben tener una extensin no superior a las 200 palabras. En el caso de las presentaciones a congresos, este tipo de abstract se utiliza como evaluacin de la ponencia y puede tener una extensin de hasta 800 palabras. Si bien cada revista exige a los autores un formato especfico para la publicacin de resmenes, un modelo estndar de resumen es la reproduccin de cada una de las partes del artculo de investigacin. De este modo, el resumen comienza con una breve INTRODUCCIN al tema y exposicin del objetivo de la investigacin, contina con una descripcin del MTODO utilizado, luego presenta los RESULTADOS ms importantes del estudio y finaliza anticipando algunas CONCLUSIONES. El TTULO DE ABSTRACTS es fundamental para la aceptacin, publicacin y difusin del artculo de investigacin ya que es como una etiqueta que acompaa al texto. Debe estar correctamente escrito y las palabras que contenga deben limitarse a los trminos que resaltan el contenido del artculo. As, el ttulo ser fcilmente recuperable por los sistemas de consulta de informacin. Caractersticas: Longitud. La tendencia es escribir ttulos cada vez ms largos que aporten la mayor cantidad de informacin al lector para que ste decida si el artculo es o no de su inters. Por lo tanto, es necesario que se incluyan trminos especficos y se eviten las palabras basura que no aportan informacin relevante Jerga y abreviaturas. No es recomendable que los ttulos contengan expresiones de la jerga profesional, nombres propios (en lugar de genricos), abreviaturas ni frmulas qumicas ya que las bases de consulta generalmente no las localizan como palabras clave. En el caso de siglas reconocidas por la comunidad, es recomendable usarlas para evitar el riesgo de que el ttulo sea excesivamente largo. Uso de maysculas en ingls. En la primera y ltima palabra y en todas las palabras importantes de los ttulos de libros, revistas, peridicos, artculos, ensayos y abstracts. Frases nominales. Los ttulos de abstracts son frases nominales que carecen de verbos. Para suplir esta carencia se puede utilizar la forma ING en ingls. Omisin del artculo definido THE. En ingls el artculo the no se emplea en usos genricos. A. Mejore el estilo de los siguientes ttulos de abstracts. 1. 0010 The relationship between the adult oral health, the depression, the pain, and the general health J. SUDANO 1, P.K. MURRAY 1, B. RUO 2, G. HUBER 2, and D.W. BAKER 2, 1Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA, 2 Northwestern University 2. 0482 An Oral Index for HIV/AIDS Disease Progression is developed in this paper A. CHATTOPADHYAY, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA, and L.L. PATTON, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, USA La SECCIN INTRODUCCIN debe redactarse de lo general a lo especfico. Se puede comenzar con una generalizacin sobre el fenmeno o con el estado de la cuestin, y luego anunciar la hiptesis o el objetivo de la investigacin. Caractersticas: Tiempos verbales y voz. Para introducir el backgroung se puede utilizar Present Perfect o Simple Past, en voz activa o pasiva. Para introducir el objetivo se puede utilizar Simple Present, en voz activa o pasiva. Infinitivo de propsito. Se lo utiliza con el significado de para qu, por qu, con el fin de, con el propsito de. A. Identifique el background y los objetivos en las siguientes introducciones 0137 Temporary Registration in Primary Care for Dentists moving to UK

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A.D. BULLOCK, V.R. FIRMSTONE, and J. FRAME, University of Birmingham, England, Uk To work in UK dental practice, dentists trained outside the European Union must pass the International Qualifying Examination (IQE). Part of this requires patient treatment. However, experience with UK patients cannot be gained without General Dental Council (GDC) registration. To address this challenge, a pilot scheme was introduced in 2005. It offered unpaid, supervised dental attachments for up to six-months in primary care through temporary GDC registration. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pilot's implementation. Views were sought on motives for participation, supervisors' role, dental attachments' learning gains, organisational matters and reaction to the scheme. El propsito de la SECCIN METODOLOGA es describir y definir el mtodo de investigacin o los procedimientos seguidos. Tambin se pueden presentar los sujetos, materiales e instrumentos. Caractersticas: Tiempos verbales y voz. El tiempo verbal ms usado es Simple Past, active or passive voice en voz activa o pasiva. Frases lxicas. N patients were recruited from/ N patients underwent the treatment/ Structured questionnaires were administered.../ Samples were taken and analysed for/ Clinical examination was done by/ A hospital-based casecontrol study design was adopted/ Ratios were calculated from/ The instrument included questions related to/ The data was analyzed with/ A. Identifique la seccin Metodologa en los siguientes abstracts. 2149 Relationship between mother and child sugar sweetened beverage consumption
K. THARP, J.J. WARREN, T.A. MARSHALL, and K. WEBER-GASPARONI, University of Iowa, Iowa City, USA

High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) has been implicated as a risk factor for dental caries. Children's dietary habits may also be influenced by those of their parents or caregivers. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between consumption of SSB by mothers and their children. Children aged 6 to 24 months and their mothers were recruited from an Iowa WIC clinic as part of a longitudinal study on pediatric dental caries risks. Validated beverage frequency questionnaires were selfadministered at baseline, two subsequent appointments (9 and 18 months), and over the phone during two follow-ups (4 and 14 months). Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for children drinking SSB in relation to maternal intake. Analyses were stratified by age quartiles. Most mothers (86.4%), and 38.9% of children drank SSB once a week, at minimum. Intake of SSB increased significantly across age quartile (2=56.27, p<0.0001). Among mothers who drank SSB, children in the oldest age quartile (28-53 months) were significantly more likely to also drink them (RR=1.17, CI=1.04-1.31), and children in the third age quartile (22-27 months) were marginally more likely (RR=1.11, CI=1.01-1.22). Results for the youngest age quartiles (6-15 months and 16-21 months) were not significant. Children of mothers who drank soda pop (regular or diet) drank, on average, a larger amount of soda pop than children of mothers who did not drink soda pop (2.73 oz/wk and 0.11 oz/wk, respectively. p<0.0001). Due to small numbers of children consuming other SSB items, power was limited to detect further differences. Children may be more likely to drink SSB such as soda pop if their mothers also drink SSB. The maternal influence may be particularly important beginning around 24 months of age. La SECCIN RESULTADOS es una de las secciones ms importante del abstract. Primero el autor puede presentar los resultados del estudio y luego debe interpretarlos. Caractersticas: Tiempos verbales y voz. El tiempo ms usado es Simple Past (para presentacin de resultados) en voz activa o pasiva. Frases lxicas. The results showed/indicated similar trends/ The x method revealed an increase... / There was a % increase in.../ % of the subjects reported/presented... / Results were not significant/ There was a significant relationship between/ Forecasted movements greater than 2 mm and rotations greater 5 degrees resulted in a statistically significant reduction in the predictability of tooth movement./ Comparaciones. En la seccin Resultados es comn que se establezcan relaciones de comparacin con adjetivos y adverbios en distintos grados. A. Identifique la seccin Resultados, los verbos y las frases lxicas. 1854 Periodontal Disease among Children and Adolescents with Type 2 Diabetes-Mellitus A.J. MORETTI1, K.K. LUCE2, J.-W. CHEN3, C. FLAITZ3, S.V. MCKAY4, and R.L. WELTMAN3, 1University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA, 2Private Pratice in Tucson, AZ, USA, 3The University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston, USA, 4Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA To determine the periodontal status of a group of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) children and adolescents, managed by The Texas

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Children's Hospital in Houston, Texas. Test subjects consisted of a group of children and adolescents diagnosed with T2DM. Siblings served as controls. This was a cross-sectional study. Periodontal parameters obtained by a single and standardized operator were: plaque index, gingival index, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment loss (CAL), and bleeding on probing (BOP). Posterior bitewing radiographs were taken to determine alveolar bone loss. Medical and dental histories and HbA1c values were obtained on the day of examination. A total of 55 subjects (T2DM = 32) with ages ranging between 8 and 19 years (mean 14.2 years) participated in this study. A significant difference was seen between tests and controls in both PD and CAL. The mean PD in the T2DM group was 2.28mm compared to 2.10mm in the non-diabetic group. The mean CAL in the T2DM group was 0.18mm compared to 0.01mm in the non-diabetic group (p=0.012). A significantly higher percentage of sites with BOP were seen in T2DM subjects with poorer glycemic control (47.6% vs. 22.3%; p=0.027). A significant correlation was also seen between duration of diabetes and BOP (p=0.018; r = 0.524). Although the clinical differences were small, diabetic subjects had significantly greater CAL and PD than the non-DM controls. Poor glycemic control and increasing duration of diabetes had a significant negative effect on gingival health. En la SECCIN CONCLUSIONES se expresan generalizaciones sobre el estudio a partir de la interpretacin de los resultados. Tambin se pueden formular indicaciones sobre la aplicacin de los resultados o recomendaciones para futuras investigaciones. Caractersticas: Tiempos verbales y voz. El tiempo verbal utilizado es Simple Present, en voz activa o pasiva. A. Lea las siguientes oraciones e identifique si pertenecen a la seccin Resultados o Conclusiones 0276 Periodontitis, Smoking and Alcohol Use in Oral Cancer Risk M. TEZAL1, M. SULLIVAN1, M. REID1, J. MARSHALL1, A. HYLAND1, D. STOLER1, and F.A. SCANNAPIECO2, 1Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA, 2State University of New York - Buffalo, USA

These results suggest that current smoking and alcohol use may modify the association between periodontitis and oral cancer. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results.
Prevalence of Caries in Premature Birth Child and / or Low Birthweight in Primary Dentition. S. Echeverra L. P. Castro. Fac, Odontologa. U. de Chile

It was concluded that sample of study, 47 children (38,5) presented caries with an index cedo 5,2+-3,8 compared with the control group where 53 children (43,4%) with a cedo 4,2+-2,6. Comparing both groups there was no significant difference (p=0,432).

Texto 27

Apes, lice and prehistory


Robin A Weiss Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, 46 Cleveland Street, London W1T 4JF author email corresponding author email Journal of Biology 2009, 8:20doi:10.1186/jbiol114 Published:10 February 2009

Abstract
Although most epidemic human infectious diseases are caused by recently introduced pathogens, cospeciation of parasite and host is commonplace for endemic infections. Occasional host infidelity, however, provides the endemic parasite with an opportunity to survive the potential extinction of its host. Such infidelity may account for the survival of certain types of human lice, and it is currently exemplified by viruses such as HIV. Texto 28 Identification of atmospheric trace-element sources by passive biomonitoring employing variogram analysis.

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Abstract Tillandsia capillaris was used as a passive biomonitor to study the relationship between elemental accumulation and emission sources in the province of Crdoba, Argentina. The concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Gd, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn were determined in T. capillaris leaves by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. A variogram analysis was performed to identify the emission sources of these elements in the study area, obtaining different patterns for each element analysed. Principal Component Analysis was subsequently performed to further confirm the different contaminant emission sources and it coincided with the results of the variogram analysis. We observed that the enrichment of most elements was associated with natural sources (soil) and that only some elements showed evidence of enrichement related to sources such as traffic (K, Sb and Zn), industries (Br) and mining activity (Ca).

Texto 29

An improved approach to reconstructive ultrasound tomography


Abstract Analogous to reconstructive X-ray tomography one can determine the spatial distribution of the acoustic absorption coefficient or the acoustic refractive index within an object from many 'projections' of the object taken with ultrasound beams instead of X-rays. However, the reconstruction quality obtained so far is insufficient, mainly since the mathematical models employed assume the beams, propagating along straight lines which is not sufficiently satisfied. An improved mathematical model and a pertinent reconstruction algorithm are presented which take the bending of the beams into account and yield substantially improved reconstructions.

UNIDAD III 3.MTODO DE TRADUCCIN DEL GNERO PUBLICITARIO-CIENTFICO 3.1 Caractersticas lingsticas y textuales de los textos de divulgacin masiva

Desde un punto de vista comunicativo, la publicidad es una tcnica de carcter complejo, propia de la sociedad de consumo, que utilizan los productores de bienes y servicios, instituciones o asociaciones para dar a conocer algo al pblico y persuadirlo para que realice una accin concreta: comprar, evitar, adoptar determinados comportamientos, votar a un partido poltico, etctera. Clases de publicidad Bajo la denominacin comn de publicidad se recogen actividades comunicativas muy variadas que, aunque comparten los recursos empleados para elaborar sus mensajes, son diferentes en cuanto al fin que persiguen. Segn sea ste pueden distinguirse tres clases: La publicidad comercial, orientada a la venta de productos o a la contratacin de ciertos servicios. La comunicacin social o publicidad institucional, dirigida a modificar las conductas o comportamientos de los ciudadanos.

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La propaganda poltica, cuyo objetivo es que la opinin pblica asuma determinadas ideas polticas y sociales como propias. El discurso publicitario En los mensajes publicitarios puede distinguirse una estructura textual claramente argumentativa, aunque muchas veces tienen la apariencia de textos expositivos. La organizacin de los contenidos como texto lingstico del mensaje publicitario responde a una estructuracin en tres partes: encabezamiento o titular, cuerpo o desarrollo, y rbrica o cierre. Las partes primera y tercera suelen ser ms concisas y llamativas, pues incluyen la llamada de atencin, la identificacin del producto y el eslogan, mientras que la segunda parte suele ir en letra ms pequea para hacer una descripcin del producto. El lenguaje de la publicidad Se distinguen tres niveles dentro de este tipo de lenguaje: Niveles grfico y fnico Destaca la variedad tipogrfica. Adems, los textos adoptan disposiciones libres o formas determinadas que imitan el producto (semantizacin del significante). Se ven con frecuencia transgresiones ortogrficas que aseguran la atencin del lector y juegos fnicos con el fin de que el mensaje se fije en la memoria del receptor: Qu bien, qu bien, hoy comemos con Isabel! Nivel morfosintctico El estilo del mensaje lingstico en publicidad se caracteriza por la condensacin, la concisin y la economa. Se perciben los textos como conjuntos de unidades informativas mnimas (frases breves), de fcil lectura y memorizacin, que buscan involucrar al receptor (implicacin), transmitir rpida y eficazmente el mensaje (economa y condensacin) y destacar las cualidades del producto que se anuncia (ponderacin). Algunos ejemplos son: Galicia, prtico de la gloria; Cuba, la alegra de vivir. Nivel lxico-semntico Existe preferencia por el lxico connotativo, referido a campos semnticos que pertenecen a los valores simblicos que pueden ser atractivos para el receptor, segn su edad, nivel social, modas, etctera: lo natural, lo tecnolgico, lo tranquilo, la aventura, lo exclusivo... Por ejemplo: El sabor de lo autntico; Pura leche de vaca. El lxico utilizado, adems de evocador, ha de ser innovador. Esto lleva a la creacin lxica, lograda por medio de la derivacin y la composicin de lenguas clsicas, la alteracin o descomposicin de palabras, las grafas extranjerizantes y la abreviacin. Un ejemplo claro de creacin lxica sera: Te falta, TEFAL. Anlisis funcional del mensaje publicitario El anuncio se compone de elementos diferentes cuyas principales funciones son: Implicar al lector (elementos implicativos). Informar sobre el producto (elementos predicativos). Ponderar el producto (elementos ponderativos), para tratar de convencer al pblico de la conveniencia de su adquisicin.

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Favorecer la fijacin del mensaje en la memoria (elementos de extraamiento o retricos). Nota de aclaracin: Si bien en esta ctedra no cubrimos la traduccin de textos publicitarios per se, encontramos que en la descripcin de artefactos o equipos tcnicos hay a menudo elementos de carcter publicitario que nos llevan a modificar el enfoque del traductor al realizar su trabajo. El objetivo de esta Unidad es aprender a identificar esa intencionalidad, a veces encubierta, en un texto descriptivo o instructivo.
3.2 Folletos publicitarios. Anuncios en revistas especializadas

Texto 30 Toshiba Radiographic/Fluoroscopic 90/15 System A matter of pride Pride: it is a tradition with us at Toshiba And so you will find in our new 90/15 R/F System all the qualities that our customers the world over have come to expect from us: Efficiency. Safety. Sturdiness. Dependability. Ease of operation and installation. And, of course, all-round excellence. Other features of the system include: A smooth motion and a wide range of fluoroscopic coverage that enable the various R/F diagnoses to be performed accurately and easily. For example, with the X-ray beam center 170cm (67) above the floor, and with the table in the vertical position, a three-on-one exposure of the 35x35cm (14x14) film will produce three superbly sharp images of the region of the esophagus that can bed ideal for diagnostic purposes. High-speed, easily controlled tilting of the table (90 in 20 seconds), so that the patient may be quickly and accurately positioned and that I.V.P. may be efficiently performed. Function Controls on the Spot-Film Device
3.3 Campaas masivas

Texto 31

Over-the-counter drugs
What OTC products are teens abusing?
Teens are also abusing some over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, such as cough and cold remedies, to get high. Many of these products are widely available and can be purchased at supermarkets, drugstores, and convenience stores. Many OTC drugs that are intended to treat headaches, sinus pressure, or cold/flu symptoms contain the active ingredient dextromethorphan (DXM) and are the ones that teens are using to get high. When taken in high doses, DXM can produce a "high" feeling and can be extremely dangerous in excessive amounts. DXM is found in more than 120 non-prescription cough and cold remedies. Medications in brands such as Robitussin, Vicks, and Coricidin HBP, are among those that can be abused.1

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Over-the-counter drug abuse also occurs with laxatives, diuretics, emetics, and diet pills, as teens try to achieve an idealized weight. 2 Young people may start taking just a few diet pills but then graduate to full addiction and dependence. Ephedrine, caffeine, and phenylpropranolamine are just some of the dangerous and addictive substances found in diet pills. Herbal, sometimes referred to as "natural", weight loss products can be just as dangerous as diet pills. All of these substances act as stimulants to the central nervous system and much like speed, can have serious and potentially fatal side effects.3

Is your teen using OTC drugs to get high?


A recent study found that six percent of 12th graders reported past year abuse of cough or cold medicines to get high.4 That amounts to about one in every 16 high school seniors. Signs and symptoms of abuse may include: Short-term effects. Impaired judgment, nausea, loss of coordination, headache, vomiting, loss of consciousness, numbness of fingers and toes, abdominal pain, irregular heartbeat, aches, seizures, panic attacks, psychosis, euphoria, cold flashes, dizziness, and diarrhea.5 Long-term effects. Addiction, restlessness, insomnia, high-blood pressure, coma, or even death.6

Where do teens get them?


In many parts of the country, teens can easily buy OTC cough and cold remedies at any supermarket, drugstore, or convenience store where these products are sold. They can also get them from home, or order them over the Internet. And even if they do not order OTC drugs online, they can surf the Web to find information and videos on what drugs to try and mix together. Find out more information about where teens get OTC drugs.

How do teens abuse OTC drugs?


Teens take large doses to get high, sometimes mixing these drugs with prescription drugs, street drugs, or alcohol. Some teens crush pills and snort them for an intensified effect.

Could your teen overdose on OTC drugs?


Yes. The point at which teens may overdose on OTC drugs varies depending on the amount of the drugs they took, over what time period, and if other drugs were mixed. Some OTC drugs are weak and cause minor distress, while others are very strong and can cause more serious problems or even death. If you suspect your teen has overdosed on OTC drugs, take them to the emergency room or call an ambulance immediately for proper care and treatment by a medical doctor.

Other drug and alcohol interactions


Mixing alcohol with certain medications can cause nausea and vomiting, headaches, drowsiness, fainting, and loss of coordination. It can put users at risk for internal bleeding, heart problems, and difficulties in breathing. Alcohol also can decrease the effectiveness of many needed medications or make them totally ineffective.

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Some of these medications can be purchased over the counter - at a drugstore or grocery store - without a prescription, including herbal remedies and others you may never have suspected of reacting negatively with alcohol. Before you or your teen take any prescription or OTC medication, carefully read the label, and/or consult with your family physician or local pharmacist. And never mix medications with alcohol. Parents should set clear rules and consistently enforce those rules against any underage drinking. Texto 32

CNCER DE MAMA
Saber que se puede
Es una de las enfermedades que ms ha avanzado en los ltimos aos en la Argentina y se conocen ms de 18 mil casos por ao. Sin embargo, el 98 por ciento de estas mujeres se cura. En nuestro pas, diferentes organizaciones brindan ayuda especializada.

Texto 33

The Intervenor Program

MAKE A DIFFERENCE AS AN INTERVENOR FOR PEOPLE

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WHO ARE DEAF-BLIND

GEORGE BROWN
The City College

Independence through intervention


About 600 people in Ontario 2,500 across Canada are known to have some degree of both visual and hearing impairment. Despite the complexity of this dual disability, many deaf-blind people are living involved, independent lives with the help of trained intervenors acting as vital links to their environments. Intervenors provide services via the method of communication preferred by the deafblind person. That can include: tactile signing methods, Braille, largeprint, communication boards, or any other required method. An intervenors job can include: providing access to information (auditory, visual, tctile) by means of a variety of communication methods teaching skills of daily living and life skills acting as a sighted guide reverse interpreting ( to voice) Intervenors are not interpreters. When they communicate with deaf-blind people, they must convey not only the words spoken around them, but also all the visual information. Intervenors must be familiar with a variety of communication methods in order to find what is most comfortable for each deaf-blind person. Intervenors may help deaf-blind people in a wide variety of activities and situations. For example, deaf-blind people use the assistance of intervenors to do grocery shopping and attend medical appointments. Intervenors can also assist deaf-blind people in pursuing education and finding or maintaining employment. With enough access to professional intervention, deaf-blind people have the ability to become involved, participating members of society. Choosing intervention as a career Because of the essential nature of intervention, each deaf-blind person could make use of an intervenor from two to 24 hours a day, if the trained individuals were available. There is currently a severe shortage of professional intervenors in the country. The need for caring, committed people to become intervenors is strong and the opportunities for employment are varied. They include: boards of education, social service agencies, institutions, community residential placements, and with deaf-blind individuals and their families. The George Brown College Intervenor diploma program provides you with the knowledge and basic skills to work with deaf-blind children and adults. You can enroll in the two-year full-time program or complete the program over three years on a part-time basis. The Intervenor program was developed by the deaf-blind community and by people working in the field of deaf-blindness, with support and approval of a large number of provincial and national organizations concerned with deaf-blind people.

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The class is like one big family. We have a saying that Intervenors use their heads, hands and hearts, and thats the absolute truth. Its a fantastic program. TRENT ELFORD INTERVENOR STUDENT What you will learn Students in the program will receive theoretical and practical training in communication skills and specialized techniques of intervention. They will learn communication theory and practice, along with a wide range of topics relevant to deaf-blindness such as advocacy issues, community resources, sociology, and psychology. On-the-job training is an integral feature of the program. Admission requirements If youre interested in a career in the supportive services, or if youre already working with deaf-blind people and want to develop your skills and knowledge, the Intervenor program may be for you. To qualify for admission, youll need an Ontario Secondary School Diploma (at or above general level) or its equivalent. If you dont have your OSSD and you are 19 years or older, you may apply as a mature student. All candidates must participate in a pre-admission interview. For more information, please call or write to: Elaine Smith, Intervenor Program, George Brown College, Nightingale Campus, 2 Murray Street, Toronto, Ontario MIG 2E7. Phone: (416) 867-2310. The program stresses Learning through doing. Its exciting to see students making progress and sharing our enthusiasm for a field that is gaining recognition as a profession. JOYCE THOMPSON TEACHER/FACILITATOR INTERVENOR PROGRAM INTERVENORS ACT AS THE EYES AND EARS FOR DEAF-BLIND INDIVIDUALS. THEY ARE SENSITIVE AND SKILLED AT INTERPRETING BOTH VISUAL AND AURAL INFORMATION. INTERVENORS HELP PEOPLE WITH THE DUAL DISABILITY TO COMMUNICATE, BECOME MORE INDEPENDENT, AND IN SOME SITUATIONS AND WITH ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING. BY ENROLLING IN THE GEORGE BROWN INTERVENOR PROGRAM, - THE FIRST COLLEGELEVEL PROGRAM OF ITS KIND IN CANADA YOU CAN MAKE A WORLD OF DIFFERENCE TO THE LIVES OF DEAF-BLIND CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, ADULTS AND SENIORS. YOULL ALSO ENJOY THE BENEFITS OF A CHALLENGING, REWARDING CAREER WITH GOOD EARNING POTENTIAL

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IN A FIELD WHERE TRAINED PROFESSIONALS ARE IN HIGH DEMAND. An intervenors biggest reward is watching other people reach their potential watching them gain their place in the world again. JOAN MACTAVISH INTERVENOR

Texto 34

Help in the Fight Against Teen Suicide Some Facts


Suicide is the THIRD leading cause of death among people between the ages of 15 and 24. Most suicides occur in the home, and most between 3pm to midnight. Nearly 5,000 teenagers commit suicide yearly. There are 30 to 50 times as many attempted suicides as completed suicides. Four times as many males commit suicide than females. Female teenagers attempt suicide twice as frequently as male teenagers. Most men use violent means, such as guns, hanging, etc. Most females use drug overdoses. Over half of teenage suicide victims had substance abuse problems. Almost all suicide victims have at least one mental or substance abuse disorder, and over half have more than one disorder. Suicide risk and depression may have a biological cause. Some depressions may be caused by unbalanced levels of certain brain chemicals. Biological relatives of suicides are at higher risk of suicide. Also at risk are teenage members of communities where one or more suicides have occurred among their peer group. This phenomenon is called a suicide cluster.

Warning Flags:
If some of these apply to you or a friend PLEASE talk to a trusted adult, parent, teacher or mental health professional:

-Sleep patterns have changed: sleeping later, waking earlier, not sleeping well or napping frequently. -Eating patterns have changed: Eating more or less than usual and have noticeably lost or gained weight. -Restlessness. -Withdrawal from friends and/or family. -Feelings of guilt or hopelessness. -Mood and/or behavior changes: either hyperactivity or extreme withdrawal. -Loss of interest in hobbies and activities. -Loss in concentration, trouble in school. -The feeling that life is no longer worth living. -The feeling that you are all alone and that no one cares.

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What Loved Ones Should Look for


Talk about suicide. Giving away favourite items, especially if theyve become very cheerful after having been depressed. Stressors such as abuse, humiliating events, a loss (such as the loss of a boy/girlfriend, failure in school or a death in the family) or the break-up of the marriage of parents. Alcohol or drug abuse.

What Loved Ones Should Do


LISTEN! Dont brush off a suicide threat. Draw the teenager in. Surround him or her with love and reassurance that they are suffering from depression, which can be treated medically. Make sure that the teenager realizes that there are people who want to help. Mention teachers, school counselors, parents of friends, trusted family members, clergy members whatever it takes to persuade them that they have someone to share their feelings with. Seek professional help immediately. Start with your pediatrician. They usually have resources you can contact. Do not leave the teenager alone if you have a gut feeling that he or she is desperate. Please remember that Depression is an illness which can be treated, usually very effectively. There is no stigma, and it doesnt mean theres no hope. If you have fireguns in your home PLEASE safeguard them so that the gun and ammunition are totally inaccessible to your children. Better yet, store tham off site for a while until the crisis has passed. Check with your mental health care worker to determine when it is safe to bring them back into your home. If there is a news item or newspaper article dealing with a local suicide, dont be afraid to discuss it with your teenagers. Bringing the subject up, and out into the open, does not give teenagers ideas. Rather, it opens a line of communication so that you have an opportunity to discuss alternatives to suicide and to make sure that your teenager knows that he or she can come to you in case they are feeling depressed or having suicidal thoughts.

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UNIDAD IV 4. TRADUCCIN INVERSA 4.1 Traduccin espaol-ingls: Anlisis contrastivo 4.2 Gneros que requieren traduccin inversa en el mercado laboral 4.3 Prctica de traduccin inversa

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APNDICE MUESTREO DE PAPERS TRADUCIDOS POR ESTUDIANTES

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