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Application of surface and interfaces measurement techniques (dynamic light scattering) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry.

1. Introduction Colloids Applications A colloid is typically a two phase system consisting of a continuous phase (the dispersion medium) and dispersed phase (the particles or emulsion droplets). The particle size of the dispersed phase typically ranges from 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer. Examples of colloidal dispersions include solid/liquid (suspensions), liquid/liquid (emulsions), and gas/liquid (foams).

Particle Interactions As particle size decreases, surface area increases as a function of total volume. In the colloidal size range there is much interest in particle-particle interactions. Most colloidal commercial products are designed to remain in a stable condition for a defined shelf life. Milk is an example where homogenization is used to reduce droplet size to delay the onset of phase separation (i.e., creaming with the fat rising to the surface). Commercial suspensions may be formulated to keep particles in suspension without sedimenting to the bottom.

Colloidal Stabilization Stabilization serves to protect colloids from aggregation and/or phase separation. The two main mechanisms for colloid stabilization involve steric and electrostatic modifications. Electrostatic stabilization is based on the mutual repulsion of like electrical charges. By altering the surface chemistry to induce a charge on the surface of particles it is possible to enhance the stability of the colloidal dispersion. Zeta Potential Zeta potential refers to the potential in the interfacial double layer (DL) at the location of the slipping plane versus a point in the bulk fluid away from the interface. In other words, zeta potential is the potential difference between the dispersion medium and the stationary layer of fluid attached to the dispersed particle. A classic example of colloid chemistry is to measure zeta potential vs. pH to determine the conditions where the zeta potential reaches zero, known as the isoelectric point. Instrumental Techniques Scientists working to improve colloidal stability measure particle size, zeta potential, or both. Various techniques are now capable of measuring particle size into the colloidal region including dynamic light scattering (DLS) and laser diffraction.

2. Cosmetic Industry Many cosmetic products include particulate material or emulsions. Some examples of cosmetic products consisting of or including particulates include facial powders, moisturizers, and lipstick. Dynamic light scattering is the preferred technique for sub-micron particle size analysis. Facial Powders By definition, any cosmetic product including powders includes particulate material and could require control and measurement of the particle size distribution. Foundation provides full coverage while finishing powders can help set the foundation and provide additional specific appearances by reflecting light in flattering colours or diffusing light evenly over the surface of the skin. Face powders may include talc, kaolin, iron oxide, zinc oxide, titanium dioxide. In addition to appearance enhancement, face powders can also provide sunscreen protection with the inclusion of strong light scattering components such as zinc oxide. The particle size distribution of these components effects appearance, stability, and sunscreen protection. Moisturizers Moisturizers are applied to the skin to improve hydration, protect from drying, and improve appearances. Most moisturizers are oil in water emulsions with additives to improve stability or provide additional benefits such as sun screening properties. Formulating oil in water emulsions often requires knowledge of both the size distribution of the dispersed phase (oil) and the charge on the surface of the droplets (the zeta potential). The droplet size distribution can be analyzed on several instruments or methods such as the Laser Particle Size Analyzer or dynamic light scattering (DLS). Particle size analysis is performed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Depending on the physical properties of the sample, the dynamic range is 0.3 nm 8 m. The lower limit is influenced by concentration, how strongly the sample scatters light, and the presence of large, unwanted particles. The upper limit is influenced by the density of the sample since DLS is modeled on all motion coming from Brownian motion, not gravitational settling. The charge on the surface of particles is characterized by the instrument by measuring the zeta potential of a suspension. The sample is injected into a disposable cell and a measurement of the particle electrophoretic mobility results in the calculated zeta potential. The zeta potential of the sample is most often used as an indicator of dispersion stability. Large magnitude zeta potential values indicate that an electrostatically stabilized suspension will remain stable. The zeta potential is often measured as a function of pH or other change in the chemistry to help formulators create new products with a long shelf life. Conversely identifying conditions at which the zeta potential is zero (that is, the sample is at the isoelectric point) allows one to choose optimum conditions for flocculating and separating particles. The same instrument can also be used to measure the molecular weight and second virial coefficient of proteins, polymers, and other molecules. The user prepares several solutions with known concentrations and then uses the system in a static light scattering mode to create a Debye plot, which results in a calculation of both MW and A2.

Lipstick The selection of pigments used for lipstick plays an important role in the final appearance. Many pigments used in lipstick are particulate including effect pigments that add silk or pearlescent attributes. Smaller particles create satin and silky effects while larger particle sizes create high luster effects such as sparkle. Pearlescent pigments also add a shine to the appearance of the lipstick. Effect of pH In the cosmetics industry, it is said that beautiful skin is mildly acidic. Actually, healthy skin has a pH of around 5.5, which is, in fact, slightly acidic. Skin care products should naturally, then, have the same low acidity. Several instruments or apparatus can be employed to determine the safest pH for cosmetic products.

3. Pharmaceutical Industry Particle Characterization in the Pharmaceutical Industry The particle size distribution of active ingredients and excipients is an important physical characteristic of the materials used to create pharmaceutical products. The size, distribution and shape of the particles can affect bulk properties, product performance, processability, stability and appearance of the end product. The link between particle size and product performance is well documented with regards to dissolution, absorption rates and content uniformity. Reducing particle size can aid the formulation of NCEs with poor water solubility. Proper matching of active ingredient and excipient particle size is important for several process steps. Particle size analysis is an integral component of the effort to formulate and manufacture many pharmaceutical dosage forms. Laser Diffraction This is the most popular particle size analysis technique used in the pharmaceutical industry. This technology is fast, easy to use, flexible, and repeatable. Laser Diffraction Application: Biopolymer Nanoparticles used for Drug Delivery Biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) are frequently studied as potential carriers for controlled release formulations of active pharmaceutical. Since PLA nanoparticles are often in the range of 50 500 nm using both laser diffraction and dynamic light scattering (DLS) could be used for size analysis, but laser diffraction has the advantage of also being able to detect aggregates above 1 micron. The unique ability measure particles down to 30 nm and up to 3000 m makes an instrument uniquely qualified to measure the entire range of biopolymer nanoparticles used for drug delivery.

4. Conclusion As a whole, there are quite a number of surface and interfaces measurement techniques that can be employed in various industries. Most industries required more than one technique, be it AFM, SEM, surface area BET, dynamic light scattering, electrophoresis, contact angle and also tensiometry. For instance, AFM is widely used in semiconductor manufacturing, while dynamic light scattering is employed in pharmaceutical industry. These techniques offer a lot of informations and insight to many analysis and enables new products to be synthesised.

5. References 1. http://www.particlesciences.com/docs/DDD_July_2011.ZetaPart1.sm.pdf (Retrieved 10 May 2013) 2. http://www.home.agilent.com/upload/cmc_upload/All/5983-7357EN.pdf?&cc=MY&lc=eng (Retrieved 10 May 2013) 3. http://www.nru.ku.ac.th/KU_NRU_/upload/File/13f55ea83391c3556bb1bb8a3115fd4a.pdf (Retrieved 10 May 2013) 4. Novel Cellulose Nanoparticles for Potential Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Applications by Neha Dhar (http://uwspace.uwaterloo.ca/bitstream/10012/5502/1/Dhar_Neha.pdf) (Retrieved 10 May 2013)