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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1.

1 Introduction It is in everyones interest that an industrial effluent treatment system (IETS) functions optimally to achieve an effluent quality that continuously complies with the discharge standards. The operator of industrial effluent treatment systems (IETS) is an important player behind any successful story of effluent treatment. In successful organizations, typically the operators are tasked with specific responsibilities that include such daily chores as general daily walk through inspection of the IETS to ensure no effluent pipe leakages, and equipment breakdown, preventive maintenance and performance monitoring (sampling, record keeping and etc). These activities need to be conducted in a coordinated manner to ensure proper functioning of all the IETS components. Even a state of the art and expensive IETS, which is not run and maintained optimally, will not produce the desired results. Currently, the DOE enforce the requirement of competent person for IETS in the nation through Written Approval or directives issued to factories or industries. This is to ensure that awareness of pollution control and environment conservation is set in each industry in order to give a better control of environmental quality for all, especially to the next generation in future. Performance monitoring of an IETS is the proactive and preventive monitoring of all the major IETS components to ensure that each component is working properly and optimally as designed. This requires someone to monitor some relevant parameters and characteristic of the unit processes or unit operations of the IETS on a scheduled basis. Performance monitoring concentrates on the IETS itself not on the final effluent hence can be viewed as an upstream activity as opposed to compliance monitoring, which is a downstream activity. Performance monitoring is not the monitoring of the final effluent as misunderstood by some industries. Focusing only on the final effluent may lead

to a too-late situation where things have gone out of hand and consequently difficult to control or get back on track. 1.2 Background of Company

TORAY MALAYSIA GROUP's traditional business in textile is conducted at the four mills under Penfabric, a vertically integrated textile manufacturer involving spinning, weaving, dyeing, printing and finishing operations to produce yarn, grey fabric, finished fabric, yarn-dyed fabric (gingham) and grey and dyed yarn for sewing thread. Four mills under Penfabric are;

Penfabric Mill 1 (Spinning of Yarn) Penfabric Mill 2 (Weaving of Grey Fabrics) Penfabric Mill 3 (Yarn-Dyed Woven Fabrics & Sewing Thread Yarn)

Penfabric Mill 4 (Dyeing, Printing & Finishing of Fabric)

Figure 1.1: Product of Penfabric

Penfabric Sdn Bhd Mill 4 is located at Plot 117-119 & 200-202, Prai Free Industrial Zone, 13600 Prai, Penang. Penfabric Mill 4 is the single largest, advanced, integrated finishing processor of grey fabric in the region. The specialized finished fabrics are exported to international apparel manufacturers in the USA, EU countries and other part of the world.

Figure 1. 2: Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4 Penfabric Mill 4 has approximately 614 staffs working in 3 shifts. Area of factory site is about 266 000 square metres. Penfabric products comply to all standard such as ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OKO TEX and regularly audited by external bodies such as SIRIM, Marks & Spencer, customers and etc. Penfabric Sdn Bhd. Mill 4 was certified with ISO 9001 in 1994 and ISO 14001 in 2005.

1.3 Organizational Structure 1.3.1 Companys environmental policy This environmental policy was the existing policy. This policy was reviewed on 01st April 2009. Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4 environmental policy as below;

Environmental Policy Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4 is a manufacturer of dyed, white and printed woven fabrics. Penfabric is committed to its corporate and social responsibility for environmental preservation and sustainable development by: Complying with applicable environmental legal requirements and other regulations to which the company subscribes. Continual improvement to prevent pollution, conserve energy and resources using 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle). This policy should be understood, implemented, maintained at all levels and be communicated to all persons working for or on behalf of the organization using appropriate means such as meetings, booklets, brochures, strategically placed information, and other methods deemed necessary from time to time.

1.3.2 Emplacement and Functions of CePIETSO CePIETSO are placed under Safety and Environment Department. Please refer to Organization Chart as attachment 1. The main duties of CePIETSO are as ; 1. Supervision on Operation of Waste Water Treatment Plant and Incinerator. 2. Control and monitoring of both Waste Water Treatment Plant and Incinerator. 3. Special waste water treatment and /or environmental project including related laboratory analysis when deem necessary Please refer to Job Description of Environment Officer as Attachment 2

1.4 Nature of Business


The main products of factory are grey fabric, finished fabric and yarn-dyed fabric

(gingham). Currently the capacity of production is around 7.91 million-yard per


month. Those products are mainly for export purpose and not for domestic market. So far, there are more than 30 over countries in all continents being exported from Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4

1.5 Industrial Effluent Treatment System (IETS) Various types of effluent treatment technology are introduced in the decades as the public awareness to environmental pollution is increasing. In a practical way, the industrial effluents usually contain various types of contaminants and may require a few combinations of treatment methods or processes to remove the contamination. The selection of the unit operations are depending on the treatment methodology which may need to consider the factors below: The characteristic of the effluent Degree of treatment required Capital investment & operating cost Effluent standard imposed Space availability of the premise Manpower involved The biological (aeration) treatment processes, which also known as biological unit processes, are classified as secondary treatment in the design of removing dissolved organic matters. Microorganisms are the fundamental element in this contest as they are used to utilize the organic matters with presence of oxygen which represented as BOD and COD. The activated sludge process is used routinely for biological treatment in both industrial and municipal wastewater. A basic diagram for activated sludge process consists of 3 components as illustrated as below:

Figure 1.3 : Basic diagram for activated sludge process Typically, the biological processes are divided into 2 main categories: suspended growth and attached growth (biofilm). The Conventional Activated Sludge, Extended Aeration Activated Sludge, Contact Stabilization, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR), Oxidation Ditch are suspended growth system where the bacteria are kept in suspended form and part of the sludge are return to aeration tank for mixing with influent and aeration. While Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC), Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB), Trickling Filters are attached growth system. In the attached growth system, the bacteria will growth on a solid media, e.g. rocks, redwood or plastic materials and the slime layer will adsorb the organic matter and nutrients from effluent. The sludge layer subsequently will be getting thicker and thicker as the time passing. Below is the detail information of Rotating Biological Contactors and Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) Rotating biological contactors (RBCs) are mechanical secondary treatment systems, which are robust and capable of withstanding surges in organic load. RBCs were first installed in Germany in 1960 and have since been developed and refined into a reliable operating unit. The rotating disks support the growth of bacteria and microorganisms present in the sewage, which breakdown and stabilize organic pollutants. To be successful, microorganisms need both oxygen

to live and food to grow. Oxygen is obtained from the atmosphere as the disks rotate. As the micro-organisms grow, they build up on the media until they are sloughed off due to shear forces provided by the rotating discs in the sewage. Effluent from the RBC is then passed through final clarifiers where the microorganisms in suspension settle as sludge. The sludge is withdrawn from the clarifier for further treatment. A functionally similar biological filtering system has become popular as part of home aquarium filtration and purification. The aquarium water is drawn up out of the tank and then cascaded over a freely spinning corrugated fiber-mesh wheel before passing through a media filter and back into the aquarium. The spinning mesh wheel develops a biofilm coating of microorganisms that feed on the suspended wastes in the aquarium water and are also exposed to the atmosphere as the wheel rotates. This is especially good at removing waste urea and ammonia urinated into the aquarium water by the fish and other animals.

Figure 1.4: Rotating biological contactors Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) technology, normally referred to as UASB reactor, is a form of anaerobic digester that is used in the treatment of wastewater.

UASB uses an anaerobic process whilst forming a blanket of granular sludge which suspends in the tank. Wastewater flows upwards through the blanket and is processed (degraded) by the anaerobic microorganisms. The upward flow combined with the settling action of gravity suspends the blanket with the aid of flocculants. The blanket begins to reach maturity at around 3 months. Small sludge granules begin to form whose surface area is covered in aggregations of bacteria. In the absence of any support matrix, the flow conditions create a selective environment in which only those microorganisms, capable of attaching to each other, survive and proliferate. Eventually the aggregate form into dense compact biofilms referred to as "granules" A picture of anaerobic sludge granules can be found here. Biogas with a high concentration of methane is produced as a by-product, and this may be captured and used as an energy source to generate electricity for export and to cover its own running power. The technology needs constant monitoring when put into use to ensure that the sludge blanket is maintained, and not washed out. The heat produced as a by-product of electricity generation can be reused to heat the digestion tanks. The blanketing of the sludge enables a dual solid and hydraulic (liquid) retention time in the digesters. Solids requiring a high degree of digestion can remain in the reactors for periods up to 90 days. Sugars dissolved in the liquid waste stream can be converted into gas quickly in the liquid phase, which can exit the system in less than a day

Figure 1.5 : Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket


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CHAPTER 2: INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT SYSTEM 2.1 Description of IETS Waste Water Treatment Plant in Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4 was use to treat the continuous effluent from textile production (100% cotton and polyester/cotton) with the maximum flow rate of 380 m3/hour. Treated effluent discharge from the WWTP shall comply with Standard B (Third Schedule of Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluent) Regulation 1979) except for COD which the limit discharge is 250 mg/l as the Written Approval SPE/04/2007 (attachment 3). The flow process of WWTP as below
WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS FLOW.
(4) Aeration Tank A Waste Water from Factory (1)
(Aerobic process )

Neutralization

(2) Buffer Pit

(3) Anaerobic Lagoon (5) Settling Tank A


Treated Water

Return Sludge

Aeration Tank B
(Aerobic process)

(5) Settling Tank B


Treated Water

Return Sludge

Effluent to drain

(6) Dry Bed Indicator : Waste water Return Activated Sludge Treated Water Waste Activated Sludge

Figure 2.1: Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4 Waste Water Treatment Plant Process flow

Description of process unit (1) Neutralization To adjust the pH to 8~9 to optimize the anaerobic /aerobic process. We use sulfuric acid 98% to neutralize our inlet waste water.

(2) Buffer Pit To stabilize the waste water. To homogenize the waste water supply and reduce the fluctuation. Start the anaerobic process. Capacity of this pit are 8000 m3 . 1.6 days retention time.

(3) Anaerobic Lagoon Bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of oxygen. To breakdown the COD/BOD prior to treatment in aerobic condition. Provides retention time for further biological improvement. Capacity of lagoon are 36000 m3 . Retention time of 3.9 days.

(4) Aeration Tank At Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4, we have 2 aeration tanks. Aeration Tank is the heart of waste water treatment. Bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobic conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. The point of control is on how to maintain bugs active and separate treated water from sludge. Capacity of 8000m3 for Tank A and 6000m3 for Tank B. Tank A using air diffuser aerators and Tank B using surface aerators.

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1.1 days retention time for Tank A and 1.6 days retention time for Tank B. At Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4, we have 2 settling tanks. Function of Settling Tank is for settling of sludge and separation of treated water. It is important to have clear treated water by sludge separation and controlling of Settling Tank correlating to aeration tank. Sludge settling status is affected by situation of ASM treatment, operation condition and short pass of water may affects quality of treated water. Capacity of 2500m3 for Tank A and 2000m3 for Tank B.

(5) Settling Tank -

(6) Dry Bed At Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4, we have 11 dry beds. These dry beds use to dewatering the waste activated sludge.

2.2 IETS performance monitoring committee Environment Chairman


MT Boey

CEPIETSO
Kairul Anwar

Committe

Bleaching
SS Chee

Dyehouse
PY Lim

Environment
Jaya Paul

Finishing
SP Ong

Printing
SB Saw

Figure 2.2: IETS performance monitoring committee Under CePIETSO, there have 2 technicians that operate the IETS. These technicians will operate this IETS under supervision of CePIETSO. Typical duties of these technicians are;

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Operation of Waste Water treatment Plant and Incinerator. Daily inspection and checking of both Waste Water Plant and Incinerator. Taking samples and conduct laboratory analysis for COD, BOD, Color (PtCo), SS, MLSS, SV30 and etc. Arrange sample for external monthly laboratory analysis. Collection, packing, labeling and storing of scheduled waste and maintain the scheduled waste inventory. Minor maintenance and general cleanliness of plant and immediate surrounding Others as requested by CePIETSO.

Any problem or upset condition will be reported daily to CePIETSO. If the problem is major, CePIETSO will directly reported to Environment Management Representative (EMR), Mr. Jaya Paul. He will then try to solve the problem by his own experience or by consulting his superior. In every circumstance he will notify the Environment Chairman. Once every two months, Environment Meeting will be conduct to discuss all the issues arise for environment items. Performance of waste water treatment plan, upset condition, future plan, Environment Management Program and etc will also been discussed in this meeting.

2.3 Conduct of performance monitoring 2.3.1 Formation of Performance Monitoring System In Penfabric Sdn. Berhad Mill 4 Based on the technical guidance, the IETS in Penfabric Sdn Berhad Mill 4 falls under the categories of Biological Unit Process. Table 2.1 below summarizes the monitoring parameters and frequency based on the process category:

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Parameter Flowrate (m3/hr) pH DO SV30 (ml) BOD COD COLOR SUSPENDED SOLID SVI MLSS MLVSS

Frequency Daily Daily Daily Daily Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly

Table 2.1 : Monitoring parameter 2.3.2 Selection Of Sampling Points At IETS The selection of sampling points at IETS was done based on the treatment system process flow and the necessary information to calculate the removal efficiency. Table 2.2 and Figure 2.1 below show the sampling points for different parameters at different process stage.
Parameter Flow rate (m3/hr) pH DO SV30 (ml) BOD Sample location ASM 1 and ASM 2 ASM 1 and ASM 2 ASM 1 and ASM 2 ASM 1 and ASM 2 INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT CLARIFIER ASM 1 CLARIFIER ASM 2 ASM 1 and ASM 2 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 8 OF ASM 1 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 3 OF ASM 2 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 8 OF ASM 1 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 3 OF ASM 2

COD

COLOR

SUSPENDED SOLID SVI MLSS MLVSS

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Table 2.2 : Sampling Point

WASTE WATER TREATMENT PROCESS FLOW.


(4) Aeration Tank A Waste Water from Factory (1)
(Aerobic process )

Neutralization

(2) Buffer Pit

(3) Anaerobic Lagoon (5) Settling Tank A


Treated Water

Return Sludge

Aeration Tank B
(Aerobic process)

(5) Settling Tank B


Treated Water

Return Sludge

Effluent to drain

Legend: Flowrate pH DO BOD , COD & Color SS : Indicator Waste water MLSS& MLVSS Return Activated Sludge
Treated Water Waste Activated Sludge

(6) Dry Bed

Figure 2.3: Location of Sampling Point 2.3.3 Sampling Method The sampling bottles used are made of plastic, with wide mouth and have a volume of 1000mL. During sampling, the sampling bottles are rinsed then filled to the top with water sample before sending to the lab for analysis. For performance monitoring, only grab sampling is apply. A grab sample may be defined as an individual discrete sampling over a period of time not exceeding 15 minutes. It can be taken manually using a scoop. 2.3.4 Monitoring and Analysis Method

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The pH, DO and flow rate are checked in real time mode, data is recorded by chart recorder and checked by technician. BOD, COD, MLSS and MLVSS are monitored follow the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. SS and Color are monitored using HACH DR/2000. 2.3.5 Situation before course attendance Before attending the course, the performance monitoring was already carried out but does not follow the (Guidance Document on Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems DOE IETS 1, 2006.). Parameter such as MLVSS was not recorded because we do not know the importance of monitoring this parameter. Sampling point for some parameters was carried out not appropriate such as MLSS. Before attending this course, we just carried out random sampling point for this parameter. 2.3.6 Changes instituted The changes after attending this course was summarize as the table below; BEFORE AFTER Not appropriate. Example, Sampling point was carried out as for MLSS we just pick instructed in class and following the random sampling point Guidance Document on Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems DOE IETS 1, 2006. FREQUENCY Not appropriate. Some Sampling point was carried out as OF SAMPLING frequency of parameter was instructed in class and following the sampling not accurate. Guidance Document on Example SV30, Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems DOE IETS 1, 2006. TYPE OF Parameter such as MLVSS Quickly arranged to buy the furnace SAMPLING and suspended solid not and filtering apparatus. Now we check. already test the MLVSS and SS 2.3.7 Current performance monitoring procedure ITEM SAMPLING POINT

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The current practice for IETS performance monitoring was following the Guidance Document on Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems DOE IETS 1, 2006. For daily performance data record, we record the flow rate, pH, DO and SV30 for both plant (ASM1 and ASM2). Summary of performance monitoring as below; Parameter Flowrate (m3/hr) pH DO SV30 (ml) Sample location ASM 1 ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 Sample type Flow rate meter In situ In situ Grab

Meanwhile, for weekly performance data record, we record the BOD, COD, COLOR, Suspended Solid (SS) and SVI for both plant (ASM1 and ASM2). For MLVSS and MLSS, we record weekly at every channel of aeration tank for ASM1 and ASM2. Summary of performance monitoring as below; Parameter BOD Sample location INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT SETTLING TANK ASM 1 SETTLING TANK ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 Sample type Grab

COD

Grab

COLOR

Grab

SUSPENDED SOLID SVI

Grab Grab

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MLSS MLVSS

CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 8 OF ASM 1 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 3 OF ASM 2 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 8 OF ASM 1 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 3 OF ASM 2

Grab Grab

CHAPTER 3: DISCUSSION OF PERFORMANCE MONITORING RESULTS 3.1 Performance Monitoring Data 3.1.1 pH Control Monitoring of pH is important from several standpoints. The optimum biological activity of the microorganisms for the treatment process is in the pH range from 6.0 to 9.0. Below show the monthly pH control.
MONTHLY pH CONTROL
10.00 8.00 pH ULC pH LLC pH ASM 1 pH ASM 2

pH

6.00 4.00 2.00 0.00 Jul-09 Aug-09 Oct-09 Dec-09 Jan-10

MONTH

Figure 3.1 : Monthly pH Control 3.1.2 DO Control Biological unit processes require a sufficient amount of dissolved oxygen (DO) for growth and metabolism of microorganisms. In practice, depending on the type of aerobic systems employed, the DO concentration of about 1.0 to 4 ppm needs to be maintained in all the areas of the aeration tank. Higher DO concentration will not necessarily increase the biodegradation efficiency hence represents wasted energy. For every IETS an optimum DO concentration depending on the type of microorganism and effluent characteristics can be evaluated by optimizing the DO concentration and the removal efficiency of BOD and COD.
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DO been measured by using a portable hand held DO meter and measured continuously by on line DO probe and transmitter equipped with recording device. Below show the monthly DO control.
MONTHLY DO CONTROL
5.00 DO (PPM) 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 0.00 Jul-09 Aug-09 Oct-09 MONTH Dec-09 Jan-10 DO ULC DO LLC DO ASM 1 DO ASM 2

Figure 3.2 : Monthly DO Control 3.1.3 Monthly Variation of COD and BOD The overall performance of a biological treatment process in treating an organic effluent been monitored on chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD). Both IETS was functioning in good operating condition and meet the regulation and written approval. The mean value for COD is 160 ppm and BOD is 18 ppm. Below show the monthly variation of COD and BOD.

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MONTHLY VARIATION OF COD


260 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 Jul-09 Aug-09 Oct-09 M ONTH Dec-09 Jan-10

COD (PPM)

COD DOE STD COD ASM 1 COD ASM 2 COD EFFLUENT

Figure 3.3 : Monthly Variation of COD

MONTHLY VARIATION BOD


60 50 BOD (PPM) 40 30 20 10 0 Jul-09 Aug-09 Oct-09 MONTH Dec-09 Jan-10 BOD DOE STD BOD ASM 1 BOD ASM 2 BOD EFFLUENT

Figure 3.3 : Monthly Variation of BOD 3.1.5 Efficiency Removal of COD and BOD The value of removal efficiency is important to show the performance of the IETS. The formula for computing the removal efficiency is as follows: % Removal = Influent - Effluent X 100

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Influent Overall BOD5 removal efficiency is 96% and COD removal efficiency is 90%. EFFICIENCY REMOVAL OF COD
2500
COD (PPM)

92.00 91.50 91.00 90.50 90.00 89.50 89.00 Aug- Sep- Oct-09 Nov-09 Dec09 09 09
MONTH

2000 1500 1000 500 0

COD INFLUENT COD EFFLUENT COD % REMOVAL

Figure 3.5 : Efficiency Removal of COD

EFFICIENCY REMOVAL OF BOD


600 500 BOD (PPM) 400 300 200 100 0 Aug-09Sep-09Oct-09Nov-09Dec-09 MONTH 97.00 96.80 96.60 96.40 96.20 96.00 95.80 95.60 95.40 BOD INFLUENT BOD EFFLUENT BOD % REMOVAL

Figure 3.6 : Efficiency Removal of BOD Based on the performance monitoring conducted from 02 nd July 2009 until 02 January 2010 and the data collected which were plotted for trend analysis and

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statistically analyzed the following conclusion can be made about the IETS operation: a) The IETS was functioning in good operating condition with an overall BOD 5 removal efficiency of 96% and COD removal efficiency of 90%. b) The operational parameter of SVI, MLSS, MLVSS, SS, pH, DO and flowmeter were all within the recommended ranges c) The mean DO level of ASM 1 is 1.80 ppm and ASM 2 is 2.82 ppm in the aeration tank was consider in the acceptable range. d) The final effluent COD and BOD5 complied with the stipulated Standard B

CHAPTER 4: CORRECTIVE ACTIONS ASM condition can become poor like treated water getting bad, sludge floating or not settling in Settling Tank and even if experienced personal are controlling the processes. However, it is possible to minimize a development of abnormal situation and recover a upset condition in short period by well controlled daily activities. It is also important to check ASM treatment everyday and work for bacteria with affection as well as to take correct an appropriate action for abnormal happening. The upset conditions encountered during my field training were discussed as below. 4.1 Sludge floating Sludge does not settle but floats when apparent density of sludge get lower than treated water. Floating sludge including tiny nitrogen bubbles caused by nitrification. 4.1.1 Phenomena

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Sludge does not settle but floats when apparent density of sludge gets lower than treated water. Floating sludge including tiny bubbles. 4.1.2 Troubles Sludge flow out without settling and high TSS in treated water 4.1.3 Causes Nitrification goes on when aeration tank is operated at low loading, low DO and long detention time 4.1.4 Countermeasure Prevent sludge flow out by reducing incoming waste water to aeration tank Knock down showering on the floating sludge Increase DO at aeration tank and decrease sludge detention time in clarifier Depress nitrification reaction by lowering MLSS.

4.2 Pinpoint floc Phenomena and causes on pinpoint floc are quite similar to bulking. The countermeasures taken are slightly different from them because the supernate gets murky. 4.2.1 Phenomena Fine flocs are seen dispersed in supernate. The border between sludge zone and supernate is not clear 4.2.2 Troubles High TSS in treated water and reduction in MLSS concentration by sludge outflow 4.2.3 Causes Introduction of high concentration water or overloading by high flow.

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Introduction of detergents Early stage of acclimation

4.2.4 Countermeasure Optimize loading and dilute with fresh water Increase MLSS by increasing return sludge rate Keep DO high (3-4)

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CHAPTER 5: FURTHER IMPROVEMENT In future we plan to buy new equipment for wastewater analysis such as COD reactor, spectrophotometer and YSI BOD and. Now we use the titration method to monitoring the COD and BOD and I thing this method is quiet difficult for technician to perform. So with this new equipment, we can get the results faster and easy for technician to carry out the test. With spectrophotometer, we can monitoring many parameter such nutrient, COD, BOD, color (ADMI) and etc.

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CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS As a conclusion, implementation of performance monitoring has benefit to my company. Performance monitoring of an IETS is the proactive and preventive monitoring of all the major IETS components to ensure that each component was working properly and optimally as designed. Performance monitoring concentrates on the IETS itself not on the final effluent hence can be viewed as an upstream activity as opposed to compliance monitoring, which is a downstream activity. Focussing only on final effluent may lead to a too late situation where things have gone out of hand and consequently difficult to control or get back on track. The implementation of performance monitoring system on IETS has enabled Penfabric Sdn Berhad Mill 4 to evaluate the efficiency of our IETS and to make plan to for improvement. In addition, it also helps to evaluate the effectiveness of the operation and maintenance program.

Analysis of the performance trend will trigger early detection of any abnormality or treatment system deficiencies and will enable us to take immediate action for containment and rectification. Analysis on the influent chemical characteristic enables us to determine the optimum chemical dosage setting at treatment plant as well as to provide more effective control on chemical discharge which may upset the capability of the treatment system. The effective implementation of this performance monitoring system ensures the sustainability and continuity of our business as well as safeguarding the company from legal issues.

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Overall performance of my IETS was very good and can comply the DOE regulation. The benefits from the implementation of performance monitoring are; a) IETS in optimum operation at all times b) prevent IETS failure hence avoid costly IETS recovery work c) helps to maintain continued compliance hence improve corporate image and avoid embarrassing enforcement action d) maintains record of IETS performance which facilitates optimization of IETS and analysis of performance.

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References: 1) Guidance Document on Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment Systems DOE IETS 1, 2006. 2) Certified IETS operator training material 3) Success Stories of Performance Monitoring of Industrial Effluent Treatment System issues 1/2008

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APPENDICES Appendix I A list of analytical equipment used No 1 Equipment Incubator Manufacturer Velp Scientifica Photo

Oven

Memmert

Muffle Furnace

WiseTherm

Filtering Appratus (Water Jet Pump

Duran

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pH meter

Yokogawa

DO meter

Horiba

Weighing balance

Mettler Toledo

Heater for COD testing

Extraction Mantle

Appendix II
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A table showing the locations of sampling point


Parameter Flowrate (m3/hr) pH DO SV30 (ml) BOD Sample location ASM 1 ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT INFLUENT ASM 1 ASM 2 EFFLUENT CLARIFIER ASM 1 CLARIFIER ASM 2 ASM 1 ASM 2 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 8 OF ASM 1 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 3 OF ASM 2 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 8 OF ASM 1 CHANNEL 1 UNTIL 3 OF ASM 2

COD

COLOR

SUSPENDED SOLID SVI MLSS MLVSS

Appendix III

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A table showing the list of performance monitoring parameters and the sampling frequency
Parameter Flowrate (m3/hr) pH DO SV30 (ml) BOD COD COLOR SUSPENDED SOLID SVI MLSS MLVSS Frequency Daily Daily Daily Daily Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly Weekly

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Appendix IV An example of an IETS Performance Monitoring Report submitted by you to the IETS Performance Monitoring Committee as taught in the CePIETSO course.

PENFABRIC SDN BERHAD MILL 4 Prai Free Industrial Zone 1, 13600 Prai, Penang.
From: Kairul Anwar Abdul Rahim To : Mr. MT Boey (Factory Manager)

IETS report for Month of December 2009


1. Daily record (Average)
FLOWRATE (m3/h) (Control limit <380 m3/h) ASM1 ASM2 128 125 pH (Control limit 6~9) ASM1 7.95 ASM2 8.13 DO (mg/L) (Control limit 1~4 mg/L)* ASM1 2.09 ASM2 2.83 SV30 (mL) (Control limit <700ml) ASM1 610 ASM2 577

2. Weekly record (Average)


INLET BOD (mg/L) OUTLET (Control limit < 50mg/L) ASM1 ASM2 EFF 20.6 23.8 21.6 INLET COD OUTLET (Control limit < 250mg/L) ASM1 ASM2 EFF 172 150 158 INLET SS of Clarifier PVA (ppm) SVI (Control (mg/L) (Control limit <150) limit < 100mg/L) ASM1 ASM2 EFF ASM1 ASM2 BUFF< TREAT ASM1 ASM2 300 <50 422 324 336 72.2 83.8 186 0 120.4 108.2 COLOR OUTLET(PtCo)

468.8

1720.4

1787

3. Based on the performance monitoring from 01 December 2009 until 31 December 2009, following conclusion can be made about the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) Both plant was functioning in good operating condition with overall BOD removal efficiency is 95% and COD is 91%. Average DO of ASM 1 is 1.80 ppm and ASM 2 is 2.82 ppm. Average pH of ASM 1 is 7.95 and ASM 2 is 8.15 The final effluent of COD and BOD complied to Standard B and Written Approval 4. Upset condition No major upset arises.
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Appendix V Performance monitoring record.

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