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Automotive Safety Handbook

Second Edition List of Chapters:


1. Introduction 1.1 Reference 2. Denitions 2.1 References 3. Driving Forces for Increased Vehicle Safety 3.1 References 4. Safety Legislation 4.1 Reference 5. Accident Data 5.1 References 6. Accident Avoidance 6.1 Human Factors 6.2 Comfort and Ergonomics 6.3 Acceleration and Braking 6.3.1 Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) 6.3.2 Brakes 6.3.3 Brake-by-Wire 6.3.4 Vehicle Dynamics 6.4 Information Systems 6.5 References 7. Biomechanics and Occupant Simulation 7.1 De nition 7.2 Injury Tolerance Limits 7.3 External Injuries 7.4 Internal Injuries 7.4.1 Concussion 7.4.2 Spinal Injuries 7.4.3 Chest Injuries 7.6 7.5 Criteria in the Rule-Making Process 7.5.1 Head Protection 7.5.2 Chest Protection 7.5.3 Neck Injury 7.5.4 Performance Criteria for the RuleMaking Process 7.5.4.1 Chest 7.5.4.2 Pelvic 7.5.4.3 Leg and Knee 7.5.4.4 Pedestrian Protection Test Devices 7.6.1 Body Part Test Devices 7.6.1.1 Head Impact 7.6.1.2 Torso Impact 7.6.1.3 Pedestrian Accident Simulation Tests 7.6.2 Three-Dimensional Dummies 7.6.2.1 Frontal/Rear Collision and Rollover 7.6.2.2 Lateral Impact 7.6.2.3 Child Dummies 7.6.2.4 Rear Impact Dummy (Bio-RID) 7.6.2.5 Bio delity Dummy 7.6.3 Human and Dummy Modeling References

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8. Vehicle Body 8.1 General 8.2 Low-Speed Impact 8.3 Vehicle Body Test Without the Simulation of Car Occupants 8.3.1 Quasi-Static Test Requirement 8.3.1.1 Seat and Seat-Belt Anchorage Point Tests 8.3.1.2 Roof Strength 8.3.1.3 Vehicle Side Structure 8.4 References

Automotive Safety Handbook, Second Edition

9. Dynamic Vehicle Simulation Tests 9.1 Frontal Collisions 9.1.1 Pole Test 9.1.2 Frontal Car-to-Car Crash 9.1.3 Design Requirements of Frontal Collisions 9.2 Lateral Collisions 9.3 Rear-End Collisions 9.4 Rollover 9.5 References 10. Occupant Protection 10.1 Vehicle Compartment 10.2 Restraint Systems 10.2.1 Seat Belts 10.2.2 Airbags 10.2.2.1 Airbags for Frontal Impacts 10.2.2.2 Side Protection by Airbags 10.2.2.3 Additional Airbag Applications 10.2.2.4 Sensors for Restraint Systems 10.3 Child Restraints 10.4 References 11. Interrelationships Among Occupant, Restraint System, and Vehicle in Accidents 11.1 Frontal Impacts 11.1.1 The Unrestrained Occupant 11.1.2 The Three-Point Belt 11.1.2.1 The Seat-Belt Clamping Device Above the Retractor 11.1.2.2 The Mechanical Pretensioner 11.1.2.3 The Pyrotechnic Pretensioner 11.1.2.4 The Seat-Belt Load Limiter 11.1.3 Passive Restraints 11.1.4 The Airbag System 11.1.5 Comparison of Test Results for Different Restraint Systems

11.2 Lateral Collisions 11.2.1 Theoretical Analysis for Lateral Collisions 11.2.2 Side Airbag Systems 11.2.2.1 Thorax Side Airbags 11.2.2.2 Side Head Protection Airbags 11.3 Rear-End Collisions 11.4 Rollover Protection 11.5 Special Requirements and Opportunities for Sensor Applications 11.6 General Literature 11.7 References 12. Pedestrian Protection 12.1 General 12.2 European NCAP-Test 12.3 Legislation Activities 12.4 Technical Solutions for Vehicles in Accidents 12.5 References 13. Compatibility 13.1 Theoretical Analysis 13.2 Research Analysis Proposals, Consumer Information, and Legal Requirements 13.3 Conclusions 13.4 References 14. Computer Support for the Development of Safety Components 14.1 The Basics 14.2 Description of the Numeric Tools 14.3 Calculation of Components 14.4 Total Vehicle Crash Computation 14.5 Occupant and Restraint System Simulation 14.6 Pedestrian Simulation Tests 14.7 Summary 14.8 References Index About the Authors