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GSM Radio Network Tuning

Babak Kardel Mehrdad Sedaghat March 2008

Introduction

Network Mode Operation In Idle Mode Operation In Active Mode Radio Resource Administration

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DUAL BAND SPECIFIC PARAMETERS

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DUAL BAND SPECIFIC PARAMETERS Dual Band Cell (DBC), Yes When the option dual band is activated, all the cells under the dualband BSC broadcast sysinfo 2ter in idle mode. Early Classmark Sending (ESI), Yes By default, the ESI is set to yes, even when the option Dualband is not activated All the dualband phones send the CM3 IE to the network In the dedicated mode and if the mobile is Dualband, the Early classmark sending procedure will be triggered that tells the BSC to add the system information 5ter containing the frequencies of the other band to be measured for this call Multi Band Reporting (MBR), 1 The network tells the mobile to report 1 frequency of the other band if it can find any.Then the mobile will complete the report with frequencies of the same band. If still less than 6 neighbors, the mobile tries to report frequencies of the other band. GSM Radio Network Tuning Course

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DUAL BAND SPECIFIC PARAMETERS


6.82 multiband cell reporting (MBR) Q3 name: multiBandCellReporting Modification: Online Range: 0..3 MML default: 1 Description: With this parameter you define the number of adjacent cells from the other frequency band that the MS will report in the RX level report. Related command(s): EQM, EQO Note: OPTIONAL (Dual Band GSM/DCS)

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Multi Cell Reporting


Mobile can..... Measure 32 neighbours
1800 900 1800 900 900 900 1800

6
Strongest

Report 6 best measurements

900 1800 900 1800 1800

3 3
1800 900

1 5
1800 900

Multi_Cell_Rep : Number of neighbour cells the MS will report from


each band

DUAL BAND SPECIFIC PARAMETERS


BTS Parameters - 2

EarlySendingIndication : The parameter defines the requirements for an MS in sending the Classmark 3 in call setup phase to the network. Range : Yes (Early classmark sending accepted) / No (Early classmark sending is forbidden) Recommended value : Yes in a Dual Band network

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adjacency on other band (DBC) Q3 name: multiBandCell Range: Y/N MML default: Y for Dual Band cells N for cells that do not belong to the frequency bands of the Dual Band Description: With this parameter you define whether adjacent cells with a BCCH allocated
from a different frequency band than the serving cell BCCH are taken into account in handovers and in idle mode cell selection or reselection.

Related command(s): EQF, EQO Note: OPTIONAL (Dual Band GSM/DCS)

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System Information Messages

Sys_Info Messages 2ter and 5ter tell the dual band MS


about the adjacent cells allocated from the other frequency band

2ter in idle mode 5ter during a call Single band MS will ignore Sys_Info 2ter and 5ter
Single band MS Dual band MS

Idle mode
900 900 900

900

Sys_Info_2 Sys_info_2bis

900

Sys_Info_2 Sys_info_2bis Sys_info_2ter

900

900

1800 1800 1800

Dual Band Protocol

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Dual Band Protocol

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Multi-layer Dual Band Network

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Call setup Strategy


2G Type RXP -105 dBm -84 dBm -80 dBm -105 dBm -105 dBm

Call setup with 900 Band Traffic handover to 1800 Band

Macro 900 Macro 1800 Micro outdoor Micro Metro Micro indoor

C1 ( 900) = Rxl-RXP = -70-(-105) C1 ( 1800) = Rxl-RXP = -70-(-84) C1 (Micro outdoor) = Rxl-RXP = -70-(-80) C1 (Pico) = Rxl-RXP = -70-(-105) = 35

= 35 = 14 = 10

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Handover

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Synchronized Handover

If source and target cells are controlled by the same BCF, these are synchronized to each other. Thus the MS does not need timing advance information from the network.

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Non Synchronized Handover


If original and target cells are controlled by different BCFs, the MS needs timing advance information from the network. This is transferred by a socalled physical info message. To ensure a successful transmission, it can be repeated a certain number of times. This is controlled by the parameter maxNumberOfRepetition (NY1)(SEG)(5..35)(5). Furthermore, there is a restricted time between the first handover access and the last physical info message. This timer always is set to 320 ms, it is fixed in GSM specifications. Usually any handover is a non synchronized handover. The

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Handover Failure
If the signalling timer mentioned above expires or the radio link within the target cell cannot be established, the MS returns to the old cell

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HANDOVER PROCESS Causes


Uplink Quality Downlink Quality Uplink Level Downlink Level MS Speed Timing Advance AV_RXQUAL_UL_HO AV_RXQUAL_DL_HO AV_RXLEV_UL_HO AV_RXLEV_DL_HO AV_MS_SPEED AV_RANGE_HO DISTANCE DISTANCE RAPID RAPID FIELD FIELD DROP DROP Adjacent Cells AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) CHANNEL CHANNEL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION DIRECTED DIRECTED RETRY RETRY IMPERATIVE HO QUALITY QUALITY & & INTERFERENCE INTERFERENCE LEVEL LEVEL MS MS SPEED SPEED THRESHOLD COMPARISON

Others: Intelligent Underlay Overlay Traffic Reason .


POWER POWER BUDGET BUDGET UMBRELLA UMBRELLA PERIODIC CHECKS

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HANDOVER PROCESS
multilayer networks

upper layer (macro) same layer (serving layer) lower layer (micro)

N (not in use) Parameter adjacentCellLayer(ACL)

Handover Parameters

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Target Cell Selection If handover shall be carried out, a suitable target cell must be found. The standard selection process uses as criteria the traffic loads, priorities and RX levels of the adjacent cells.

Standard Selection
First of all, the traffic load of all adjacent cells is verified. If it exceeds the threshold defined by the parameter (the unit is %) btsLoadThreshold (BLT)(SEG)(0..100)(70), the cell is overloaded. Next the cell priorities are considered. These are defined by the parameter hoPriorityLevel (PRI)(ADJC)(0..7)(3) If a cell is overloaded, the priority is reduced by a certain value which is defined by the parameter hoLoadFactor (OF)(ADJC)(0..7)(1). Now the cells are ranked according their corrected priority. If two cells have the same priority, they are ranked according their RX level.

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Source Macro 900 Macro 900

Target Macro 900 Macro 1800

PRI 3 4 4 4

OF 1 1 1 1

ACL Same Lower Lower Same

SL - 95 dBm - 84 dBm - 80 dBm - 95 dBm

AUCL - 47dBm - 80dBm - 75dBm - 47dBm

Macro 900 Micro outdoor Micro Macro 900 Metro&indoor

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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

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Source Macro 900 Macro 900

Target Macro 900 Macro 1800

PRI 3 4 4 4

OF 1 1 1 1

ACL

SL

AUCL

Same - 95 dBm 47dBm Lower - 84 dBm 80dBm Lower - 80 dBm 75dBm Same - 95 dBm 47dBm

Macro 900 Micro outdoor Micro Macro 900 Metro&indoor

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Source

Target

PRI

OF

ACL

SL - 95 dBm - 84 dBm - 75 dBm - 95 dBm

AUCL 47dBm 47dBm 75dBm 47dBm

Macro 1800

Macro 900

Upper

Macro 1800

Macro 1800

Same

Macro 1800

Micro outdoor Micro Metro&indoor

Lower

Macro 1800

Same

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Handover Execution

After a target cell has been found, the BSC tries to move the MS to it. To avoid repetitive handovers or handover attempts in case of a failure, certain time limits can be set by the parameters minIntBetweenHOReq (MIH)(HOC)(0..31)(5) and minIntBetweenUnsuccHOAttempt (MIU)(HOC)(0..31)(3) (the unit is s).

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MIH : The first parameter sets the minimum time between two handovers related to the same connection.

MIU : The second one indicates the time the MS has to wait after an unsuccessful handover attempt, before it can try a handover again.

Further important time scales are controlled by the parameters hoPeriodPBGT (HPP)(HOC)(0..63)(6) and hoPeriodUmbrella (HPU)(HOC)(0..63)(6) (the unit is SACCH periods). These indicate the time interval between consecutive estimations of the RX levels of the adjacent cells for power budget and umbrella handover.

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handover period power budget (HPP) GSM reference: No ref. Q3 name: hoPeriodPBGT Modification: Online Range: 0..63 MML default: 6 (SACCH Periods)

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Handover Parameters

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Handover : 1- periodic Handover 1-1 : power budget Handover 1-2 : Umberla Handover 2- trigger Handover 2-1 : Interference 2-2 : Quality ( rxlevel adj > rxlev source + QMRG) 2-3 : Level (rxlev > SL , rxlevel adj > rxlev source + LMRG)

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Ranking The condition has to be fulfilled by any kind of handover, except the umbrella handover (1a) AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > rxLevMinCell (n) (SL)

. The condition has to be fulfilled priodical After 6 SACCH (3S) (1b) AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > hoLevelUmbrella (n) (AUCL) The parameter hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL)(ADJC)(-110..-47)(-47) defines

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(2a) PBGT > hoMarginPGBT(n) PMRG

PBGT =(AV_RXLEV_DL_HO - AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n)) For handover due to RX level or RX quality also the handover margins for the RX level and the RX quality are used. This leads to the modified Condition (2b) PBGT > hoMarginLevel/Qual(n) (PMRG , QMRG)

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rxLevMinCell

(SL) (ADJC)(-110..-47)(-100)

hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL) (ADJC)

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Handover due to Interference

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t1: hoThresholdQualDL > 4 hoThresholdInterferenceDL > -85 HO triggered (not triggering attempt counter) AV_RXLEV_NCELLAV_RXLEV_DL_HO < hoMarginQual (=0) No suitable target cell -> Intra HO not possible -> HO fail (not triggering the failure counter)

t2: hoThresholdQualDL > 4 hoThresholdInterferenceDL > -85 HO triggered AV_RXLEV_NCELLAV_RXLEV_DL_HO > hoMarginQual (=0) HO successful

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Interference handover
enable HO margin lev qual (MRGS) GSM reference: No ref. Q3 name: enableHoMarginLevQual Range: Y/N MML default: Y Description: With this parameter you define whether the handover margins for signal level and quality will be taken into account in the handover decision algorithm. Related command(s): EAM, EAO

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Handover due to Interference


a network with frequency hopping. The preferred handover type is set by the parameter hoPreferenceOrderInterDL/UL (HDL/HUL) (BSC) (INTER,INTRA) (INTER). The intra cell handover must be enabled using the parameter enableIntraHOInterDL/UL (EIH/EIC)(HOC)(Y/N)(Y).

HO preference order interference DL (HDL) GSM reference: No ref. Q3 name: hoPreferenceOrderInterfDL Range: INTER, INTRA MML default: INTER Description: With this parameter you define the order of preference between intra-cell and inter-cell handovers when the cause of the handover is downlink interference. Related command(s): EEM, EEO
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Interference handover

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Interference handover

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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

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Interference handover

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Interference handover

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Now only inter cell handover is possible, so that the handover fails, if no suitable adjacent cell can be found.
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Interference handover

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Interference handover

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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

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rxLevMinCell

(SL) (ADJC)(-110..-47)(-100)

hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL) (ADJC)

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Rxlev sourse < LDR OR LUR

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Handover Parameters

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threshold level uplink Rx level (LUR), Px (LUP), Nx(LUN) Q3 name: hoThresholdsLevUL Modification: Online Range: Rx level: -110..-47 (dBm) Px: 1..32 Nx: 1..32 MML default: Rx level: -95 Px: 1 Nx: 1 Description: The parameters compare the averaged values of signal strength uplink measurements for triggering the handover process. Px: Number of averages that have to be upper/lower than the threshold. Nx: Number of averages that have to be taken into account when making a handover decision. Related command(s): EHC, EHO, EHS
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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

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Pure Power Budget Handover


This kind of handover is executed, if an adjacent cell offers a better power budget than the serving cell, even if the averaged measurements for the serving cell do not exceed a threshold

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enable power budget handover (EPB) Q3 name: enablePwrBudgetHandover Range: Y/N MML default: Y Description: With this parameter you indicate whether the BTS power budget handover control is enabled. Related command(s): EHC, EHG, EHO

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Handover Parameters

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handover period power budget (HPP) Q3 name: hoPeriodPBGT Range: 0..63 MML default: 6 (SACCH Periods) Description: With this parameter you define the interval between power budget handover threshold comparisons.

Related command(s): EHC, EHG, EHO

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Pure Umbrella Handover


This kind of handover is used for multi layer networks, especially for such ones with macro and micro cells. Its purpose is to move the MS to a suitable layer in dependence on its power class. Umbrella handover must be enabled by setting the parameter enableUmbrellaHandover (EUM)(HOC)(Y/N)(N) to Y. Than the RX levels of the adjacent cells are checked periodically, according the value of the parameter hoPeriodUmbrella

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Condition of Umberella Handover

1. Than the RX levels of the adjacent cells are checked periodically, according the value of the parameter HPU(6SACCH)

2. RXLEV ADJ > AUCL 3. Better target selection 4. Algoritm pri,of,rlev adj 5. Rxlev adj > rxlev serv + LMRG

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After the ranking of the adjacent cells, further conditions must be checked. First the average signal level AV_RXLEV_NCELL is considered, which must follow the condition (1a) AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > rxLevMinCell (n) (SL) (1b) AV_RXLEV_NCELL (n) > hoLevelUmbrella (n) (AUCL) The parameter hoLevelUmbrella (AUCL)(ADJC)(-110..-47)(-47) defines the minimum signal level to be allowed for an umbrella adjacent cell.

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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

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Handover Parameters

All Types: 33 dbm


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Handover Parameters

All Types: 30 dbm


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General Parameters

All Types: 80
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General Parameters

All Types: 0
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General Parameters

All Types: 15 dbm


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General Parameters

All types: 1
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Power Control

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In the dedicated mode, both the BTS and the MS transmit with a power as low as possible for the following reasons. On the uplink, the power consumption of each MS is decreased and thus a longer service time for the rechargeable battery is achieved. Both on the uplink and downlink interference is reduced, so that the network capacity and the spectral efficiency are improved. This power control is carried out independently for uplink and downlink, and also independently for each call.

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Power Control Motivation

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Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

Power Control Parameters

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