You are on page 1of 27

introduction

UNIVERSAL CABLES LIMITED was established in 1962 by late Mr. Madhav Prasad Birla, the then Chairman, with a modern plant for the manufacture of Paper Insulated Cables. Since then, the Company has made rapid progress achieving a world class reputation. In the year 1977, Universal Cables collaborated with M/s ASEA CABELS AB, Sweden (now ABB Cable), and brought the XLPE technology to India. The Company's other collaborations are with internationally acclaimed leaders in their fields. Universal Cables is a leader in the Indian Cable Industry with the widest product range. The cable division has a very wide range of products. It includes extra high voltage XLPE Power cables up to 220 kV, Paper insulated cables up to 33 kV, Rubber insulated cables up to 33 kV, PVC insulated cables up to 11 kV, control, instrumentation cables and Rubber Trailing cables for special application duty as per specific customer's requirement. Cables and Capacitors are known by the Brand Name "UNISTAR".

Corporate Progress

UCL's dynamic outlook kept the Company in the forefront with excellent product quality and higher volume of sales and production. UCL's Quality & Environmental Systems has received IS/ISO 9001 & IS/ISO 14001 Certification from BIS. The pace of progress was set by the late Chairman Mr. M.P. Birla. Today, Mr. R.S. Lodha, the present Chairman, continues the pace with the team of highly qualified professionals headed by Mr. D.R. Bansal, Chief Mentor & CEO, who is always on look out for new and challenging horizons.

In the Capacitor Division of the Company, which commenced operation in the year 1967, it manufactures world class All Poly Propylene (APP) Capacitors for AC applications. This division was set up in collaboration with Toshiba, Japan for manufacture of Power Capacitors. In 1977, this division entered into another technical collaboration with General Electric Company of USA for manufacture of Mixed Dielectric Capacitors The product range includes Low & High Voltage Capacitors (415 V AC to 220 kV AC), Medium Frequency Water Cooled Capacitors for Induction Furnace Application, Surge Protective Capacitors, Tuned and Detuned Filter Capacitors, DC Capacitors. This Division also provided services like Automatic PF Correction Systems, Harmonic Analysis and PF Studies. Today, the Capacitor Division is rated to be the foremost manufacturer of All PP Power Capacitors in LT & HT Range in the country.

Capacitor Division

Research & Development

UCL's R & D Laboratory is one of the best in-house R&D Laboratory in cable industry in

introduction
India. The laboratory is well equipped with advanced equipments for testing of cables and related raw materials. It was recognized by the Ministry of Science & Technology, Govt. of India in the year 1981. Since then a team of dedicated professionals is actively engaged in R&D work to develop new cables and compounds to meet specific requirements. The recognition to R&D Lab continues by Government of India without any break.

Optical Fibre Division

In the year 2006, Optic Fibre Goa Limited (A Joint Venture of UCL and other Group Companies), merged with the Company and is now a part of UCL. The manufacturing facilities of this Division are located at Goa. The technical collaborators are Ericsson Network Technologies AB of Sweden. This unit has gained expertise and developed the excellence required to make high performance Optical Fibres for the Telecommunication & Data Communication networks. The regular product range of this Unit consists of Single Mode Optical Fibre.

For meeting today's power demand of the power starved Metro cities, Extra High Voltage Underground Power Transmission System of 220 kV is now becoming an imperative. Metro cities which are unable to provide the right-of-way for constructing overhead lines and has no alternative other than Underground Power Transmission involving Extra High Voltage (EHV) cables. Taking this as major opportunity, Universal Cables Ltd has ventured into this market segment and introduced the VCV (Vertical Continuous Vulcanization) Technology first time in India in technical collaboration with the World Leader in cable manufacturing. The Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Japan (In association with VISCAS Corporation, Japan) for manufacturing Extra High Voltage cables in the range of 220 kV. to 400 kV. The technical collaboration includes v v v Cable Design, Manufacturing, Cable Laying, v Cable Jointing & Termination, v Testing & Commissioning Universal cables has now positioned itself as a complete solution provider for EHV Underground Power Cable Transmission System involving Design, Manufacture, Laying, Cable Jointing & Termination. If required cable can also be supplied with DTS system having external or embedded Optic Fibre Cable in order to measure conductor temperature, hot spot temperature and temperature of joints etc.

Venturing Into 220 kV Cables

Safety Awards

UCL has been getting National Safety Awards from Govt. of India on regular basis.

Cable Construction
EHV XLPE Cables
The XLPE cable has Aluminium or Copper conductor, insulated with super clean cross linked polyethylene and then metallic screened with lead alloy sheath (with or without additional copper wires) or corrugated aluminium sheath and covered by PVC or PE for anti corrosion.

a) Conductor
The conductor consists of annealed Copper or hard Aluminium stranded wires. The form of conductor is either stranded compacted circular or milliken (segmental compacted circular). Stranded compacted circular conductor consists of wires stranded together and then compacted. The milliken conductor normally consists of 4 / 5 segments and is normally applied for the conductor sizes above 1000 sqmm. Milliken conductors are used to prevent the increase of A.C. resistance caused by skin effect and proximity effect.

Lead Sheath Cable

1 2 3 4 5 6

1. Conductor 2. Conductor screen 3. XLPE insulation 4. Insulation screen 5. Semi conducting water swellable tape 6. Lead alloy sheath (copper wires can be additionally provided below or above the lead sheath) 7. PVC or PE outer sheath

Aluminium Sheath Cable

1 2 3 4

1. Conductor 2. Conductor screen 3. XLPE insulation 4. Insulation screen 5. Semi conducting water swellable tape 6. Corrugated Aluminium sheath with Asphalt coating 7. PVC or PE outer sheath

6 7

Cable Construction
b) Core Extrusion (Triple Extrusion)
The conductor screen, insulation & insulation screen are extruded simultaneously in Triple Extrusion Process using single (common) cross-head employing Vertical Continuous Vulcanizing (VCV) line with Dry Cure Dry Cool Cross linking Technology. This assures perfect bonding of the semi conducting layers with insulation in order to eliminate chances of micro void formation.

b-1) Conductor Screen


The conductor screen consists of an extruded layer of semi conducting compound. The conductor screen not only eliminates the risk of electrical discharge at the interface between conductor and insulation but also presents a very smooth interface with the insulation to eliminate any localized stress concentration.

b-2) Insulation
The insulation material is extruded cross linked polyethylene and applied over the conductor screen in a strictly controlled atmospheric conditions. The cross linking process by dry (nitrogen gas) curing has enabled to protect the electrical characteristics from being deteriorated.

b-3) Insulation Screen


The insulation screen is provided over the insulation by extruding the semi conducting compound concentrically to minimize the possibility of ionization on the outer surface of the dielectric. Extruded semi conducting layer is followed by a semi conducting nonwoven water swellable tape.

c) Metallic Screen
The metallic screen consists of corrugated aluminium sheath or lead alloy sheath. In case of lead sheath design additional copper wire may be provided if lead alloy sheath alone is not sufficient to meet the requirement of earth fault current.

d) Outer Sheath
To protect the metallic sheath from electrochemical or galvanic corrosion, it is covered by PVC or PE.

e) Conductive outer layer


A conductive outer layer facilitates testing of the non metallic outer sheath. This test is important to ensure the physical integrity of the cable.

flow chart

WIRES

SEMI CONDUCTING TAPE

CONDUCTOR STRANDING
COMPOUND FOR CONDUCTOR SCREEN INSULATION INSULATION SCREEN

TAPING

INSULATION (TRIPLE EXTRUSION)

SC WATER SWELLABLE TAPE

DEGASSING

AL TAPE

LEAD

TAPING

CORRUGATED AL SHEATH

LEAD SHEATH

CU SCREEN

PVC / PE

OUTER SHEATH + CONDUCTING LAYER

TESTING

DESPATCH

PROCESS
Extrusion & Curing Process
The system adopted for insulation of EHV XLPE cable is Vertical Continuous Vulcanizing (VCV) and DCDC (Dry Curing and Dry Cooling) for cross-linking. The VCV line with triple extrusion ensures excellent concentricity of the cable coupled with a compact insulation with perfect contact between the layers and hence superior dielectric properties at very high voltages. On-line monitoring and controls in the production process ensures adherence to specified and strict dimensional standards. The DCDC process adopted for cross linking ensures that the insulation is kept absolutely dry during the curing process. This eliminates the chances of electrochemical treeing during the full life of the cable. The outstanding characteristics of XLPE cables manufactured by VCV line are: Fully concentric insulation, v The dry cured and dry cooled cross linking by use v guarantees excellent electrical characteristics of the insulation, of nitrogen gas

The simultaneous extrusion of the inner and outer semi conducting layers and the v insulation prevents void formation, Computerized controlled manufacturing processes maintain uniformity of quality. v

Internal View of VCV Plant

Stranding Machine

Triple Extrusion System of VCV Line

Dry Cure Dry Cool Vulcanizing System

VCV LINE

1. Pay-off stand 2. Conductor butt welding machine 3. Accumulator 4. Braking unit 5. Conductor preheating 6. Extruder group with triple cross head 7. Diameter/wall thickness measuring device (X-Ray Monitoring Unit) 8. Granules conveying and drying system 9. CV tube 10. Reversing ring 11. Belt-type caterpillar 12. Cable Saw 13. Take-up stand 14. Line operating panel process computer

106 M Tower EHV Manufacturing Bay

VCV LINE
Material Handling System - VCV Line
Material Handling Rooms : v Working Platform v Material feeding System v Insulating Compound : : : Gravity Feed System Class-1000 Clean Room Environment Class-1000 Clean Room Environment

X-Ray Diameter Control

Gravitational XLPE Compound Feeding Class 1000 Clean Room

Line PC

Quality Assurance
Process :
v Triple Extrusion System. v Completely Dry Cured & Dry Cooled Vulcanization System.

Contamination Control Measures :


v Material Handling and Processing under Class-1000 Clean Room Environment. v Use of Super clean materials.

Process Control :
v Fully Automatic Computerized Process Control using SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) Software.

Dimensional Control :
Equipped with :v X-Ray Unit for Online Measurement & Control of Wall Thickness v Laser Unit for Online Measurement & Control of Core diameter

High Voltage Testing Set

Physical & Electrical Parameters


66 kV (E) Lead Sheathed cables
Nom. Minimum Nom. Area Nom. Outer Approx Approx wt. Approx wt. Maximum Maximum Nom. Cross section of Thickness lead sheath of copper sheath overall cable of cable (Cu- of cable (Al- Capacitance charging screen diameter conductor) conductor) current conductor of insulation thickness Thickness
(Sqmm) (mm) (mm) (sqmm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (kg/m) ( F/km) (A/km)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.0

1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

187 186 183 180 176 171 167 162 156 152 145

2.7 2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8

56 58 61 64 68 75 79 84 90 93 99

8.5 9.2 10.5 11.9 13.7 16.3 18.7 21.7 24.5 27.0 31.0

8.1 8.9 9.9 11.4 12.6 14.0 15.5 16.6 18.8

0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.36 0.38 0.42 0.47 0.48 0.53

2.6 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.7 4.3 4.5 5.0 5.6 5.7 6.3

Note: Fault rating of Lead sheath in combination with copper screen is 31.5 kA for one second duration

110 kV (E) Lead Sheathed cables


Nom. Minimum Nom. Area Nom. Outer Approx Approx wt. Approx wt. Maximum Maximum Nom. Cross section of Thickness lead sheath of copper sheath overall cable of cable (Cu- of cable (Al- Capacitance charging screen diameter conductor) conductor) current conductor of insulation thickness Thickness
(Sqmm) (mm) (mm) (sqmm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (kg/m) ( F/km) (A/km)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

17.0 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0

2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 3.0

172 172 169 165 163 157 150 144 140 138 128

3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.3

73 72 76 79 82 88 93 98 103 106 113

11.7 12.0 13.4 15.0 16.6 19.3 22.2 25.3 28.1 30.4 34.9

11.1 12.0 12.8 14.4 16.1 17.6 19.1 20.0 22.7

0.14 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.24 0.25 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34

2.8 3.2 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.8 5.0 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8

Note: Fault rating of Lead sheath in combination with copper screen is 31.5 kA for one second duration

10

Physical & Electrical Parameters


132 kV (E) Lead Sheathed cables
Nom. Minimum Nom. Area Nom. Outer Approx Approx wt. Approx wt. Maximum Maximum Nom. Cross section of Thickness lead sheath of copper sheath overall cable of cable (Cu- of cable (Al- Capacitance charging screen diameter conductor) conductor) current conductor of insulation thickness Thickness
(Sqmm) (mm) (mm) (sqmm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (kg/m) ( F/km) (A/km)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

21.5 20.5 19.0 18.0 18.0 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5

2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.2

160 160 160 160 155 149 144 141 134 129 118

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.4

84 84 84 85 89 94 98 103 109 111 118

14.1 14.6 15.2 16.2 18.3 20.9 23.6 26.6 34.4 32.3 36.9

12.9 13.3 14.5 16.0 17.5 18.8 25.4 21.9 24.7

0.12 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.30

2.9 3.1 3.6 4.1 4.3 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.2

Note: Fault rating of Lead sheath in combination with copper screen is 31.5 kA for one second duration

220 kV (E) Lead Sheathed cables


Nom. Minimum Nom. Area Nom. Outer Approx Approx wt. Approx wt. Maximum Maximum Nom. Cross section of Thickness lead sheath of copper sheath overall cable of cable (Cu- of cable (Al- Capacitance charging screen diameter conductor) conductor) current conductor of insulation thickness Thickness
(Sqmm) (mm) (mm) (sqmm) (mm) (mm) (kg/m) (kg/m) ( F/km) (A/km)

500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

26 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

2.9 2.9 3.0 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.6

195 193 186 177 170 162 160 148

4.2 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.0

103 105 111 115 120 126 129 136

22.3 23.8 26.9 30.1 33.7 37.1 39.5 44.6

19.4 20.0 22.0 24.0 25.9 28.1 29.2 32.4

0.13 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.23

5.2 6.0 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.0 9.2

Note: Fault rating of Lead sheath in combination with copper screen is 40 kA for one second duration

11

Physical & Electrical Parameters


66 kV (E) Aluminium Sheathed cables
Nom. Cross section of conductor
(Sqmm)

Nom. Thickness of insulation


(mm)

Nom. Aluminium sheath thickness


(mm)

Nom. Outer sheath Thickness


(mm)

Approx Approx wt. overall cable of cable (Cudiameter Conductor)


(mm) (kg/m)

Approx wt. of cable (AlConductor)


(Kg/m)

Maximum Capacitance
( F/km)

Maximum charging current


(A/km)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

2.1 2.0 1.9 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.9 2.0

2.7 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0

60 62 65 68 72 80 84 89 97 100 107

4.7 5.4 6.3 7.3 8.8 10.8 12.9 15.4 17.7 19.8 23.2

4.0 4.4 5.0 5.9 6.8 7.6 8.7 9.4 11.0

0.22 0.24 0.26 0.28 0.31 0.36 0.38 0.42 0.47 0.48 0.53

2.6 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.7 4.3 4.5 5.0 5.6 5.7 6.3

Note: Fault rating of Aluminium sheath is 31.5 kA for one second duration

110 kV (E) Aluminium Sheathed cables


Nom. Cross section of conductor
(Sqmm)

Nom. Thickness of insulation


(mm)

Nom. Aluminium sheath thickness


(mm)

Nom. Outer sheath Thickness


(mm)

Approx Approx wt. overall cable of cable (Cudiameter Conductor)


(mm) (kg/m)

Approx wt. of cable (AlConductor)


(Kg/m)

Maximum Capacitance
( F/km)

Maximum charging current


(A/km)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

17.0 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0

1.7 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3

3.3 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.9 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.5

79 78 81 85 87 94 100 105 111 114 122

6.3 6.7 7.7 9.0 10.4 12.6 14.8 17.4 19.8 22.0 25.6

5.4 6.0 6.6 7.7 8.7 9.6 10.8 11.6 13.4

0.14 0.16 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.24 0.25 0.28 0.3 0.32 0.34

2.8 3.2 3.4 3.8 4.2 4.8 5.0 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.8

Note: Fault rating of Aluminium sheath is 31.5 kA for one second duration

12

Physical & Electrical Parameters


132 kV (E) Aluminium sheathed cables
Nom. Cross section of conductor
(Sqmm)

Nom. Thickness of insulation


(mm)

Nom. Aluminium sheath thickness


(mm)

Nom. Outer sheath Thickness


(mm)

Approx Approx wt. overall cable of cable (Cudiameter Conductor)


(mm) (kg/m)

Approx wt. of cable (AlConductor)


(Kg/m)

Maximum Capacitance
( F/km)

Maximum charging current


(A/km)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

21.5 20.5 19.0 18.0 18.0 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5

1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

3.6 3.6 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7

89 89 89 90 94 101 105 111 119 121 128

7.7 8.1 8.8 9.7 11.4 13.4 15.7 18.3 20.8 23.1 26.7

6.4 6.8 7.5 8.6 9.6 10.6 11.8 12.7 14.5

0.12 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.30

2.9 3.1 3.6 4.1 4.3 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.2

Note: Fault rating of Aluminium sheath is 31.5 kA for one second duration

220 kV (E) Aluminium sheathed cables


Nom. Cross section of conductor
(Sqmm)

Nom. Thickness of insulation


(mm)

Nom. Aluminium sheath thickness


(mm)

Nom. Outer sheath Thickness


(mm)

Approx Approx wt. overall cable of cable (Cudiameter Conductor)


(mm) (kg/m)

Approx wt. of cable (AlConductor)


(Kg/m)

Maximum Capacitance
( F/km)

Maximum charging current


(A/km)

500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

26 25 25 25 25 25 25 25

2.2 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7

4.3 4.3 4.6 4.7 4.8 5.0 5.1 5.3

110 112 120 124 129 138 140 147

12.5 13.9 16.3 18.7 21.4 24.1 26.4 30.2

9.6 10.0 11.5 12.6 13.7 15.1 16.1 18.1

0.13 0.15 0.17 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.23

5.2 6.0 6.8 7.2 7.6 8.0 8.4 9.2

Note: Fault rating of Aluminium sheath is 40 kA for one second duration

13

Continuous Current Rating


The continuous current carrying capacity is calculated in accordance with IEC 60287. Standard conditions for current rating a) Ground temperature : 30C b) Depth of laying : 1.0 m c) Soil thermal resistivity : 150C-cm/W d) Ambient air temperature : 40C e) Max. conductor temperature : 90C f) Cable installation : Trefoil touching formation with single point or cross Bonding OR Flat formation with 70 mm clearance (surface to surface) single point or Cross Bonding g) Frequency : 50 Hz h) Load factor : 100%

Maximum permissible conductor temperature

Recommended conductor temperatures for various conditions are as under : Normal operation 90C Emergency operation 130C Short circuit 250C

SHORT CIRCUIT RATING OF CONDUCTOR


S. No. Nom. Area of Short Circuit Rating of Conductor Cross Section for a duration of one Second (SQMM) AL CU 240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000 34.3 42.9 57.1 71 90 114 142 171 200 228 285 37.7 47 59 75 94 113 132 150 188

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

14

Continuous Current Rating


1. LEAD SHEATHED CABLE
1.1 - 66 kV (E) Lead sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

410 460 520 585 660 730 790 910 970 1015 1095

575 655 760 870 1005 1155 1270 1505 1645 1740 1920

445 500 565 640 725 810 885 1005 1080 1135 1230

665 760 880 1020 1195 1395 1555 1825 2010 2140 2390

415 470 535 605 665 750 805 850 935

600 695 810 945 1065 1225 1340 1440 1615

445 505 575 655 730 810 875 930 1025

690 805 950 1120 1275 1460 1600 1730 1955

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

1.2 - 110 kV (E) Lead sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

420 470 530 595 665 740 800 915 975 1020 1105

590 675 775 890 1020 1155 1275 1495 1630 1730 1910

445 500 565 640 720 805 880 995 1065 1120 1215

660 760 880 1020 1180 1350 1505 1750 1925 2050 2290

420 475 540 605 670 750 805 850 935

610 710 820 945 1065 1210 1325 1420 1595

445 505 575 650 725 805 865 920 1010

690 805 935 1085 1230 1400 1535 1655 1870

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

15

Continuous Current Rating


1.3 - 132 kV (E) Lead sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

420 470 530 595 670 740 800 915 975 1025 1105

590 670 775 890 1015 1155 1275 1485 1625 1725 1910

440 495 565 635 720 800 875 990 1060 1115 1210

650 745 865 1005 1160 1330 1485 1725 1900 2025 2260

420 475 540 605 670 750 805 855 935

610 705 815 940 1060 1205 1315 1415 1590

440 505 575 650 720 800 860 915 1005

680 795 920 1070 1215 1380 1510 1630 1845

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

1.4 - 220 kV (E) Lead sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

590 660 730 790 895 955 1000 1075

870 1000 1130 1250 1450 1585 1680 1855

625 705 780 855 960 1025 1075 1160

965 1115 1275 1420 1645 1810 1925 2145

470 535 600 665 735 790 835 915

690 800 920 1035 1175 1280 1375 1545

495 565 635 705 780 840 890 975

765 890 1025 1165 1315 1445 1555 1755

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

16

Continuous Current Rating


2. ALUMINIUM SHEATHED CABLE
2.1 - 66 kV (E) Aluminium sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

415 465 525 590 660 725 780 885 930 970 1025

595 675 775 885 1010 1140 1255 1455 1570 1655 1795

445 500 570 645 725 805 875 985 1040 1090 1160

680 775 900 1035 1195 1360 1510 1745 1895 2010 2210

415 470 535 600 660 735 780 825 890

610 710 815 940 1050 1195 1305 1390 1535

445 510 580 650 720 800 855 905 985

705 820 950 1095 1240 1405 1545 1650 1845

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

2.2 - 110 kV (E) Aluminium sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

415 465 525 590 675 750 820 870 915 950 1010

585 665 765 875 1030 1180 1315 1425 1540 1615 1760

440 495 560 635 730 820 900 960 1010 1055 1125

650 745 865 995 1175 1360 1525 1665 1810 1915 2100

415 470 540 605 675 725 770 810 875

605 700 815 940 1065 1170 1280 1355 1505

440 500 575 650 725 785 835 880 955

675 785 920 1070 1215 1345 1480 1575 1755

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

17

Continuous Current Rating


2.3 - 132 kV (E) Aluminium sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

240 300 400 500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

415 465 520 585 670 750 815 865 910 945 1005

580 665 765 875 1030 1180 1315 1425 1540 1615 1760

440 490 560 630 725 810 890 945 1000 1040 1110

635 730 850 980 1155 1335 1500 1635 1775 1880 2065

415 470 535 605 670 720 770 805 870

600 695 810 935 1055 1160 1265 1345 1490

440 500 570 645 720 775 830 875 950

665 775 905 1055 1200 1325 1450 1545 1730

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

2.4 - 220 kV (E) Aluminium sheathed cable Trefoil SPB/CB Area of conductor
(Sqmm)

Flat SPB/CB Cu Ground


(Amps)

Trefoil SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Flat SPB/CB Al Ground


(Amps)

Cu Ground
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Cu Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

Al Air
(Amps)

500 630 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 2000

580 645 705 760 845 895 930 990

855 975 1095 1205 1380 1495 1575 1720

615 690 760 825 915 970 1010 1075

940 1085 1230 1360 1560 1695 1795 1980

465 525 585 645 710 755 795 860

680 785 895 1005 1130 1235 1315 1460

490 555 625 690 755 810 850 920

745 865 995 1120 1265 1385 1480 1655

SPB = Single-Point bonding CB = Cross-bonding

18

Rating Factors
A. RATING FACTORS FOR VARIATION IN AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE Air temperature (oC) Rating factor 30 1.11 35 1.05 40 1.0 45 0.94 50 0.88 55 0.81

B. RATING FACTORS FOR VARIATION IN GROUND TEMPERATURE Ground temperature (oC) Rating factor 25 1.4 30 1.0 35 0.96 40 0.91 45 0.86 50 0.81

C. RATING FACTORS FOR VARIATION IN THERMAL RESISTIVITY OF SOIL Thermal resistivity (oC- cm/W) Rating factor 100 1.19 120 1.10 150 1.00 200 0.88 250 0.80 300 0.72

D. RATING FACTORS FOR VARIATION IN DEPTH OF LAYING Depth of laying (m) 0.50 0.70 0.90 1.00 1.20 1.50 Rating factor 1.10 1.05 1.01 1.00 0.98 0.95

E. Group rating factors - Group rating factors for cables laid in formed concrete trenches with removable covers on cable troughs where air circulation is restricted. The cables spaced by one cable diameter and trays in tiers by 300 mm. The clearance of the cable from the wall is 20 mm. No. of Groups (circuits) 1 1 2 3 6 0.92 0.87 0.84 0.82 2 0.89 0.84 0.82 0.80 3 0.88 0.83 0.81 0.79

No. of troughs

19

Rating Factors
F. Group rating factors - Group rating factors for cables laid on racks. The cables spaced by one cable diameter and racks in tiers by 300 mm. The clearance between the wall and the cable is 20 mm. No. of Groups (circuits) 1 1 2 3 6 1.0 0.97 0.96 0.94 2 0.97 0.94 0.93 0.91 3 0.96 0.93 0.92 0.90

No. of troughs

G. Group rating factors for cables laid in ground in horizontal formation Axial Distance between groups 200 mm 400 mm 600 mm 800 mm 1000 mm No. of Groups (circuits) 2 0.81 0.85 0.88 0.90 0.96 3 0.71 0.77 0.81 0.84 0.93

Note : All figures given in tables are indicative only.

20

Installation
A) Underground Installation of EHV XLPE Cables
1.1) Bending Radius - The minimum bending radius for EHV XLPE cable is 20 x D, where D is the overall diameter of the cable. 1.2) Installation in ground - Underground XLPE cables are usually buried directly in the ground. Single core cables can be laid in flat or trefoil formation as shown in figures.
Warning tape

Back fill

Three single core cables in trefoil formation

Extra protection Cable sand

Warning tape Back fill Extra protection Cable sand

Three single core cables in flat formation

1.3) Depth of laying - As a general rule EHV cables are laid at a depth of 1 to 1.5 m. The laying depth is chosen depending on obstacles in the ground e.g. telephone cables or water pipes. There may be reasons for deeper laying, which then means a reduction of current carrying capacity. 1.4) Sand bedding - The cable shall be completely surrounded by well compacted sand to such a thickness and of such a grain size that the cable is protected against damage. The thickness of the sand bedding should normally be a minimum of 10 cm in all directions from the cable surface. Sand with a grain size less than 8 mm is considered to give the cable a good protection. 1.5) Extra protection - Important feeders and cables at places where extended digging activity is expected can be further protected against damage by means of tubes, slabs, troughs or warning tapes. Ducts of non-magnetic material for single core cables can be mainly used at road crossing etc. The duct diameter should not be less than 1.5 times the cable diameter.
Warning tape

Back fill

Single core cables in protecting ducts, flat formation

Protection tube

21

Installation
In trenches normally extra protection is obtained by means of concrete slabs and its size to be chosen according to the expected damage. The slabs are placed directly on the cable sand. 1.6) Back filling - Normally, the back fill consists of the material earlier excavated. However, bigger stones or pieces of rock should be removed. 1.7) Warning Tape - A pre-warning tape, e.g. of yellow PVC tape should be laid in the ground. 1.8) Transportation - In order to avoid damage to the cable, the cable drum must be handled carefully during transportation. It is very important that the cable drum stands on the flanges during transportation, well fixed to the transport vehicle. Loading and unloading should be made by crane or fork-truck, not by rolling. Rolling of the drum should be done slowly and carefully in the direction of the arrow on the drum flange. 1.9) Cable Pulling - During the pulling, the cable drum is normally placed on jacks at the starting point and a wire winch at the other end of the trench. The pulling wire can be connected to the cable either by a cable stocking or pulling eye to the conductor in such a manner that water or soil can not enter into the cable. The pulling force should be restricted to the following values
v For aluminium conductor 30 N / sqmm v For copper conductor 50 N / sqmm

The cable should preferably be pulled from the top of the drum. To prevent crossing of turns on the drum at a sudden pulling stop, a brake should be arranged at the cable drum and a man placed there to operate this brake, which must be made rapidly at a stop. To protect the cable from damage during the pulling out, cable rollers should be used, placed at suitable intervals. At bends, angle Rollers & Guide Rollers as required must be used in order to maintain the desired bending radius of the cable. During the cable pulling telephones or walkie-talkie should be used to ensure the internal communication is established in order to prevent accidents and to enable a safe pulling operation.

B) Installation of XLPE cable in air

The requirement for bending radii, transportation and pulling of the cables are the same as for underground installation. For fixing of the cables, the following has to be taken into consideration. Cable fixing

Horizontal Distance between cleats Vertical distance between cleats

22

Screen Bonding Method


Cable terminations Conductor

Both-ends screens, screens are

bonding that connected

of the and

means

earthed at both ends of the cable route. In this case a current will appear in the screen. This will
Screen Direct earthing of the screens

cause losses in the screen, which reduces the cable currentcarrying capacity. These losses are smaller for cables in trefoil formation than in flat formation.

Cable terminations Conductor

Single-point screens, screens are

bonding that connected

of the and

means

earthed at one end of the cable route. In this case, a voltage will be induced between screen and
Screen Direct earthing of the screens

earth, but no current will appear. This and induced current. voltage is proportional to the cable length Single-point bonding can only be used for limited route lengths.

Cross-bonding means that

of the

screens, screens

belonging to adjoining cables are connected as in the figure. In this case, a voltage will be induced between screen and earth, but no current will appear. The maximum induced voltage will appear at the link boxes for cross-bonding, see figure. This
Induced Screen Voltage For simplicity, the cables are drawn here as non-transposed. Better balance is achieved if the cables are transposed.

method permits a cable currentcarrying capacity as high as with single-point bonding but longer route lengths than the latter. It requires screen separation and additional link boxes.

23

Joint & Accessories


Accessories for indoor and outdoor termination and also for straight through joint, are being supplied by VISCAS Corporation, Japan. Details of accessories and their installation instructions are available on request. Cold Shrinkable Joint (CSJ) :- With the one piece pre-molded type, the joint is compact and low cost. Assembling is extremely easy due to the innovative pull-fit system. Special tools and special skills are not required.

Protecting Tube

Conductor Sleeve

Rubber Unit Water Proof Earthing Lug Compound Insulation Anti Corrosion Flange Layer

Body of Cold-Shrinkable-Joint consists of a silicone rubber one-piece-sleeve molded in a factory. The Cold-Shrinkable-Joint has a built-in electrical control system in one unit, composed of stress-relief high voltage electrode, insulation layer, stress-relief cone, and outer semi-conductive layer. lt is expanded in the factory to bigger diameter than outer diameter of cable jacket by carrier-pipes to minimize whole joint length. The assembling of the one-piece-sleeve can be completed only by pulling out carrierpipes mounted inside of the sleeve. Special tools and skills are not required because it can be shrunk and fitted without any tool under room temperature.

Advantage on CSJ
v Factory-Expanded and cold-Shrinkable-Joint from Silicone Rubber one-Piece-Sleeve v Easier Assembling by Pull Fit System v Only-ten-minutes Assembling for One-Piece-Sleeve v Gurantee for High Quality of One-Piece-Sleeve by Manufacturing in the Factory

under perfect and Clean Environment and Testing before Shipping.

24

Joint & Accessories


Pull-Fit System in CSJ Step Step
1
Itsert One-Piece-Sleeve

Pull out Carrier Pipes Shrinking and Fitting Pulling Out

Step

Final Fitting

Construction of CSJ

Outdoor / Indoor (Aerial) Cable Termination


Conductor Rod Rock Nut Fixing Metal Clamping Metal Fitting Shield Upper Metal Fitting

Insulating Compound Porcelain Bushing Condenser Cone Porcelain Bushing Epoxy Insulator Stress Relief Cone Cone Compressing Device Supporting Insulator

Insulating Compound

Conventional type - Two types of terminations of the low cost prefabricated type which is easily installed onsite and the oil-immersed type which is effective for electric field distribution. Can be proposed considering customer's requirement. A condenser cone, very similar to oil-filled cable technology is applied to the oil-immersed type.

Earthing Terminal

Cable Protector

Oil-Immersed type

Prefabricated type

25

Joint & Accessories

Porcelain Bushing

Insulating Compound

Stress Relief Cone

New type - New type of termination with further reductions in numbers of components and simplified assembling was developed and completed PQ test up to 230 KV. Application of one piece premolded technology results in high reliability.

SF6 Gas Immersed Type / Oil Immersed Type Termination


The gas termination and oil termination types are available in the low cost prefabricated type and the oil-immersed type. The prefabricated type has excellent work-ability, with a good record for reliability. In addition, it can be installed reversed or horizontally.
Shield Cover Conductor Rod Connecting Rod Terminal Lug

Conductor Fixing Metal Epoxy Insulator Epoxy Bushing Stress Relief Cone Stress Relief Cone Base Plate Push Up Ring

Flange

Insulating Flange Cone Compression Device

Spring Lower Sleeve Earthing Terminal Tinned Copper Braid

Water Proof Tape

IEC type

JCS type

26