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MaterialsEquations

Conductors
Fieldwithinaconductor
E =
I

DriftVelocity
u
c
= p
c
E
CurrentDensity
[
c
= p
-
u
c
= N
c
p
c
E = oE =
I
A

ElectricForceactingonq
1
duetoq
2

F
12
=
q
1
q
2
4ne
0
R
12
o
12

wbcrc tbc polority o o


12
JcpcnJs on wbctbcr tbc cborgcs ottroct or rcpcl
ElectricFieldintensityduetonpointcharges
E

=
q

(r - r

)
4ne
0
|r - r

|
3
n
=1

wbcrc r

is tbc Jistoncc :cctor JircctcJ rom tbc locotion o tbc cborgc q

to tbc point o mcosurcmcnt


Resistance
R =
pl
A

wbcrc p is tbc rcsisti:ity
R
2
= R
1
(1 + o(I
2
- I
1
))
Voltagegeneratedbyathermocouple
I = I


SemiConductors
Numberofelectronsintheconductionband
n = 4.84 1u
15
I
3
2
c
-_
L
g
2k
B
1
]

BuiltinVoltage
I
b
= I
1
ln _
N
u
N
d
n

2
_
wbcrc I
1
=
K
B
I
q

DepletionRegion
w
p
N
u
= w
n
N
d

Electricfieldindepletionregion
e
m
=
cN
d
w
n
e
0
e

=
cN
u
w
p
e
0
e


FermiLevel
E
PN
= E
c
+ k
B
I ln _
N
d
N
c
]
E
PP
= E

- k
B
I ln _
N
u
N

]
E
g
= E
c
-E

I
b
= E
PN
-E
PP

Momentum
E =
p
2
2m

wbcrc p is tbc momcntum


Electron/holeconcentration
n = p = n


np = n

wbcrc n = N
d

p = N
A
-N
d

Conductivity
o =
1
p
= ncp
c
+pcp
h

FillFactor
FF =
P
mux
I
oc
I
sc
=
I
mux
I
mux
I
oc
I
sc

PowerConversionEfficiency
p =
I
m
I
m
P
n
= FF
I
oc
I
sc
P
n
= FF
I
oc
I
sc
0 Arco
= FF
I
oc
[
sc
0

Magnetism
B =

r
H
Ampereslaw
B(r) =
p
0
I
2nr
(i r > o)
B(r) =
p
0
Ir
2no
2
(i r < o)
Magneticfieldintensity
B = p
0
(E + H) = p
0
E(1 +_
m
)
Susceptibility
H = _
m
E
Magnetization
H = Nm
wbcrc m is tbc momcnt pcr otom
HysteresisLoss
P
h
= k
h
B
mux
n

wbcrc k
h
is tbc bystcrcsis constont, = rcqucncy, B = moxlux Jcnsity onJ
n = stcinmctz inJcx
EddyCurrentloss
P
c
=
(ntB
mux
)
2
6p
(|n W)
P
c
=
(ntB
mux
)
2
6po
(|n Wkg)
DielectricsandInsulators
Fluxdensity
E =
B
e
0
e

ElectricalDisplacement
= eE +P
p
= eE + cJE = e E
Polarization
P = N
1
m =
N
I
m
wbcrc N
1
is tbc numbcr o Jipolcs pcr unit :olumc
Capacitors
u =
1
2
CI
2

C =
e

e
0
A
J

Capacitanceofasinglecorecable
C =
2ne
ln [
R
r

DielectricStressinasinglecorecable
Elcctric iclJ ot ony point x owoy rom ccntrc
E
x
=

2nex
=
I
x ln [
R
r


E
mux
=

2ner
=
I
r ln [
R
r

Moment
p = ql
Torque
I = pE
o

Workdone
w = -|p| |E
0
| cos0

ClassificationofElectricalandElectronicMaterials
Bondingionic,covalent,metallic
o Ionic:betweenmetal&nonmetal,electrostaticattraction,achievedviaelectron
transfer
o Covalent:electronsharing,electronisfoundsamedistancefromidenticalatoms
o Metallic:metalwithmetalinteractionformingmetallicbonds
o VanDerWaal:weakattraction,mutualattractionofdipoles

Freeelectronmodel
o Abilityorinabilitytoconductelectricity.
o Accordingtothispropertymaterialsarecategorizedasconductors,semiconductors,
insulators.
o Bondbetweenelectronsandnuclei,strongforinsulators,weakforconductors.

ElectricalConductivity
o Underanelectricfieldthefreeelectronsmoveinarandomwayoppositetothe
directionoftheelectricfiled

BandTheory
o Electronsdistributedatdifferentenergylevels.Thesedistinctenergylevels,wideninto
energybands.Thesebandsmaybeoverlyseparatedormayevenoverlap.Lastground
stateisknownasthevalenceband,containselectronsthatformcovalentbonds
betweenatoms.Permittedenergybandiscalledtheconductionband.
o SemiConductors:AtT=0K,conductionbandisempty.AtT>0K,someelectronsmove
intotheconductionband.
o Theenergydifferencebetweentheconductionbandandvalencebandisknownasthe
forbiddengap.
o Differencebetweenaninsulatorandasemiconductoristhevalueoftheenergygap.

ConductingMaterials
ConductorinElectricField
o Aconductorhasalargenumberoffreeelectrons.
o Freeelectrons:looselyassociatedwithnucleus,freetowanderthroughtheconductor,
respondstoaninfinitesimalsmallelectricfield.
o Moverandomlywithnonetdriftinanisolatedconductor.
o Isolatedconductoriselectricallyneutral.
o Withanelectricfieldthenetdriftisintheoppositedirectionoftheelectricalfield.One
side+ve&theotherisve,producesanelectricfieldwithintheconductorwhichis
equalandoppositetotheexternalelectoralfield.TheKElostduringcollisionsis
changedtoheat.

ApplicationsofMetallicConductors
o SilverandGold:Economicallyunviableforuseincables,wires,conductorsandelectrical
machines.Usedasbondwiresinintegratedcircuits.
o Copper&Aluminium:Economicallyviable.
Aluminium:Cheaperthancopper,lighterbutmorevolumeisrequiredduetoaworse
conductivity.
o Applications:Highandmediumvoltageoverheadwiring,Rotorsand3phaseinduction
motors,Lowandmediumvoltageundergroundcables.
o Disadvantages:Lowmeltingpoint,lowerthermalconductivitythusworstcaseitcan
burn.Whenexposedtoair,anoxidelayerisformedarounditwhichdoesnotconduct
electricity,thusinhibitingelectricalcontact.Slowmaterialcreep,thematerialwillyield
overtimethusmayeventuallybecomelooseandlosecontact.
o Mostcommonuse:Overheadcabling:weightisacriticalrole,duetohavingalower
strengthitmustbereinforcedwithasteelcore.

Copper:Applications:Alltelecomwiring,Motors,Buildingwire,HVandEHVunderground
cables.

Silver:Lowestcontactresistance.
Applications:Brazingfillermetals,electronics,primarybatteries.

Gold:Lowelectricalresistivity(onlycopperandsilverarebetter)
Applications:Microelectroniccircuitry,wirebondinginICsandconnectors,duetoresistanceto
corrosion.

EMRelays:Coilwindingmadefromcopper

HighResistivityMetals:
o Tungsten:filamentsinelectriclamps
o Platinum:wirethermocoupleelements,andelectricalcontacts.Itisanexcellent
catalystandistypicallyusedinfuelcellsandthermocouples.
o Constantan:electricalresistorsandthermocouples.

Thermocouples:
o ConverttemperaturedifferenceintoEMF.
o Temperaturesensorismadebyjoiningtwodissimilarmetalsatoneend.Iftwodifferent
metalsarejoinedatbothendsandhaveadifferenttemperatureacurrentwillbe
createdbytheSeebeckeffect.

SuperConductivity:
Materialswhoseresistivitybecomesextremelysmall(orzero)attemperaturesbelowacritical
temperatureTc.Consideredasadifferentstateofmatter.Itisareversiblestate.
Ithasahighdegreeoforderthatisentropyiszero,electronsbecomeorderedinthe
superconductivitystate.
Type1:Destructionbymagneticfield:
o Thetransitionbetweenthesuperconductingandnormalstateoccurssharply.
Generallynotusedforcoilsforsuperconductingmagnets.
Type2:
o Theeliminationofthesuperconductingstatebyamagneticfieldoccursgradually.
Mainlyusedforsuperconductingmagnetsduetoaddedresistanceagainstthemagnetically
induceddestructionofsuperconductingstate.

Meissnereffect:AsuperconductorbehavesasifBis0inthesuperconductorwhenanexternal
magneticfieldisappliedonit.Themagnetizationisequalandoppositetheexternalmagnetic
fieldstrength.Theresultisaperfectdiamagnet.
Applicationsofsuperconductors:MRIMedical,particleacceleratorsandsensorselectronics,
magnetsandseparationIndustrial
Disadvantages:Coolingofthesuperconductor,complexitiesofthemanufacturingprocessof
certaincomponents.

Semiconductors
Electricalconductivitymaybechangedasafunctionoftemperature,impuritycontent,excessivecharge
carrierinjectionandopticalexcitation.

IntrinsicSemiConductors:Containsnoimpuritiesordefects.Allelectronsareinthevalencebandat0K.
Temperaturesabove0K,electronsarepromotedtotheconductionband.

ExtriniscSemiConductors:Theavailabilityofchargecarriersinthevalencebandandconductionband
isgreatlyaffectedbytheintroductionofimpurities.Theseareintroducedtoobtainmaterialsand
deviceswithdesiredproperties.
Introducingimpurities=doping.
Contributeelectrons:donors(intheconductionband)
Contributeholes:acceptors(inthevalenceband)

Ntype:
Eachdonoratomintroducesanextraelectrontothehostcrystalwhichcanparticipateinthe
conductionprocess,whereasthedonoratombecomespositivelycharged.
Thedonoratomhasahighervalencethantheatomsofthehostmaterial.

Ptype:
Acceptoratomintroducesamissingelectron(thusextrahole)whichcancaptureafreeelectron
toformafourthbondwiththesiliconatoms,therebycreatinganimmobilenegativelycharged
acceptoratom.Thisleadstoexcessofholes.
Theacceptorsaresubstitutionalimpuritieswhichhavealowervalencebandthantheatomsof
thehostmaterial.

Fermilevelistheenergylevelintheforbiddengapbandfromwhichelectronsareexcitedtobecome
chargecarriers.

PNjunction
FormedwhenaPtype&Ntypesemiconductorareincontact.
Opencircuit,theFermilevelisuniformthroughoutthestructure.

DepletionRegion:
ElectronsandholesneartheinterfaceinstantlydiffusefromtheN&Ptyperegionsrespectively.
Thisflowaddstoformthediffusioncurrent.(Directionfromthepsidetothenside)
Thejunctionthatisdepletedofmobilechargecarriersisknownasthedepletionregion.Abuild
upoppositelychargedregionsintheregionaroundthejunctionoccurs,thisresultsinanelectric
fieldthatsweepsoutanyelectronsandholesthatentertheregion.
Driftcurrent:duetothefieldpresentinthedepletionregion.Is=Idforano/c
Builtinpotential:Aresultoftheenergydifferencelevelbetweenthentypeandptyperegions.
Biasconditions:Netcurrentwillflowinonedirection.
Forwardbiased:psideisata+vepotentionwrtnside
Reversebiased:nsideisatavepotentialwrtpside.
DepletionregionbecomessmallerFB,allowinghigherminoritychargeinjection
DepletionregionbecomesbiggerRB,suppressingminoritychargeinjection

Presenceofbiaschangestheelectricfieldinthedepletionregion.
ReverseBiasnetcurrentstillresultsalthoughthisisextremelysmall.
Forwardbiasskipsthresholdvalueandasforwardbiasvoltageisincreasedfurtherthedevices
starttobehavelikearesistor,linearrelation.
ReverseBias:Avalancheeffect:CarriersacceleratedinthefieldcanaccumulateenoughKEthat
theycan,throughacollisionprocess,generateelectronholepairsthroughimpactionization.
Thiswillhappenagainandgeneratemorecarriers.Thisisapositivefeedbackmechanismknown
astheavalanchemultiplication.

Zenerbreakdown:boththentypeandptypeareheavilydoped.Thewidthifthetransition
(depletion)regionissmallandelectronscandirectlytunnelfromtheptypevalencebandtothe
ntypeconductionband.Breakdownvoltageiszenerdiodescanbeaccuratelycontrolled.
o Applications:
LED
SolarCell
TempSensor
Frequencymultipliersandmixers
Switches(rectifiers,inverters,powersupplies)

PhotovoltaicCell:
APVcellisadevicethatconvertssolarenergyintoelectricitybythephotovoltaiceffect.
WhenaPVcellsareexposedtolight:Photonreflection,Photonabsorption,generationoffree
carrierchargeinthesemiconductorbulk,Migrationofthecharge,chargeseparationbymeans
ofanelectricfield.
Pvmaterials:MonoCrystallineSilicon,PolyCrystallineSilicon,AmorphousSilicon
o MonoCrystalline:Orderedsiliconstructure.Predictablebehaviour,mostexpensivedue
toslowmanufacturingprocess.
o PolyCrystalline:Lower,cost,grainboundariesmakeitlessefficient.
o Thinfilmcells:Lowerefficienciesbutperfrombetterathighertemperatures.Very
cheap.Lowefficiencyduetodanglingbonds.

Dielectrics

Dielectricsareasubsetofinsulatorsthatexhibitdielectricphenomena.Electronsintheoutermostshell
oftheatomsindielectricsinteractwithexternalforcessuchaselectricfields,magneticfields,
electromagneticwaves,mechanicalstress,ortemperature,resultingintheoccurrenceofalldielectric
phenomena.

Fornonmagneticdielectricmaterials,dielectricphenomenainclude:
1. Electricalpolarization
2. Resonance
3. Relaxation
4. Energystorage
5. Energydissipation
6. Electricalaging
7. Destructivebreakdown

Electricalfieldappliedtodielectric:
Asmallofcurrentduetothefreeelectronsinsidethematerial.
Polarization:Displacementofthecommoncentresof+veandveelectricalchargeofthedielectric
atomsbyafractionofanatomicdistance,thusproducinganelectricdipole.

Dipole:A+vechargeseparatedbyarelativelyshortdistancefromanequalvecharge.
Orientationpolarization:Whenanelectricfieldisapplied,thesedipolestendtoorientasa
resultoftorqueexertedonthesedipoles.
Theappliedelectricfieldcanalsoinducepolarizationbydistortionoftheelectroniccloudsand
thenucleusoftheatomicstructureofthematter.
Electronicpolarization:Electricfieldcausesdistortionoftheoriginallysymmetricaldistribution
oftheelectroncloudsofatoms.(iethedisplacementoftheouterelectroncloudswrttheinner
+veatomiccores)
Ionicpolarization:Electricalfieldcausestheatomsorionsofapolyatomicmoleculetobe
displacedrelativetoeachother.
Orientationalpolarizationhighlytemperaturedependant.Relaxingprocess,mechanicalfriction
duetoresistanceduetothermalagitationandalsoduetotheinertiaresistanceofthe
surroundingmolecules.

Nonpolar:elasticdisplacementelectronicpolarization
Polar:elasticdisplacementofthevalenceelectronclouds.Elasticdisplacementoftherelativepositions
ofions.Electronic&ionicpolarization.
Dipolar:Electronic,ionic,orientationalpolarization.

Dielectriclosses:
Leakagelosses(I^2)Powerloss,bothDC&ac
Hysteresislosses:causedbycyclicpolarizationinthedielectricinsulationbyalternating
electricalfieldsaconly.
Dielectricstrength:theelectricstrengthsufficienttoinitiateabreakdownofthedielectric.
Intrinsicstrength:theupperlimitofthedielectricstrengthwhichisreachedrapidlywhenan
impulsevoltageisapplied.
DielectricPhenomena
IntrinsicBreakdown:energygainedbyelectronsfromtheelectricfieldismuchmorethanthey
cantransfertothelattice,thusbreakingdown.
ElectromechanicalBreakdown:ElectricFieldordielectric,chargesofoppositenatureinduced
ontheoppositesurfacesofthematerial.Attractiondeveloped,specimenbecomessubjectedto
electrostaticcompressiveforces,thisexceedsmaximumcompressivestrengthcausingthe
materialtocollapse.
ThermalBreakdown:Conditionofinstabilityisreachedduetoconductioncurrentanddielectric
lossesduetopolarization,thustemperatureincrease.Heatgeneratedexceedsheatdissipated,
thusthematerialbreaksdown.
Coronadischarge:aselfsustainedelectricaldischargeinwhichthefieldintensifiedionizationis
localizedonlyoverasmallportionofthedistancebetweentheelectrodes.

DielectricApplications:Capacitors,usedtosolvenoiseproblems.
Dielectricscommonlyused:oil,paper,air,mica,variouspolymerfilms,metaloxides.

Capacitors:Ceramic,Aluminium,tantalum
CeramicClass1:
o CapdoesnotvarywithV
o LowlossesatfrequencyuptotheUHFrange.
o HighInsulationResistance
o Applications:resonantcircuits,filters,timingelements.

CeramicClass2:
o Higherlosses,relativelyhighcapacitancevaluesevenwithsmallsizecapacitors.
o Applications:Coupling,blocking,filtering.

AluminiumCapacitors:
o Advantages:Highvolumetricefficiency,upto1Fproduction.Providesahighripple
currentcapabilitytogetherwithahighreliabilityandanexcellentprice/performance
ratio.

TantalumElectrolyticCapacitors:
o Highestcapacitanceperunitvolume.Donotsufferfromtheeffectsoftemperature,bias
orvibration.Expensivebutdonotsufferasmuchfromthepiezoelectriceffect.
o Uses:Blocking,bypassing,filtering,decoupling.

Piezoelectricmaterials:arematerialsinwhichelectricitycanbegeneratedbyanappliedmechanical
stressoramechanicalstresscanbeproducedbyanappliedelectricfield.
Uses:Cigarettelighters,gasignites,transducersforhighintensityultrasounds,resonators,microphones.
Insulators
GasInsulators
o GasesUsed:
Air
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Nitrogen
CO2
Sulfurhexafluoride
o Propertiesrequired
Highdielectricstrength
Thermalandchemicalstability
NonInflammability
Highthermalconductivity
Arcextinguishingcapabilities
Substations
o Airinsulatedsubstations
Usesairatatmosphericpressure
Everythingisvisibleandinstalledoutdoors
Requirelargeareastoobtaintheclearancesrequired
o Gasinsulatedsubstations
UsesSF6atmoderatepressure
Everythingisinsidegroundedmetalenclosures
SF
6
canachieveincmwhatairachievesinm.
Substationsaresmaller
Moreexpensivethanair
SF
6
decomposesinthehightemperatureofanarcbutrecombinesback
StrongGreenhousegasthathasaverylonglifeinatmosphere
CanberecycledfromGIS
SF
6
hashighinsulationcapabilityandhigharcextinctioncapability
LiquidInsulators
o OrganicConsistofcarboncompounds,mostimportantaremineraloils.
o InorganicConsistofliquefiedgaseslikenitrogen,oxygenetc
o MineralOilInsulators
Propertiesdependonchemicalcomposition
Usedintransformers(usedforbothelectricalinsulationandheattransferfluid),
oilfilledcablesandcapacitors.
Presenceoffinewaterdropletsaffectthedielectricstrengthofoil
SolidInsulators
o Mustbecapableofsupportingandisolatingconductorsatdifferentpotentials
o Requirements
Highinsulationresistance
Highdielectricstrength
Goodmechanicalproperties
Shouldnotbeaffectedbychemicalsaroundit
Nonhygroscopic
o XLPEistheprimeextrudedmaterialusedfortransmission
o ExtrudedPolymers
Polyethylene
Hydrocarbonmadeofcarbonandhydrogen
Alongerchainofpolyethylenehasahighermolecularweightthana
shorterchain.
Polyethyleneiscomprisedofpolymerchainsthathaveadistributionof
molecularweights.
Polymerchainshaveatendencytocoil.Thisinfluencesthemechanical
propertiesofthepolymer,butdonothaveamajorinfluenceon
electricalproperties.
Classifiedinto4maincategories:
o LowDensity
o MediumDensity
o HighDensity(providesbestmechanicalproperties)
o LinearLowdensity
Hasthebestmoistureresistanceofanynonmetallicmaterial
Poorflameresistance
o CopolymersEPR
Materialsmanufacturedbyincorporatingmorethanonemonomerintothe
polymerizationprocess.
Properties
Shortchainbranches
Noncrystallineamorphousstructure
Requiresreinforcingfillers
Needstobecrosslinked
Usedasjacketsinlowvoltageapplicationwhenflameresistancehasbeen
compoundedintothematerial.
o CrossLinkedPolyethylene(XLPE)
Crosslinkingistheprocessofjoiningdifferentpolyethylenechainstogetherby
chemicalreaction
BranchesareconnectedtoadifferentPEchaininsteadofhangingloose.
Crosslinkingadvantages
Resistancetodeformationandstresscracking
Improvedtensilestrengthandmodulus
Electricalpropertiesofpolyethylenearenotnecessarilyimprovedby
crosslinking.
Additionofcarbonprovidessunlightresistance
o PolyvinylChloride(PVC)
Usedinlowvoltagefieldasinsulationandjacket
Cannottakehightemperatures
Lowcost,easyprocessing
Fireandchemicalresistance
Possessesgoodphysicalstrength,moistureresistance,oilresistance,good
flameresistanceandexcellentresistancetoweathering
Tendencytocreepundercontinuouspressure
Tendencytomeltanddeformwhenheatedtohightemperature
Chlorinecanbereleasedduringafire,whichwhencombinedwithmoisture
formshydrochloricacid.
ComparisonSummary
o Advantagesofpolyethylene
Lowepermittivity(lowdielectricconstant)
Lowtandelta(lowdielectriclosses)
Highinitialdielectricstrength
o AdvantagesofXLPE(inadditiontoonesabove)
Improvedmechanicalpropertiesatelevatedtemperatures
Nomeltingabove105butthermalexpansionoccurs
Reducedsusceptibilitytowatertreeing
o AdvantagesofTRXLPE
Evenbetterresistancetowatertreeing
o AdvantagesofEPR
ReducedthermalexpansionrelativetoXLPE
Reducedsensitivitytowatertreeing
Increasedflexibility
HighVoltageCables
o Usedwhenundergroundtransmissionisrequired
o Needcompleteinsulation
o Differentvoltagesareinducedatdifferentpointsonthesheathwhichcauseeddy
currentstoflowinthesheaths.Thesedependon:
Frequency
Distancebetweencables
Meanradiusofsheath
Resistivityofsheathmaterial
o Powerlosscanoccurdueto:
Dielectriclosscausedbyvoltageacrosstheinsulation
ConductorlossesCurrentpassingthroughtheresistanceoftheconductor
SheathlossesCausedbyinducedcurrentsinthesheath
Intersheathlossescausedbycirculatingcurrentsinloopsformedbetween
sheathsofdifferentphases.
o Stressdistribution
Theinsulationisfullystressedattheconductorwhilenearthesheaththe
insulationisunnecessarilystrongandthusneedlesslyexpensive.
Capacitivegradingisused
Consistsofmakingtheinsulationaroundtheconductorwithvarious
layershavingdifferentpermittivities.

Ceramics
o Crystalsmixedwithaglassyphasewhichhelpsintheprocessingoftheceramicandalso
helpsholdthecrystalstogether.
o Havehighmechanicalstrengthandlowpermittivity
o Thebreakdownstrength,whencomparedtootherinsulators,islow,butremains
unaffectedoverawiderangeoftemperaturevariation.
o Inerttoalkalisandacids
o Alumina
Oneofthebestelectricalinsulators
Meltsathightemperatures
Poorheatconductor
Transparenttovisiblelight
Veryhardbutbrittle
Stableinoxidizingmedium,sinceitisalreadyoxidized.
o Mica
Thinlayersofmicaarelaminatedwithsuitableresinorvarnishtomakethick
sheetsofmica.
Micacanbemixedwiththerequiredtypeofresintoobtaintherequired
characteristics.
Usedasfillersininsulatorstoimprovetheirdielectricstrengthandheat
resistance.
Highdielectricstrength
Lowdielectriclosses
Goodmechanicalstrength

MagneticMaterials
Magneticdipole
o Themagneticfieldofacurrentloopcanbeconsideredascomingfromadistributionof
magneticdipolesoverasurfacespanningtheclosedloop.
o Thesurfacecanbedividedintomanysmallloopsandonemayassumethatacurrent
flowsineachloop.
o Thesecurrentswillcanceleachotheroutonalltheinteriorboundaries,butnotatthe
outerboundary.
o Eachofthesmallloopsproducedamagneticdipole
Magneticmomentduetoelectronorbit
o Themagneticfieldsthatresultduetocurrentloopscanbeappliedtothesimplemodel
oftheatom.
o Theorbitingelectronsareconsideredasanelementarycurrentloop.
o Inanexternalfield,electronsexperiencetorquewhichtendstoalignthemagneticfield
producedbytheorbitingelectronwiththeexternalmagneticfield.
o Allorbitingelectronsinthematerialwouldshiftinsuchawaysoastoaddtheir
magneticfieldstotheexternalfield.
o Theresultantmagneticmomentduetoelectronorbitistemperaturedependent.
Magneticmomentduetoelectronspin
o Anelectronspinningaboutitsownaxisgeneratesamagneticdipolemoment.
o Thespincanbepositiveornegativevalued,thereforethemagneticfieldcaneitheraid
oropposetheexternalfield
o Theresultantmagneticmomentduetoelectronspinistemperaturedependent.
Magneticmaterials
o Ferromagnetic(strong)
AferromagnetbecomesparamagneticaboveitsCurietemperatureT
C
.
AssumptionsbyWeiss
Amolecularfieldactsintheferromagneticsubstance,andthatthisfield
issostrongthatitcanmagnetizethesubstancetosaturationevenin
theabsenceofanappliedfield.
Aferromagnetinthedemagnetizedstateisdividedintoanumberof
smallregionscalleddomains.Eachdomainisspontaneously
magnetizedtothesaturationvalue,butthedirectionsofthe
magnetizationaresuchthatthespecimenasawholehasnonet
magnetization.
Theprocessofmagnetizationistheoneofconvertingthespecimenfroma
multidomainstateintoasingledomainmagnetizedinthesamedirectionasthe
appliedfield.
o Paramagnetic(weak)
Susceptibilityvariesinverselywiththeabsolutetemperature(Curielaw)
Paramagneticsaresubstancescomposedofatomsorionswhichhaveanet
magneticmomentduetothenoncancellationofspinandorbitalcomponents.
o Diamagnetic(weak)
Nopermanentmagnetism
Negativemagnetism
Susceptibilitydoesnotvarywithtemperature
Monoatomicgasesarealldiamagnetic
Covalentbondsalsoleadtoclosedshellsandelementssuchascarbon,silicon
andgermaniumarediamagnetic.
Mostorganiccompoundsarediamagnetic
o Antiferromagnetic(strong)
Havesmallpositivesusceptibilityatalltemperatures,butitvariesisapeculiar
waywithtemperature.
Asthetemperaturedecreasesthesusceptibilityincreasesbutgoesthrougha
maximumattheNeeltemperatureT
N
.ThesubstanceisparamagneticaboveT
N

andantiferromagneticbelowit.
Anantiferromagnetichasnonetspontaneousmomentandcanacquirea
momentonlywhenastrongfieldisapplied.
o Ferrimagnetic(strong)
Exhibitssubstantialspontaneousmagnetizationatroomtemperature,like
ferromagnets
Consistsofmagneticallysaturateddomainsandexhibitthephenomenaof
magneticsaturationandhysteresis(likeferromagnets)
Theirspontaneousmagnetizationdisappearsabovethecurietemperature,TC,
andthentheybecomeparamagnetic.
Ferrimagneticsaresecondonlytoferromagnetics.
Thelargeresistivityimpliesthatanappliedalternatingmagneticfieldwillnot
induceeddycurrentsinaferrite.
Bestmaterialsforhighfrequencyapplications
MagnetizationCurve
o Ferromagneticmaterialsandferritesarenonlinear.
o Astheexternalfieldstrengthisincreasedfrom0,thedomainsthatareinthesame
directionastheappliedfieldincreaseslightlyinsize.Thisprocessisreversibleforsmall
values.
o Asthefieldisincreasedfurther,thedomainsstarttorotateundertheinfluenceofthe
magneticfieldandwillkeeprotatinguntiltheseareallalignedwiththeappliedfield.At
thispointthematerialissaturated(temperaturedependent)andfurtherincreasesin
fielddonotincreasethemagnetizationvector.
o Whenthemagneticfieldisremovedthedomainscannotmovebacktotheiroriginal
positionduetofrictionwhenthedomainsrotate.
MinorLoops
o Whenthemaximuminductionislessthansaturation,theloopiscalledaminorloop.
Softandhardmagneticmaterials
o Soft
Easytomagnetizeanddemagnetize
Highpermeability
Largemagnetizationforasmallappliedfield
FluxMultipliers
o Hard
Hardtomagnetizeanddemagnetize
HighCoercivity
Highresistancetodemagnetization
Usedinpermanentmagnets
Magneticlosses
o HysteresisLosses
Theareainsidetheloopistheenergyabsorbedbythematerial
Thisenergyisdissipatedasheat
o EddycurrentLosses
Whenamaterialismagnetizedcyclicallybyasinewavecurrent,therewillbe
voltageinducedinthematerialintheoppositedirectionofthevoltage
producingthemagnetizingcurrent.
Thiswillsetupcircularcurrentsinthematerialswhichproducemagneticfields
oppositetotheoriginalmagneticfield.
Lossofenergydissipatedasheataddsuptoheatgeneratedbyhysteresisloss.
Reductionininternalfluxdensity
Magnetostriction
o Whenamagneticmaterialismagnetized,asmallchangeindimensionsoccurs.