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# Individual Homework #4 Design of Experiment and Analysis 2.33. Manually BO1 BO2 6.08 5.73 6.22 5.8 7.

99 8.42 7.44 6.84 6.48 6.43 7.99 8.76 6.32 6.32 7.6 7.62 6.03 6.59 7.52 7.67 mean sd

diff 0.35 0.42 -0.43 0.6 0.05 -0.77 0 -0.02 -0.56 -0.15 -0.051 0.441

b) Ho = d=0 vs Ha: d0 to = d/Sd/sqrt(n) = -0.051/ 0.441/sqrt(10) = -0.3657 t0.025,9= 2.262 to < t0.025,9 No rejection of Null hypothesis. CI = to*Sd/10 d = -0.051 0.3159 The interval includes zero (0) so no rejection of null hypothesis. c) Ho = d=0 vs Ha: d>0 mean score of Date of birth 1 is greater than Date of birth 2 to = 0.3657< t0.05,9 =1.833 No rejection of Null hyp. Ho = d=0 vs Ha: d<0 mean score of Date of birth 1 is lower than Date of birth 2 to = -0.3657 < t0.05,9 =1.833 No rejection of Null hyp. R Solution a) Based on normal qq plot normal distribution of difference is reasonable.

## Mean = -0.051 and s= 0.441

b) t.test(bo1, bo2, alternative ="two.sided", mu = 0, paired =TRUE, var.equal = FALSE, conf.level = 0.95) Paired t-test 95 percent confidence interval: -0.3664148 0.2644148 c). No evidence that birth order affect mean score (mean of differences) Ho: d=0 Ho: d>0 t.test(bo1, bo2, alternative ="greater", paired =TRUE) Paired t-test data: bo1 and bo2 t = -0.3658, df = 9, p-value = 0.6385 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is greater than 0 95 percent confidence interval: -0.3065927 Inf sample estimates: mean of the differences

-0.051 Ho: d=0 Ho: d<0 t.test(bo1, bo2, alternative ="less", paired =TRUE) Paired t-test data: bo1 and bo2 t = -0.3658, df = 9, p-value = 0.3615 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is less than 0 95 percent confidence interval: -Inf 0.2045927 sample estimates: mean of the differences -0.051 2.34. a) Yes, they are different. p-value = 6.767e-05 km=c(1.186, 1.151, 1.322, 1.339, 1.200, 1.402, 1.365, 1.537, 1.559) lm=c(1.061, 0.992, 1.063, 1.062, 1.065, 1.178, 1.037, 1.086, 1.052) t.test(km, lm, alternative ="two.sided", mu = 0, paired =FALSE, var.equal = TRUE, conf.level = 0.95) Two Sample t-test data: km and lm t = 5.3302, df = 16, p-value = 6.767e-05 alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: 0.1649580 0.3828197 sample estimates: mean of x mean of y 1.340111 1.066222 b) p-value = 6.767e-05

c) t.test(km, lm, alternative ="two.sided", paired =TRUE) Paired t-test 95 percent confidence interval: 0.1700423 0.3777355 d) Data for Karlsruhe method appears to be normally distributed but data for Lehigh method is not normally distributed

## e) Difference appears to be normally distributed based on normal qq plot

d) In the same way as the normality is a key assumption for one or two sample t test it is for a paired t test. In the case of paired t-test the samples are not drawn from independent populations. By taking the difference the bias (non independence) is relieved and the data is more normally distributed.