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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING 6340(Print), ISSN

N 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 6359 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013), pp. 47-53 IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.7731 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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APPLICATION OF TAGUCHI METHOD AND ANOVA IN OPTIMIZATION OF CUTTING PARAMETERS FOR MATERIAL REMOVAL RATE AND SURFACE ROUGHNESS IN TURNING OPERATION
Vishal Francis*, Ravi.S.Singh, Nikita Singh, Ali.R.Rizvi, Santosh Kumar Department of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA *Corresponding Author- Assistant Professor, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, SSET, SHIATS, Allahabad 211007, Uttar Pradesh, INDIA

ABSTRACT The intend of this research work is to employ Taguchi method and Analysis of Variance to find out the influences of cutting parameters such as spindle speed, depth of cut and feed on material removal rate and surface roughness for their optimization. The experimental results obtained were analyzed to find out the most significant factor effecting MRR and surface roughness. Spindle speed was found to be the most significant parameter influencing material removal rate followed by feed and depth of cut in turning of mild steel (0.18% C). Feed rate was found to be the most influencing parameter in case of surface roughness. Keywords: Roughness. Taguchi Method, ANOVA, Mild Steel, Material Removal Rate, Surface

INTRODUCTION Turning is one of the common metal cutting operations used for manufacturing of finished parts. The surface texture of the produced parts must fulfill the specified limitations so it is vitally important to produce parts with adequate surface finish in order to ensure product performance and reliability. The present work investigates the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and material removal rate, experiment was conducted with a
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

HSS tool for turning of mild steel. Mild steel is a malleable and ductile material with a low tensile strength. The surface hardness can be increased through carburizing. The experiment was designed using Taguchi method, an L27 orthogonal array was selected and the three process parameter, depth of cut, feed and spindle speeds were varied to analyze the results obtained in order to find the optimal levels of the parameters for maximum material removal rate and minimum surface roughness. ANOVA was employed to find out significance of the different parameters on MRR and surface roughness. METHODOLOGY Essentially, traditional experimental design procedures are too complicated and not easy to use. A large number of experimental works have to be carried out when the number of process parameters increases. To solve this problem, the Taguchi method uses a special design of orthogonal arrays to study the entire parameter space with only a small number of experiments. This method uses a special set of arrays called orthogonal array. This standard array gives a way of conducting the minimum number of experiments which could give the full information of all the factors that affect the response parameter instead of doing all experiments. Analysis of variance was invented by Sir Ronald Fisher, who was a Statistician and Geneticist. He coined the phrase "analysis of variance," defined as "the separation of variance ascribable to one group of causes from the variance ascribable to the other groups. It is a statistical method of comparing means between groups; it computes the F-statistics, named after the inventor Fisher. The computed F value is compared with the critical F value to determine the significance of the parameters on the response. Variation observed (total) in an experimental attributed to each significant factor or interaction is reflected in percent contribution (P), which shows relative power of factor or interaction to reduce variation. MATERIALS AND METHOD A Mild steel rod of 150mm length and 32mm diameter was used for the experimental work. The chemical composition consists of (0.18%) carbon and (0.68%) manganese. The experiment was performed by high speed steel tool in dry cutting condition. Turning operation was performed 27 times in Sparko Engineering Workshop, Allahabad (U.P.) India. The total length of the work piece was divided into 4 equal parts and the surface roughness was measured for each 37.5mm length across the lay. Correspondingly MRR was calculated using standard relation: MRR= VFD mm3/min (1)

Where, MRR= Material Removal Rate, V= cutting velocity in mm/min, F= feed rate in mm/rev, D= depth of cut in mm. The three process parameters, viz. depth of cut, feed and spindle speeds were varied as shown in table 1.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

Table 1: Process parameters and their levels Process Parameters Depth of cut (mm) Feed (mm/rev) Spindle speed (rpm) Level 1 0.5 0.08 780 Level 2 1.0 0.20 1560 Level 3 1.5 0.32 2340

REULTS AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS Table 2 shows the values of the responses obtained from the experimental runs, designed by Taguchi method, the corresponding value of S/N Ratio is mentioned for each run. Table 2: Results for Experimental Trial Runs
Exp. No. Depth of cut (mm) 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 Feed (mm/rev) spindle speed (rpm) 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 780 1560 2340 Surface Roughness (microns) 97.5 22.5 100.0 95.0 105.0 137.5 150.0 110.0 55.0 87.0 95.0 96.0 90.0 96.0 86.0 98.0 100.0 98.0 85.0 96.7 97.0 85.0 93.0 89.0 95.0 100.0 89.0 Material Removal Rate (mm3/min) 3134976 6269952 9404928 783744 15674880 23512320 12539904 25079808 37619712 6269952 12539904 15674880 31349760 12539904 47024640 25079808 50159616 75239424 9404928 18809856 28214784 2351232 47024640 70536960 37619712 37619712 112859136 S/N Ratio for Surface Roughness -39.7801 -27.0437 -40.0000 -39.5545 -40.4238 -42.7661 -43.5218 -40.8279 -34.8073 -38.7904 -39.5545 -39.6454 -39.0849 -39.6454 -38.6900 -39.8245 -40.0000 -39.8245 -38.5884 -39.7085 -39.7354 -38.5884 -39.3697 -38.9878 -39.5545 -40.0000 -38.9878 S/N Ratio for Material Removal Rate 129.925 135.945 139.467 117.883 143.904 147.426 141.966 147.986 151.508 135.945 141.966 143.904 149.925 141.966 153.447 147.986 154.007 157.529 139.467 145.488 149.010 127.426 153.447 156.968 151.508 151.508 161.051

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

0.08 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.32 0.32 0.08 0.08 0.08 0.20 0.20 0.20 0.32 0.32 0.32

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME IAEM

A. Analysis of the S/N Ratio Taguchi method stresses the importance of studying the response variation using the signal to noise (S/N) ratio, resulting in minimization of quality characteristic variation due to uncontrollable parameter. The S/N Ratio is calculated using larger the better characteristics for MRR.

And the S/N Ratio for Surface roughness is calculated using smaller the better characteristics.

Where n is the number of measurement in a trail/row and Yi is the measured value in the run/row. Table 3 and 4 shows the Responses for Signal to Noise ratios of larger the better and smaller the better for each level of the parameters parameters. Table 3: Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios Larger is better Level Depth of cut (mm) Feed (mm/rev) Spindle speed(rpm) speed 139.6 140.1 138.0 1 147.4 143.6 146.2 2 148.4 151.7 151.1 3 8.9 11.5 13.1 Delta 3 2 1 Rank Table 4: Response Table for Signal to Noise Ratios Smaller is better Level Depth of cut (mm) Feed (mm/rev) Spindle speed(rpm) speed -38.75 -38.09 -39.70 39.70 1 -39.45 -39.68 -38.51 38.51 2 -39.28 -39.71 -39.27 39.27 3 0.70 1.61 1.19 Delta 3 1 2 Rank A greater value of S/N ratio is always considered for better performance regardless of the category of the performance characteristics. The difference of S/N Ratio between level 1 and level 3 indicates the significance of the process parameters, greater the difference, greater will be the significance. Table 3 shows that the spindle speed contributes most significantly towards MRR as the delta valve (difference between maximum and minimum values) is highest (13.1), (13.1) followed by feed (11.5) and depth of cut (8.9). (8.9) Table 4 indicates that for surface roughness the parameter that had the most influence is feed with delta value of (1.61), followed by spindle speed (1.19) and depth of cut (0.70). (0.70)

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

Figure 1 and 2 shows the main effect plot for S/N ratio for MRR and surface roughness. It is clear from figure 1 that MRR increases on increasing the values of spindle speed, feed and depth of cut. The greatest variation found was due to spindle speed, MRR increases on increasing the spindle speed. In case of surface roughness, feed has the greatest variation; as there is a considerable increase of surface roughness on increasing the feed.
M a in E f fe c ts P lo t f o r S N r a tio s
D a ta M e a n s
D E P T H O F C U T (m m ) 152 148 F E E D R A T E ( m m /r e v )

Mean of SN ratios

144 140 0.5 152 148 144 140 780 1560 2340 1.0 S P I N D L E S P E E D (r p m ) 1.5 0.08 0.20 0.32

S ig n a l- to - n o is e : L a r g e r is b e tte r

Figure 1 Effect of depth of cut, feed and spindle speed on MRR


M a in E f fe c ts P lo t f o r S N r a tio s
D a ta M e a n s
-3 8 . 0 -3 8 . 4 -3 8 . 8 D E P T H O F C U T (m m ) F E E D R A T E (m m /re v )

Mean of SN ratios

-3 9 . 2 -3 9 . 6 0.5 -3 8 . 0 -3 8 . 4 -3 8 . 8 -3 9 . 2 -3 9 . 6 780 1560 2340 1.0 S P IN D LE S P E E D (rp m ) 1.5 0.08 0.20 0.32

S ig n a l- to - n o is e : S m a lle r is b e tte r

Figure 2 Effect of depth of cut, feed and spindle speed on MRR B. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) The response data obtained via experimental runs for MRR and surface roughness were subjected to ANOVA for finding out the significant parameters, at above 95% confidence level and the results of ANOVA thus obtained for the response parameters are illustrated in table 5 and 6.
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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

Source Depth of cut(mm) Feed (mm/rev) Spindle speed (rpm) Error Total

Table 5: ANOVA table for S/N Ratios for MRR DF SS MS F 2 424.29 212.14 6.54 2 2 20 26 631.84 793.97 649.09 2499.19 315.92 396.98 32.45 9.73 12.23

P 0.007 0.001 0.000

Table 6: ANOVA table for S/N Ratios for Surface Roughness Source DF SS MS F P 2 2.426 1.213 0.13 0.877 Depth of cut(mm) 2 15.327 7.663 0.83 0.449 Feed (mm/rev) Spindle speed (rpm) Error Total 2 20 26 6.547 183.935 208.235 3.273 9.197 0.36 0.705

From Table 5, one can observe that the spindle speed (p=0.000) is the most significant parameter having 31.77% effect on MRR followed by feed (p= 0.001) having 25.28% influence on the response whereas depth of cut (p=0.007) influences the response only by 16.98%. On comparing the percentage contribution of the process parameters on response from table 6 it was found that feed have 7.36% influence on surface roughness whereas spindle speed and depth of cut contributes less towards surface roughness. CONCLUSION The study discusses about the application of Taguchi method and ANOVA to investigate the effect of process parameters on MRR and surface roughness. From the analysis of the results obtained following conclusion can be drawn: Statistically designed experiments based on Taguchi method are performed using L27 orthogonal array to analyze MRR and surface roughness. The results obtained from analysis of S/N Ratio and ANOVA were in close agreement. Optimal parameters for MRR are spindle speed 2340rpm; feed 0.32mm/rev and depth of cut 1.5mm. Whereas for surface roughness the optimal parameters found were spindle speed 1560rpm; feed 0.08mm/rev and depth of cut 0.5mm. Spindle peed was found to be most significant parameter for MRR.

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International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET), ISSN 0976 6340(Print), ISSN 0976 6359(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, May - June (2013) IAEME

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