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# BEng Telecommunications Engineering

Cohort: BEngTel/10B/FT

## Examinations for 2011- 2012 / Semester 2

MODULE: ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY MODULE CODE: ASE 2103 Duration: 2 3/4 Hours

Instructions to Candidates:
1. Answer all questions. 2. Questions may be answered in any order but your answers must show the question number clearly. 3. Always start a new question on a fresh page. 4. All questions carry equal marks. 5. Total marks 100.

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## ANSWER ALL QUESTIONS QUESTION 1: (25 MARKS)

(a) What is the physical meaning of the divergence of a vector field? (2 marks)

(b)

State in your own words the divergence theorem as applied to the flux of a vector field. Express it in the form of an equation. (3 marks)

(c)

## Given the vector field F = x2 x+ xy y + yz z , find the divergence of F. (2 marks)

(d)

Find the volume integral of the divergence of F over a unit cube one unit on each side situated in the first octant of the Cartesian coordinate system with one corner at the origin a shown in figure 1 below. z (2 marks) 1 1 1 1 x figure 1 y

(e)

Evaluate the surface integral over (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vii) the back face : x=0 the front face : x=1 the left face : y=0 the right face : y=1 the top face : z=1 the bottom face z=0 (2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks) (2 marks)

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(f)

Find the overall surface integral of F bounded by the volume of the unit cube. (2 marks)

(g)

Does the divergence theorem hold in this case? Justify your answer. (2 marks)

## QUESTION 2: (25 MARKS)

(a) State Gausss law. Under what conditions is Gauss law especially useful in determining the electric field intensity of a charge distribution? (3 marks) (b) Derive the relation between the electric field intensity E and the electric flux D at the surface of a sphere of radius r enclosed by a charge Q. (3 marks) (c) The volume in spherical coordinates described by

ra

of figure 2 contains a uniform charge density . Show that the electric field intensity E is such that:

r ar 3 o
E=

r a

a3 ar r a 3 o r 2
(3+3 marks)

(d)

## Sketch the graph of E against r starting at the origin. (3 marks)

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(e)

Use Gauss law to compute the electric flux density D for r a and r a and compare your results with the values of E in part (c) above. (4 marks)

(f)

What point charge at the origin will result in the same value D field for r>a? (1 marks)

figure 2

(g)

A point charge Q is moved from infinity to a point near the sphere on a radius r = b where b > a. Find the potential difference Vab. (3 marks)

(h)

Determine the work done in moving the charge from r = b to the point where r = a. (2 marks)

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## QUESTION 3: (25 MARKS)

(a) (i) (ii) (iii) Explain the following terms with the help of an equation: magnetic susceptibility relative permeability reluctance of ferromagnetic core.

(1+1+1 marks)

(b)

A toroidal iron core of relative permeability 3000 has a mean radius R = 80 mm and a circular cross section with radius b = 25 mm. An air gap Lg=3 mm exists and a current I flows in a 500 turns winding to produce a magnetic flux of 10-5 Wb as shown in figure 3 below. Neglecting leakage and using mean path length, determine:

## (i) (ii) (iii)

the reluctances of the air gap and of the iron core. (2+3marks) Bg and Hg in the air gap and Bc and Hc in the iron core. (2+2+2+2 marks) the required current I. (3 marks)

figure 3

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(c)

Determine the self inductance of the toroidal coil. Obtain an approximate equation for assuming b << R (6 marks)

## QUESTION 4: (25 MARKS)

(a) What do you understand by a transverse electromagnetic wave? (2 marks) (b) What is meant by the intrinsic impedance of free space? Write down its equation and value. (3 marks) (c)

figure 4

## l s placed at a distance x1 from the load. In order to accomplish

matching, (i) (ii) Determine x1 such that Determine

y( x1 ) 1 jb1

## l s such that y (l s ) 0 jb1

j 0 and VSWR=1from x1 to l
(13 marks) Page 6 of 10

After matching, y ( x1 ) 1

(d)

Using the concept of Maxwells equation, explain how waves propagate in waveguides. (7 marks)

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