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Geometry

Vocabulary
Booklet

By Eamon Barkhordarian

May 17, 2006


Acute triangle- a triangle whose interior angles are all
acute
Adjacent angle- Either of two angles having a
common side and a common vertex

Circle- A line or process with every point equidistant


from the center

Complementary angles- Two angles whose sum is 90°

Diameter- A straight line segment passing through


the center of a figure, especially of a circle or sphere,
and terminating at the periphery

Equilateral triangle- A triangle that had all sides of


equal length

Isosceles triangle- a triangle with two equal sides

Obtuse triangle- a triangle that contains an obtuse


interior angle

Parallelogram- A four-sided plane figure with opposite


sides parallel

Perpendicular- Intersecting at or forming right angles

Quadrilateral- A polygon having four sides

Radius- A line segment that joins the center of a


circle with any point on its circumference

Rectangle- A four-sided plane figure with four right


angles
Right triangle- a triangle with one right angle

Scalene triangle- a triangle with no two sides of equal


length

Supplementary angle- The angle or arc that when


added to a given angle or arc makes 180° or a
semicircle

Trapezoid- A quadrilateral having two parallel sides

Vertical angle- Either of two angles formed by two


intersecting lines and lying on opposite sides of the
point of intersection
FORMULAS
2
Area of a circle- r × pi

Area of a parallelogram- height × base

Area of a triangle- height × base / 2

Circumference of a circle- diameter × pi

Volume of a cylinder- area of top × height

Volume of a rectangular prism- length × width ×


height

Volume of a triangular prism- 1/2 × length × width ×


height
Table of Contents
Vocabulary words----------------------------------------------------------------1-2
Acute triangle----------------------------------------------------------------------3
Adjacent angle---------------------------------------------------------------------4
Area of a circle--------------------------------------------------------------------21
Area of a parallelogram----------------------------------------------------------21
Area of a triangle------------------------------------------------------------------21
Circle--------------------------------------------------------------------------------5
Circumference of a circle--------------------------------------------------------21
Complementary angles-----------------------------------------------------------6
Diameter----------------------------------------------------------------------------7
Equilateral triangle----------------------------------------------------------------8
Isosceles triangle------------------------------------------------------------------9
Obtuse triangle--------------------------------------------------------------------10
Parallelogram----------------------------------------------------------------------11
Perpendicular----------------------------------------------------------------------12
Quadrilateral-----------------------------------------------------------------------13
Radius------------------------------------------------------------------------------14
Rectangle--------------------------------------------------------------------------15
Right triangle----------------------------------------------------------------------16
Scalene triangle-------------------------------------------------------------------17
Supplementary angle-------------------------------------------------------------18
Trapezoid--------------------------------------------------------------------------19
Vertical angle---------------------------------------------------------------------20
Volume of a cylinder------------------------------------------------------------21
Volume of a rectangular prism-------------------------------------------------21
Volume of a triangular prism---------------------------------------------------21
Acute triangle
Acute triangle- a triangle whose interior angles are all
acute

An acute triangle is a triangle in which all three


angles are acute angles. As you can see, angle A, B,
and C are all acute, causing this triangle to be an acute
triangle.

All three angles are less than 90 degrees.


Adjacent angles
Adjacent angle- Either of two angles having a
common side and a common vertex

In the diagram, angles 1 and 2 are adjacent angles.


So are angles 2 and 3, angles 3 and 4, and angles 4
and 1.

Angle 1 is the same angle as angle 3, as angle 4 is


the same angle as angle 2.
Complementary angles
Complementary angles- Two angles whose sum is 90°

Two angles are called complementary angles if the


sum of their degree measurements equals 90
degrees. One of the complementary angles is said to
be the complement of the other.

Note that these two angles can be "pasted" together


to form a right angle.

Then once you “paste” the two angles together, you


get a complementary angle.
Diameter
Diameter- A straight line connecting two opposite
points on the surface of a spherical or cylindrical
body.

The diameter of a circle is the distance from a point


on the circle, to the opposite point.

The diameter is 2x the radius and cuts straight


through the circle with a line from one point of the
circle, to the opposite point.
Equilateral Triangle
Equilateral triangle- A triangle that had all sides of
equal length

An equilateral triangle also must have all angles the


same too, or else it would be impossible to create an
equilateral triangle.

As you can see, all the sides are the same, and so
are all the angles, making this an equilateral triangle.
Isosceles Triangle
Isosceles triangle- a triangle with two equal sides

An isosceles triangle also must have two angles the


same, or else it would be impossible to create it.

In the figure above, the two equal sides have length


and the remaining side has length . This property is
equivalent to two angles of the triangle being equal.
An isosceles triangle therefore has both two equal
sides and two equal angles.
Obtuse Triangle
Obtuse triangle- a triangle that contains an obtuse
interior angle

“Obtuse” means more than 90 degrees,


An obtuse triangle only has one obtuse angle,
because it is impossible to create a triangle with two
obtuse angles.

The bottom left angle and the top right angle are
both acute, though the bottom right angle is obtuse,
causing this triangle to be an obtuse triangle.
Parallelogram
Parallelogram- A four-sided plane figure with opposite
sides parallel

A parallelogram is a quadrilateral with opposite sides


parallel (and therefore opposite angles equal). A
parallelogram whose angles are all right angles is
called a rectangle.

Shape #1: Opposite sides and angles are equal


Shape #2: Diagonals bisect each other at 0
Shape #3: Area of a parallelogram is height x base
Perpendicular
Perpendicular- Intersecting at or forming right angles

Two lines, vectors, planes, etc., are said to be


perpendicular if they meet at a right angle.

In the above figure, the line segment is


perpendicular to the line segment . This
relationship is commonly denoted with a small
square at the vertex where perpendicular objects
meet, as shown above.
Quadrilateral
Quadrilateral- A polygon having four sides

A quadrilateral sometimes is also known as a


tetragon or quadrangle. A quadrilateral with two
sides parallel is called a trapezoid, whereas a
quadrilateral with opposite pairs of sides parallel is
called a parallelogram.

These are just some of the many types of


quadrilaterals, so be creative and see if you can find
other types of quadrilaterals.
Radius
Radius- A line segment that joins the center of a
circle with any point on its circumference

The radius of a circle is the distance from the center


of a circle to its perimeter, or from the center of a
sphere to its surface. The radius is equal to half the
diameter.

A radius starts from the center of the circle, and ends


at any point of the perimeter.
Rectangle
Rectangle- A four-sided plane figure with four right
angles

A closed planar quadrilateral with opposite sides of


equal lengths and , and with four right angles is a
rectangle.

In the figure above, the shape has 4 right angles,


showing that this figure is a rectangle.
Right triangle
Right triangle- a triangle with one right angle

A triangle with an angle of is a right triangle.

A right triangle can only have 1 right angle, because


if you add any more, it would increase the number of
sides in the shape, not making it a triangle anymore.
scalene triangle
Scalene triangle- a triangle with no two sides of equal
length

There are three different types of triangles. One is


the scalene triangle, while the other two are right
triangle and equilateral triangle

You can see that these are all scalene triangles


because it has no two sides of equal length.
Supplementary angles
Supplementary angle- The angle or arc that when
added to a given angle or arc makes 180° or a
semicircle

These two angles are supplementary.

Note that these two angles can be "pasted" together


to form a straight line.

Then one you “paste” the two angles together, you


get a supplementary angle.
Trapezoid
Trapezoid- A quadrilateral having two parallel sides

A trapezoid is a quadrilateral with two sides parallel.


The trapezoid is equivalent to the British definition of
trapezium.

Side A, and B are parallel, meaning that this shape


above is a trapezoid.
Vertical angle
Vertical angle- Either of two angles formed by two
intersecting lines and lying on opposite sides of the
point of intersection

For any two lines that meet, such as in the diagram


below, angle AEB and angle DEC are called vertical
angles. Vertical angles have the same degree
measurement. Angle BEC and angle AED are also
vertical angles.

The angle of AEB, is the same angle measurement as


DEC; and angle DEA is the same angle measurment
as CEB
Formulas
Area of a circle- r2× pi

Area of a parallelogram- height × base

Area of a triangle- height × base / 2

Circumference of a circle- diameter × pi


Volume of a cylinder- area of top × height

Volume of a rectangular prism- length × width ×


height

Volume of a triangular prism- 1/2 × length × width


× height