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Cracking

WPA/WPA2 Personal + Enterprise for Fun and Prot

Vivek Ramachandran Founder, SecurityTube.net vivek@securitytube.net

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Shameless Self PromoHon

B.Tech, ECE IIT GuwahaH

802.1x, Cat65k Cisco Systems

WEP Cloaking Defcon 19

Cae LaNe ANack Toorcon 9

Media Coverage CBS5, BBC

MicrosoP Security Shootout

Trainer, 2011

Wi-Fi Malware, 2011

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Students in 65+ Countries


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Backtrack 5 Wireless PenetraHon TesHng

hNp://www.amazon.com/BackTrack-Wireless-PenetraHon-TesHng-Beginners/dp/1849515581/

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Agenda
WPA/WPA2 PSK Cracking Speeding up the cracking process AP-less WPA/WPA2 PSK Cracking Hole 196 WPS ANack Windows 7+ Wi-Fi Backdoors WPA/WPA2 Enterprise PEAP, EAP-TTLS
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Understanding WPA/WPA2

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Why WPA - WEP Broken Beyond Repair


IEEE WG admi6ed that WEP cannot hold any water. Recommended users to upgrade to WPA, WPA2

2001 - The insecurity of 802.11, Mobicom, July 2001 N. Borisov, I. Goldberg and D. Wagner. 2001 - Weaknesses in the key scheduling algorithm of RC4. S. Fluhrer, I. ManHn, A. Shamir. Aug 2001. 2002 - Using the Fluhrer, ManHn, and Shamir ANack to Break WEP A. Stubbleeld, J. Ioannidis, A. Rubin. 2004 KoreK, improves on the above technique and reduces the complexity of WEP cracking. We now require only around 500,000 packets to break the WEP key.

2005 Adreas Klein introduces more correlaHons between the RC4 key stream and the key. 2007 PTW extend Andreas technique to further simplify WEP Cracking. Now with just around 60,000 90,000 packets it is possible to break the WEP key.

AirTight 2007

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We need WEPs Replacement


WPA Intermediate soluHon by Wi-Fi Alliance Uses TKIP Based on WEP Hardware changes not required Firmware update WPA2 Long Term soluHon (802.11i) Uses CCMP Based on AES Hardware changes required

Personal PSK

Enterprise 802.1x + Radius

Personal PSK

Enterprise 802.1x + Radius

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WEP
StaCc WEP Key Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Data Encrypted with Key StaCc WEP Key

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WPA: No StaHc Keys


StaCc WEP Key Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Dynamic Key Generated First StaCc WEP Key

Data Encrypted with Dynamically Key

How are Dynamic Keys Created?

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WPA/WPA2 PSK (Personal) Cracking

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WPA Pre-Shared Key


Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

PBKDF2

Passphrase (8-63)

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PBKDF2
Password Based Key DerivaHon FuncHon RFC 2898 PBKDF2(Passphrase, SSID, ssidLen, 4096, 256) 4096 Number of Hmes the passphrase is hashed 256 Intended Key Length of PSK

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Lets Shake Hands: 4-Way Handshake


Supplicant Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Pre-Shared Key 256 bit
Message 1 ANounce

AuthenHcator

Pre-Shared Key 256 bit ANounce

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4 Way Handshake: Message 1


Supplicant Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Pre-Shared Key 256 bit
Message 1 ANounce

AuthenHcator

Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

Snounce PTK

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4 Way Handshake: Message 2


Supplicant Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Pre-Shared Key 256 bit
Message 1 ANounce

AuthenHcator

Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

Snounce PTK Message 2 SNounce

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4 Way Handshake: Message 3


Supplicant Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Pre-Shared Key 256 bit
Message 1 ANounce

AuthenHcator

Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

Snounce PTK
Message 3 aHon Key Install

Message 2 Snounce + MIC

PTK

Key Installed

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4 Way Handshake: Message 4


Supplicant Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Pre-Shared Key 256 bit
Message 1 ANounce

AuthenHcator

Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

Snounce PTK
Message 3 aHon Key Install

Message 2 Snounce + MIC

PTK

Key Installed

Message 4 Key Install Acknowledgement


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Key Installed

Demo

How does the Handshake look like?

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A Quick Block Diagram


4 Way Handshake SNonce ANonce AP MAC Client MAC Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

PBKDF2 (SSID)

PTK Passphrase (8-63)

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WPA-PSK DicHonary ANack


4 Way Handshake SNonce ANonce AP MAC Client MAC Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

PBKDF2 (SSID) PTK Passphrase (8-63)

DicHonary
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Verify by Checking the MIC

Demo

WPA/WPA2 Personal Cracking

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BoNleneck in the WPA-PSK DicHonary ANack


4 Way Handshake SNonce ANonce AP MAC Client MAC Pre-Shared Key 256 bit (PMK)

PBKDF2 (SSID) PTK Passphrase (8-63)

DicHonary
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Verify by Checking the MIC

PBKDF2
Requires SSID
List of commonly used SSIDs

Requires Passphrase
Can be provided from a DicHonary

PMK can be pre-computed using the above

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Other Parameters in Key Cracking


Snonce, Anonce, Supplicant MAC, AuthenHcator MAC varies and hence cannot be pre-calculated PTK will be dierent based on the above MIC will be dierent as well Thus these cannot be pre-calculated in any way

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Speeding up Cracking
4 Way Handshake SNonce ANonce AP MAC Client MAC Pre-Shared Key 256 bit (PMK)

Pre-Calculated List of PMK for a 1. Given SSID 2. DicHonary of Passphrases

PTK

Verify by Checking the MIC


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Plaqorms
MulH-Cores ATI-Stream Nvidia CUDA . In the Cloud
Amazon EC2

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Fast Cracking Demo


Pyrit
hNp://code.google.com/p/pyrit/

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Demo

Speeding up WPA/WPA2 Personal Cracking

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In the Cloud EC2 Cluster Compute

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AP-less WPA/WPA2 PSK Cracking

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Understanding Clients
Client

SSID: default

SSID Default SecurityTube ProtectedAP .

CredenCals ********

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An Isolated Client

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Demo

Isolated Client Behavior

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Demo

CreaHng a Catch All Honeypot

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Cracking WPA with Only Client?


Supplicant Probe Request-Response AuthenHcaHon RR, AssociaHon RR Pre-Shared Key 256 bit
Message 1 ANounce

Hacker Honeypot

Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

Snounce PTK Message 2 Snounce + MIC


n DeAuthenHcaHo

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WPA-PSK DicHonary ANack


4 Way Handshake SNonce ANonce AP MAC Client MAC Pre-Shared Key 256 bit

PBKDF2 (SSID) PTK Passphrase (8-63)

DicHonary
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Verify by Checking the MIC

Demo

WPA/WPA2 AP-less Cracking

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WPA/WPA2 Personal Safe for use in SMB Long + Random Passphrase?

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WPA/WPA2 GTK Misuse Vulnerability (Hole 196)

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PTK and GTK


Access Point

Client 1

Client 2

Client 3

PTK1 GTK-Common

PTK1 GTK-Common

PTK1 GTK-Common

Pairwise Transient Key (PTK) Unique for All Clients Group Temporal Key (GTK) Same for All Clients
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Abusing the GTK


Insider ANack
Malicious Insider can gain access to the common GTK Use GTK to send trac to Clients on behalf of the AP MulHple ANacks possible
MITM RedirecHon DoS
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ARP Spoong ANack


Wired LAN Access Point

1. Gateway ARP Update Malicious Insider User Laptop

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DoS using Replay ANack ProtecHon


PN = 1000 PN = 1000

PN = 1001

PN = 1001 Malicious Insider


PN = 1500

PN = 1500

PN = 1002

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WPS ANack

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Whats Wrong with WPS?

images from Google Image Search


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DemonstraHon
WPS Bruteforce Demo

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Windows 7 Wi-Fi Backdoors

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GeneraHon 2.0 of Client SoPware Hosted Network


Available Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 onwards Virtual adapters on the same physical adapter SoPAP can be created using virtual adapters With this feature, a Windows computer can use a single physical wireless adapter to connect as a client to a hardware access point (AP), while at the same ;me ac;ng as a so<ware AP allowing other wireless-capable devices to connect to it.
hNp://msdn.microsoP.com/en-us/library/dd815243%28v=vs.85%29.aspx

DHCP server included

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CreaHng a Hosted Network

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Client sHll remains connected to hard AP!

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DemonstraHon
Demo of Hosted Network

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Wi-Fi Backdoor
Easy for malware to create a backdoor They key could be:
Fixed Derived based on MAC address of host, Hme of day etc.

As host remains connected to authorized network, user does not noHce a break in connecHon No Message or Prompt displayed
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Makes a Rogue AP on every Client!


Rogue AP

Rogue AP

Rogue AP

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Why is this cool?


VicHm will never noHce anything unusual unless he visits his network sexngs
has to be decently technical to understand

ANacker connects to vicHm over a private network


no wired side network logs: rewalls, IDS, IPS Dicult, if not impossible to trace back Dicult to detect even while aNack is ongoing J

Abusing legiHmate feature, not picked up by AVs, AnH-Malware More Stealth? Monitor air for other networks, when a specic network comes up, then start the Backdoor

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DemonstraHon
Demo of Metasploit + Hosted Network

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WPA-Enterprise

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WPA-Enterprise
Supplicant AuthenHcator AssociaHon EAPoL Start EAP Request IdenHty EAP Response IdenHty EAP Packets EAP Success 4 Way Handshake Data Transfers
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AuthenHcaHon Server

EAP Request IdenHty EAP Packets EAP Success PMK to AP

WPA/WPA2 Enterprise
EAP Type PEAP EAP-TTLS EAP-TLS LEAP EAP-FAST . Real World Usage Highest High Medium Low Low .

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PEAP
Protected Extensible AuthenHcaHon Protocol Typical usage:
PEAPv0 with EAP-MSCHAPv2 (most popular) PEAPv1 with EAP-GTC
NaHve support on Windows

Other uncommon ones

Uses Server Side CerHcates for validaHon PEAP-EAP-TLS

PEAPv0/v1 with EAP-SIM (Cisco)

AddiHonally uses Client side CerHcates or Smartcards Supported only by MicrosoP

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Source: Layer3.wordpress.com

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Understanding the Insecurity


Server side cerHcates
Fake ones can be created Clients may not prompt or user may accept invalid cerHcates

Setup a Honeypot with FreeRadius-WPE


Client connects Accepts fake cerHcate Sends authenHcaHon details over MSCHAPv2 in the TLS tunnel ANackers radius server logs these details Apply dicHonary / reduced possibility bruteforce aNack using Asleap by Joshua Wright

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Network Architecture
BT5 VM

Honeypot AP setup by ANacker FreeRadius-WPE + Wireshark 1 eth1

Wireshark 2

mon0

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DemonstraHon
PEAP Cracking with Honeypot

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Windows PEAP Hacking Summed Up in 1 Slide J

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EAP-TTLS
EAP-Tunneled Transport Layer Security Server authenHcates with CerHcate Client can opHonally use CerHcate as well No naHve support on Windows
3rd party uHliHes to be used

Versions
EAP-TTLSv0 EAP-TTLSv1
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Inner AuthenHcaHon in EAP-TTLS


MSCHAPv2 MSCHAP CHAP PAP

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DemonstraHon
EAP-TTLS Cracking with Honeypot

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Leverage the Cloud

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EAP-TLS Peace of Mind!


Strongest security of all the EAPs out there Mandates use of both Server and Client side cerHcates Required to be supported to get a WPA/WPA2 logo on product Unfortunately, this is not very popular due to deployment challenges

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SecurityTube Wi-Fi Security DVD

hNp://www.securitytube.net/
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