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Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 65996605

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Expert Systems with Applications


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/eswa

Ant colony optimization based sensor deployment protocol for wireless sensor networks
Wen-Hwa Liao , Yucheng Kao, Ru-Ting Wu
Department of Information Management, Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t
Sensor deployment is one of the most important issues in wireless sensor networks, because an efcient deployment scheme can reduce the deployment cost and enhance the detection capability of the wireless sensor networks. In addition, it can enhance the quality of monitoring in wireless sensor networks by increasing the coverage area. Ant colony optimization (ACO) algorithm provides a natural and intrinsic way of exploration of search space for multiple knapsack problem (MKP). In this work, we consider the problem of sensor deployment to achieve complete coverage of the service region and maximize the lifetime of the network. We model the deployment problem as the multiple knapsack problem. Based on ACO algorithm, we proposed a deployment scheme to prolong the network lifetime, while ensuring complete coverage of the service region. The simulations show that our algorithm can prolong the lifetime of the network. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization (ACO) Coverage Sensor deployment Lifetime

1. Introduction Mobile wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of a large number of mobile sensor nodes that can move by themselves and interact with the physical environment. Mobile sensor nodes have the ability to reposition and organize themselves in the network. Due to presence of mobility, the sensor nodes can move to appropriate positions to ll up the coverage holes in the service region and increase the coverage area. A mobile WSN can start off with some initial deployment and the sensor nodes can then spread out to gather information regarding the sensing region. The information gathered by a mobile sensor node can be communicated to another mobile sensor node when they are within transmission range of each other (Yick, Mukherjee, & Ghosal, 2008). Recently, WSNs have been popularly used in wide range of applications like environment monitoring, military target tracking and surveillance, natural disaster relief, biomedical health monitoring, real-time monitoring, hazardous environment exploration and seismic sensing. For environmental monitoring in disaster areas, manual deployment of the sensors might not be possible. With the use of mobile sensor nodes, it is possible for the sensors to move to the region of events after deployment to provide the required coverage. In military surveillance and tracking, mobile sensor nodes can collaborate and make decisions based on the target.
Corresponding author. Address: Department of Information Management, Tatung University, No. 40, Sec. 3, Chungshan N. Rd., Taipei 104, Taiwan. Tel.: +886 2 25925252x3608; fax: +886 2 25853966. E-mail address: whliao@ttu.edu.tw (W.-H. Liao).
0957-4174/$ - see front matter 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2010.11.079

Mobile sensor nodes can achieve a higher degree of coverage and connectivity as compared to static sensor nodes. In the presence of obstacles in the eld, they can plan ahead and move appropriately to obstructed regions to increase target exposure. In the military target tracking and surveillance (Simon et al., 2004), the system utilizes dense of sensors to detect muzzle blasts and measure the time of shock waves from a shot. The measurements of each sensor are delivered to a base station (e.g., PDA) to compute the shooters location. Coverage is one of the fundamental issues in WSNs. It reects how well the service area is monitored or tracked by the sensors. A higher degree of coverage requires multiple sensors to monitor the same location in order to produce more reliable results. Existing research focuses on coverage in the context of energy conservation. Some of them have proposed techniques to select the minimal set of sensor nodes to be active to maintain coverage (Yick et al., 2008). Network lifetime is dened as the time when for the rst time there appears a coverage hole in the deployment region. Coverage hole is dened as the spot in the deployment region, which is not covered by any nodes observation. Increasing the network lifetime is also one of the most important issues in sensor networks. Two sensors are said to be connected to each other if the distance between them doesnt exceed their communication range. The sensors measure various parameters of the environment and use hop-by-hop communication to transmit the collected data to one or more sinks. Multi-hop communication is needed when a sensor cannot reach the sink node directly. Therefore, sensors in WSNs also serve as relay nodes to forward other sensors data to remote

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destinations. In general, both transmission and reception consume a certain amount of energy. Hence, an effective approach to prolong the network lifetime is to resupply the demand energy of the sensors. At least a subset of the deployed sensors should be active at any time that can maintain both sensing coverage and network connectivity (Zhao & Gurusamy, 2008). The work in Olariu and Stojmenovic (2006) showed that the uneven energy depletion phenomenon is intrinsic to the system and on routing strategy can avoid creation of an energy hole around the sink. The major cause of creation of the energy hole around the sink is that in addition to transmitting their own packets, the sensors closer to the sink also forward packets on behalf of other sensors that are located farther away. If the sensors in the networks are uniformly deployed (uniform density), then the energy of the sensors closer to the sink will be depleted quickly, resulting in energy holes in the WSNs. Subramanian and Fekri (2006) shows that for uniform distribution of nodes, the energy of the nodes close to the base station always exhausted quickly, irrespective of the sleep scheduling being used. By deploying the nodes non-uniformly, one can achieve much better energy efciency in the sensor networks. ACO algorithms have been inspired by colonies of real ants, which deposit a chemical substance (called pheromone) on the ground. This substance inuences the choices they make: larger the amount of pheromone on a particular path, larger is the probability that an ant selects the path. The ant colony optimization is one of the most successfully proven swarm intelligence, which has been applied to several NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems (Liao, Kao, & Fan, 2008). In this paper, we consider the problem of sensor deployment to achieve complete coverage and maximize the lifetime of the network. We model the sensor deployment problem as the multiple knapsack problem (MKP). Based on ACO algorithm, our paper proposes a deployment strategy to prolong the network lifetime, while ensuring the complete a coverage of the service region. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the related work in sensor deployment schemes for wireless sensor networks and ACO swarm intelligence. Our proposed ACO-base sensor redeployment protocol is presented in Section 3. Experimental results are presented in Section 4, while Section 5 concludes this paper.

different degrees of coverage and connectivity for WSNs. In Huang and Tseng (2003), they model the coverage problem as a decision problem, whose goal is to determine whether each location of the target sensing area is sufciently covered or not. The work in Wang et al. (2003) presents protocols that can dynamically congure a network to achieve guaranteed degrees of coverage and connectivity. In Sahoo et al. (2007), the authors designed dynamic maintenance algorithms to maintain the degree of coverage and connectivity, if nodes in the network are dead either in a predictable or unpredictable way. In Sheu and Lin (2007), they proposed a centralized energy-efcient k-coverage preserving protocol. They select the minimum set of active sensor nodes to converter most of the energy, while still guaranteeing adequate coverage of the monitoring region. Their method does not consider the problem that sensors closer to the sink are involved in more data forwarding and so region closer to the sink should have higher sensor density (Cardei, Yang, Wu, & Networks, 2008). Most of the previous works assume that sensing eld is an open space. In Wang, Hu, and Tseng (2005), they consider the sensing eld as an arbitrary-shaped region, possibly with obstacles. Besides, they have assumed an arbitrary relationship between the communication range and the sensing range, thus eliminating the constraints of existing results. Some literatures (Kong, Tian, & Kao, 2008; Leguizamon & Michalewicz, 1999) have also discussed about ant colony optimization for multiple knapsack problem. In Leguizamon and Michalewicz (1999), they proposed an ant system extended to handle subset problems. In their method, pheromone trail is put on the problems component instead of the problems connections. In Kong et al. (2008), they proposed a new ant colony optimization approach for multidimensional knapsack problem. Different from other ACO-based algorithms applied to MKP, they used a pheromone laying method specially designed for the binary solution structure, and allowed the generation of infeasible solutions in the solution construction procedure.

3. ACO-base sensor deployment protocol The network lifetime of a WSN refers to how long the deployed WSN can function well. It can be dened as the interval between the time when the network was set up and the time when the WSN cannot guarantee certain coverage or connectivity requirements. The network lifetime can be prolonged by nding several subsets of sensors and schedule them to relay data to the sink. As a result, power consumption balance is achieved by sensor deployment scheme. In Wang et al. (2005), their method is to deploy as few sensors as possible to maintain both coverage and connectivity. Fig. 1 shows the optimal sensor deployment for three

2. Related work Several previous research works (Liu & Ssu, 2008; Subramanian and Fekri, 2006; Yang & Cardei, 2007) have considered non-uniform deployment of sensors in WSN in order to prolong the network lifetime. In Subramanian and Fekri (2006), the authors showed that uniform deployment of sensors is not useful while considering the power consumption. They proposed an approach of energyefcient asynchronous sleep scheduling using non-uniform deployment. However, their analysis is not realistic because it is based on continuous function. In Yang and Cardei (2007), they rst compute the desired non-uniform sensor density in the monitoring area to reduce the energy holes near the sink. They also proposed a centralized sensor redeployment strategy so that the density requirements can be satised with the minimum movement cost. Although their method can improve coverage and prolong the network lifetime through sensor relocation, the centralized method is not realistic in WSNs. In Liu and Ssu (2008), they proposed a sensor movement algorithm to achieve non-uniform sensor deployment. The mobile sensors can move to appropriate locations to prolong the network lifetime. However, their method cannot guarantee the complete coverage of the monitoring region. There are also some literatures (Huang & Tseng, 2003; Sahoo, Sheu, & Lin, 2007; Sheu & Lin, 2007; Wang et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2005) that have discussed

Fig. 1. The sensor layout of our model.

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p layers. The distance between two neighboring sensors is 3R, where R is sensing range of each sensor. Lets assume that the frequence of occurrence of the events in the network area follows the normal distribution. The sink, which is located at the center (i.e., layer 0) of network, collects the sensing information from other sensors. The sensors closer to the sink tend to consume more energy than those farther away from the sink. This is mainly because of the fact that besides transmitting their own packets, they also forward packets on behalf of other sensors that are located farther away. We assume that there are N sensor nodes to be deployed in the service region and at least one sensor must be deployed in the predetermined circle points as discussed in Wang et al. (2005). One of the sensors in each circle point is selected as the sensor head, which takes care of the movement of the sensors in its circle point to prolong the network lifetime. The sensor heads collect information on remaining and consumed energy of all the sensor in their circle point and exchange this information with their neighboring sensor heads periodically. Our goal is to propose a mechanism to move the sensors to proper circle points in order to prolong the lifetime of the network. Let N be the number of sensors in network, Nj be the number of sensors in circle point Cj, M be the total number of the circle points in the network. ER(Sij ) be the remaining energy of the sensor Sij and ES(Cj) be total energy of the sensors in circle point Cj. ES(Cj) is given by

LT C j TES=TP:
Cx j

If the lifetime of 2 C is greater than LT C j , we will remove C x j from C and recalculate LT C j . That is, the circle point Cj moves its x sensors only to those C x j whose lifetime LT C j is less than the mean lifetime LT C j of Cj. x Now, we will compute the demand energy EDC x j for C j 2 C. The EDC x is given by j
x x x x EDC x j LT C j P C j ESC j if C j 2 C:

From Eq. (7), we can compute the provided energy EPC j of Cj, which is given by

EPC j

6 X x1

x EDC x j if C j 2 C:

ESC j

Nj X i1

ERSij ;

where j = 1, . . ., M. The energy consumption rate P(Cj) for circle point Cj is given by

From previous Eqs. (1)(8), we can get that each circle point Cj can provide EP(Cj) amount of energy to fulll the demand energy EDC x j of C x j 2 C. Now, the sensor redeployment problem can be dened as the problem of distributing EP(Cj) amount of energy among the circle point EDC x j in order to compensate their demand energy, so that the lifetime of the network can be maximized. This sensor redeployment problem can be transformed into multiple knapsack problem (MKP). The multiple knapsack problem (Boryczka, 2007) is considered where n items are to be packed in m knapsack of distinct capacities ci, i = 1, . . ., m. Each item j has an associated value pj and weight wj. The problem is to select m disjoined subsets of items, such that subset i ts into capacity ci and the total prot of the selected items is maximized. The multiple knapsack problem can be formulated as follows:

P C j

6kkx

PL

mk1 6

mkx

6k

maximize

m X i1

pj xij

where x is power consumption rate, L is the number of layers, Cj is located in kth layer, k is the data generation rate. From Eq. (2), let P p 6 k k x, q L mk1 6 m k x, and r = 6 k. As there are 6k circle points in kth layer and each circle point consumes k x amount of energy, the total energy consumed in kth layer is p. In addition, the circle points of the kth layer also forward data for the circle points located in the layer from (k + 1) to L. Thus, the forwarding cost of the kth layer is given by q. Finally, we can get P(Cj) = p q/r. From Eqs. (1) and (2), the lifetime LT(Cj) of the circle point Cj is given by

subject to
m X i 1

n X j 1

wj xij 6 ci i 1; . . . ; m

10

xij 6 1; j 1; . . . ; n

11 12

xij 2 f0; 1g; j 1; . . . ; m; j 1; . . . ; n:

LT C j ESC j =PC j :
fC x jj

Let CNj 1 6 x 6 6g is the set of six neighboring circle points of Cj. As we focus on developing a distributed protocol, sensor from the circle point Cj can only be moved to one of its neighboring circle points in CNj. Thus, we will compare the lifetime LT(Cj) with LT(CNj). x Let C fC x j jLT C j < LT C j ; 1 6 x 6 6g. That is, the set of all the neighboring circle points C x j , whose lifetime is less than that of the circle point Cj. Then, we compute the total energy TES, which is obtained by adding the energy of all the circle points C x j 2 C with the energy of Cj.

Let Ca be a circle point and Nj sensors in Ca can be move to the neighbor circle point C ia of Ca. C is the set of neighboring circle points C ia of Ca, whose lifetime is less than that of Ca. Thus, the i 2 C0 fijC ia g. ERSja is the remaining energy of the sensor Sja in the circle point Ca and ESC ia is the total energy of the neighboring circle point C ia of circle point Ca. Let PC ia be the energy consumption rate of C ia and EDC ia be the demand energy of C ia . Next, our sensor redeployment problem can be stated as follows

PN j max
i2C0 fijC i ag

min

j j1 ERSa xij i P C a

! ESC ia PC ia

13

TES

ESC x j

Cj:

Nj X j1

ERSja xij 6 EDC ia ; i 2 C0 fijC ia g

14

x2LT C x <LT C j j

Next, we will compute total energy consumption rate TP of C [ C j , which is given by

X
i2C0 fijC i ag

xij 6 1; j 1; . . . ; Nj

15

TP PC j

X
x2LT C x <LT C j j

P C x j :

5 xij 2 f0; 1g; i 2 C0 fijC ia g; j 1; . . . ; Nj : 16


In the ant colony system, a colony of articial ants is used to construct solutions guided by the pheromone trails and heuristic information (Dorigo & Gambardella, 1997). Ant colony system

After obtaining the total energy TES and the total energy consumption rate TP from Eqs. (4) and (5), we will compute the mean of lifetime LT C j of C [ C j , which is given by

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was inspired by the foraging behavior of the real ants. This behavior enables the ants to nd the shortest paths between food sources and their nest. Initially, ants explore the area surrounding their nest in a random manner. As soon as an ant nds a source of food, it evaluates the quantity and quality of the food and carries some of it to the nest. During the return trip, the ant deposits a pheromone trail on the ground. The quantity of deposited pheromone, which may depend on the quantity and quality of the food, guides other ants to the food source. The indirect communication between the ants via the pheromone trails allows them to nd the shortest path between their nest and the food sources. This functionality of real ant colonies is exploited in articial ant colonies in order to solve optimization problems. In the ant colony system, the pheromone trails are simulated via a parameterized probabilistic model called the pheromone model. The pheromone model consists of a set of model parameters whose values are called the pheromone values. The basic ingredient of the ant colony system is a constructive heuristic that is used for the probabilistic construction of solutions using the pheromone values. In the following paragraphs, we will describe how to move sensors to maximize the lifetime of the network using an ant colony algorithm and illustrate how our proposed algorithm works. The ant colony algorithm includes two steps. First step is to select a set of sensors to move to the neighboring circle point and update the demand energy of source and destination circle point. Second step is to update the pheromone trails on the sensor nodes. 3.1. Select a set of sensors to move to the neighboring circle point Each circle point Cj will compare its lifetime with that of its neighboring circle points. If the lifetime of neighboring circle point x Cx j is less than that of Cj, then C j will be added to the set C. Cj will x select one sensor to move to C j 2 C by following the random-proportional rule (see Eq. (17)) where ant k in the in sensor Sja chooses to move to the neighboring circle point C ia .

Fig. 2. An example of sensor deployment.

Fig. 3. Demand energy of the circle points.

8 < pk i; j P : pk i; j 0

si;j P

a gi;jb

ji;...;N j

i2C0 fijC i g a

si;ja gi;jb

if EDC ia P ERSja otherwise

17

where s(i, j) is the pheromone level to update the pheromone table of head sensor from Sja moving to the neighboring circle point C ia , Nj is the number of sensor of circle point Cj, a and b are two parameters which determine the relative inuence of the pheromone trail and the heuristic information. The parameter gi; j is given by

gi; j EDC ia ERSja :

18

From Eq. (17) and Eq. (18), we can conclude that if the demand energy of the circle point C ia increases, the probability of movement of sensor also increases. Similarly, if the remaining energy of sensor Sja increases, the probability of movement of the sensor increases. After selecting the sensor C ia for movement to the circle point C ia , we will update the demand energy of C ia by Eq. (19).

EDC ia EDC ia ERSja


3.2. Update the pheromone trails on the sensor nodes

19

2 3 4 5 6 shown in Fig. 2. The ES(Cj) of C0, C 1 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 are 175, 80, 2 3 4 137.5, 100, 240, 35, 30, respectively. The P(Cj) of C0, C 1 0 , C0, C0 , C0, 5 6 C 0 , C 0 are 2.5, 1, 2.5, 2.5, 6, 1, and 1, respectively. The LT(Cj) of C0, 2 3 4 5 6 C1 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 are 70, 80, 55, 40, 40, 35, and 30, respectively. 2 3 4 5 6 Lets assume that the circle points C 1 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 are neighbors 1 of C0. Because the lifetime LT(C1) of C 0 is greater than LT(C0), 2 3 4 5 6 C = {C 1 0 ; C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 , C 0 }. The total energy TES is (175 + 137.5 + 100 + 240 + 35 + 30) = 717.5, and the total energy consumption rate TP of C [ C j is (2.5 + 2.5 + 2.5 + 6 + 1 + 1) = 15.5. We will compute the mean of lifetime LT C 0 of C [ C 0 , which is 717.5/15.5 = 46.29. If the lifetime x of C x j 2 C is greater than LT C j , we will remove C j from C and 2 recalculate LT C j . Since the lifetime of C 0 is greater than LT C 0 , 3 4 5 6 we remove C 2 0 from C = {C 0 ;C 0 , C 0 , C 0 } and the updated LT C 0 is 44.6. x Now, we will compute the demand energy EDC x 0 of C 0 2 C. 4 EDC 3 is 44.6 2.5100 = 11.5, ED C is 44.6 6240 = 27.6, 0 0 6 EDC 5 0 is 44.6 135 = 9.6, and EDC 0 is 44.6 130 = 14.6. The provided energy EP C 0 of C0 is (11.5 + 27.6 + 9.6 + 14.6) = 63.3. Lets assume that the ERSi0 ,1 6 i 6 8; of C0 are 8, 10, 15, 46, 13,

Once all ants have built the solution, the pheromone level is updated in pheromone table according to Eq. (20).

Table 1 The gi; j of sensors Si0 of circle point C j0 .

si; j 1 qsi; j aDsi; j;

20

gi; j CN3
S1 0 S2 0 S3 0 S5 0 S6 0 8 11.5 = 92 0 0 0

CN4

CN5

CN6

where q is the pheromone evaporation parameter, the deposited pheromone is discounted. This results in the new pheromone level between the evaporation and new addition pheromone, new addition pheromone is the new lifetime that ant minus original lifetime. We will illustrate our redeployment scheme with an example

8 27.66 = 221. 28 8 9.61 = 76.88 8 14.6 = 116.8 0 0 10 14.6 = 146 15 14.6 = 219 13 14.6 = 189.8 0 15 27.66 = 414.9

10 11.5 = 27.6 10 27.66 = 276.6

13 27.66 = 359.58 0 24 27.66 = 663.84 0

W.-H. Liao et al. / Expert Systems with Applications 38 (2011) 65996605 Table 2 The pk i; j of sensors Si0 of circle point C j0 . pk i; j S1 0 S2 0 S3 0 S5 0 S6 0 CN3 0.034 0.004 0 0 0 CN4 0.083 0.103 0.155 0.135 0.248 CN5 0.029 0 0 0 0 CN6 0.044 0.055 0.082 0.071 0

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24, 29, and 30, respectively. The sensor redeployment problem can be dened as the problem of distributing EP(C0) amount of energy x among the demand energy EDC x j of C j 2 C, in order to maximize the lifetime of the network. 7 8 In Fig. 3, ERS4 0 ; ERS0 ; ERS0 is greater than the maximum dek k mand energy of circle point EDC 4 0 , so p 4; j 0; p 7; j 0; pk 8; j 0 by Eq. (17). Hence, we can get the values of gi; j and pk i; j by Eq. (17), as given in Tables 1 and 2. According to the Table 2, the ant k selects the sensor S6 0 to move 6 to the circle point C 4 0 and EDC 0 will be recomputed by Eq. (19). Each ant will perform the procedure by Eqs. (17)(19). Once all ants have built the solution, pheromone is updated on pheromone table according to Eq. (20).

Fig. 4. Remaining lifetime of the network for varying update frequency.

4. Simulation results In this section, we study performance of our ACO-based sensor deployment algorithm by simulation. For these simulation experiments, we assumed that there are 10,000 sensor nodes distributed in a six layers square region. We have considered ve scenarios for initial density and energy of sensor nodes to evaluate the lifetime of the network in our simulation. In the rst and second scenarios, the density of the sensors varies across the layer, while their energy remains constant. For rst scenario, the density of sensors in the inner layer is less than that in the outer layer. While for second scenario, the density of the inner layers is greater than that of the outer layer. For second and third scenarios the density as well as the energy of the sensors varies across the layers. For third scenario the density and energy of the sensors in the inner layer is greater than that in the outer layer. While for fourth scenario, the density and energy of the sensors in the inner layer is less than that in the outer layer. Finally, in the fth scenario, the sensor nodes are deployed randomly with constant energy. The other simulation parameters are given in Table 3. Fig. 4 compares the remaining lifetime of the network for varying update frequency from 0 to 60. The remaining lifetime increases as the update frequency increases from 0 to 30. The reason is that the greater update frequency, the more energy consumption due to sensor moving frequently. In the contrast, the remaining lifetime decreases as the update frequency increases from 30 to 60. The reason is that many sensors cannot move to

Fig. 5. Remaining lifetime of the network for varying time duration in the rst scenario (density of sensors in the inner layer is less than that in the outer layer).

the proper position due to the slow update frequency, the remaining lifetime is reduced. In the followings, we will evaluate the remaining lifetime of the network in ve scenarios previously. The simulation result for the rst scenario is shown in Fig. 5. The remaining lifetime is only 65 after the rst update. As the density of the inner layers is less than

Table 3 Simulation parameters. Parameters N k b Denition Number of sensors Layer Control of heuristic Evaporate Energy of moving to neighbor Energy of transmission a data Number of ants Iteration Remaining energy of sensor Updating frequency rate Setting 10,000 6 2 0.3 10 1 10 10 50300 060 Fig. 6. Remaining lifetime of the network for varying time duration in the second scenario (density of sensors in inner layer is greater than that in the outer layer).

q
Cost k NA iter ERSj i UF

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that of outer layers, there is a high probability that the rst dead circle point will appear in the inner layer. The reason is that the

Fig. 7. Remaining lifetime of the network for varying time duration in the third scenario (both density and energy of sensors in inner layer is greater than that in the outer layer).

sensor nodes in the inner layers not only transmit their data but also relay the data of the outer layers. The remaining lifetime increases as duration time varies from 30 to 300. The reason is that our method can actually improve the life-time of the network by moving the sensors. The remaining lifetime linearly decreases as duration time increases beyond 300. The reason is that the position of all the sensors is nearly optimal, and so the energy consumption is linear. The simulation result for the second scenario has been shown in Fig. 6, which is similar to Fig. 5. However, the lifetime of the network in Fig. 6 is 1170, while that in Fig. 5 is 900. Hence we see that the lifetime of the network increases as the density of the sensors near the sink increases. This observation corroborates the idea proposed in Cardei et al. (2008). Since the sensors present in the region closer to the sink are involved in more data forwarding, there should be a higher density of the sensors in this region. Fig. 7 shows the simulation result for the third scenario. The Fig. 7 is similar to the Fig. 6. However the lifetime of the network in Fig. 7 is greater than that in Fig. 6. This is because the fact that both the density and energy of sensors in inner layers is greater than that in the outer layers, and the lifetime increases signicantly. The fourth scenario, has been shown in Fig. 8. The lifetime in this case is least of all four scenarios. The reason is that both density and energy of inner layers are less than the outer layers. Finally, the fth scenario has been shown in Fig. 9. In this case, the lifetime of the network shows as similar trend as the previous four scenarios. Hence, our method can perform very well in any initial situation.

5. Conclusion In this work, we consider the problem of sensor deployment to achieve complete coverage and maximize the lifetime of the network. We model the sensor deployment problem as the multiple knapsack problem. Based on ACO algorithm, our proposed sensor deployment strategy can prolong the network lifetime, while ensuring a full coverage. We have considered ve deployment scenarios for performance evaluation and simulation results show that the network lifetime can be increased by increasing the energy and density of the sensors closer to the sink. In addition, our deployment scheme can perform better than the existing deployment schemes and can prolong the network lifetime signicantly in any deployment scenario. Acknowledgements This work was supported in part by the National Science Council, Taiwan, under grants NSC 99-2221-E-036-036-MY2 and Tatung University, under grants B99-N03-065. References
Boryczka, U. (2007). Ants and multiple knapsack problem. IEEE Computer Information Systems and Industrial Management Applications (CISIM), 149154. Cardei, M., Yang, Y., & Wu, J. (2008). Non-uniform sensor deployment in mobile wireless sensor networks. IEEE World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 18. Dorigo, M., & Gambardella, L. M. (1997). Ant colony system: a cooperative learning approach to the traveling salesman problem. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 1(1), 5366. Kong, M., Tian, P., & Kao, Y. (2008). A new ant colony optimization algorithm for the multidimensional knapsack problem. Computers & Operations Research, 35(8), 26722683. Leguizamon, G., & Michalewicz, Z. (1999). A new version of ant system for subset problems. IEEE Evolutionary Computation, 14591464.

Fig. 8. Remaining lifetime of the network for varying time duration in the forth scenario (both density and energy of sensors in inner layer is less than that in the outer layer).

Fig. 9. Remaining lifetime of the network for varying time duration in the fth scenario (random deployment of the sensors with constant energy).

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