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TABLE OF CONTENTS

S.NO CONTENTS PAGE NO

ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

1.

INTRODUCTION 1.1 Aim 1.2 Objective 1.3 Organization profile

2.

SYSTEM STUDY 2.1 Existing system 2.2 Proposed system 2.3 Feasibility study

3.

SYSTEM SPECIFICATION 3.1 Hardware 3.2 Software 3.3 Software description

4.

MODULE SPECIFICATION

5.

SYSTEM DESIGN 5.1 DFD 5.2 Data Dictionary 5.3 Table Structure 5.4 Input Design 5.5 Output Design 5.6 Screen Shots

6. 7. 8.

TESTING AND VALIDATION CONCLUSION BIBLOGRAPHY

List of Abrivation
a) Plaintext: The original intelligible message. b) Cipher text: The transformed message. c) Cipher: An algorithm for transforming an intelligible message to unintelligible by transposition. d) Key: Some critical information used by the cipher, known only to the sender & receiver. e) Encipher :( Encode) the process of converting plaintext to cipher text using a cipher and a key. f) Decipher :( Decode) the process of converting cipher text back into plaintext using a cipher & key. g) Cryptanalysis: The study of principles and methods of transforming an unintelligible message back into an intelligible message without knowledge of the key. Also called code breaking h) Cryptology: Both cryptography and cryptanalysis i) Code: an algorithm for transforming an intelligible message into an unintelligible one using codes. j) Hash algorithm: Is an algorithm that converts text string into a string of fixed length. k) Secret Key Cryptography (SKC): Uses a single key for both encryption and decryption l) Public Key Cryptography (PKC): Uses one key for encryption and another for decryption m) Pretty Good Privacy (PGP): PGP is a hybrid cryptosystem. n) Public Key Infrastructure (PKI): PKI feature is Certificate authority.

ABSTRACT

Due to the advent of technology in the modern world, the methodologies used by thieves and robbers for stealing has been improving exponentially. Therefore, it is necessary for the surveillance techniques to also improve with the changing world.

The latest technologies used in the fight against thefts and destruction are the video surveillance and monitoring. By using the technologies, it is possible to monitor and capture every inch and second of the area in interest.

Motion detection is the most important feature in digital video surveillance system. It gives the camera the capability to capture when needed rather than capture all the time and this leads to huge reduction in storage space.

Alarm can also be triggered when unexpected motion is detected. This relieves the Personnel in monitoring at all time.

1. INTRODUCTION Video surveillance and security systems have become very common in modem days. This kind of system can easily be found in places like retail stores, banks, supermarkets, airports, commercial buildings and even private premises. There are two kinds of video surveillance and security systems: analogue system and digital system.

In traditional systems for security operations, cameras are used to deliver analogue video images to monitors or time-lapse videocassette recorder (VCR). Although many local image processing functions are possible to improve the system application, this requires a lot of processing resources and high-power-consuming hardware.

Although digital video surveillance and security system is widely used, analogue system still serves as a cheaper alternative. Charge coupled devices (CCD) camera and digital camera one among the most popular cameras used in the system.

Motion detection is the ability to recognize the presence of movements. There are many different ways to detect motion. The conventional way is by using either active sensor or passive sensor. The new method to detect motion is "vision motion detection". It is the artificial way of machine vision system compared to human's vision in detecting motion.

Motion detection is the most important feature in digital video surveillance system. It gives the camera the capability to capture when needed rather than capture all the time and this leads to huge reduction in storage space.

Alarm can also be triggered when unexpected motion is detected. This relieves the personnel in monitoring at all time.

So my idea was to take a picture from a web cam every period of time (make it the current picture) and compare it with a previous picture and if we find a big difference between them we will save both pictures else will free memory from the old picture and make the new picture the current picture.

Motion detection includes detecting and recording the whole movement process. The purpose of motion detection is to provide an automatic detection in the region of interest. The task for motion detection is to detect motion in a region of interest. This region is always embodied in a region of awareness or in terms of the camera geometry is called the field of view.

It is also defined as a portion of environment being monitored. The region of interest in the present case is the environment with moving object and activity. A region of interest can be therefore a person, an animal or an artifact, circumscribed with the term moving object. For simplicity and generality, recognition based detection is not assumed. An appropriate algorithm does the detection of moving object.

Web Camera

Web camera or more precisely should be named as PC camera. It is the type of computerbased camera that can only function when it is connected to Pc. It is more commonly being known as webcam. This is a small and compact type of digital video camera. Most of the web cameras currently in market are using standard Universal Serial Bus (USB) but the old type was using PCI computer connections.

Web camera has a wide variety of usage in many different fields. It was used in astronomical observation and photography, animal observation, robotic webcam (Web Cam World 2001), recreation of 3 D modeling (3D Webcam 2003), weather observation in Alaska (Alaska Climate 2003) and many others. Generally, its usage can be classified according to its function and place where the web camera is installed, e.g. scenery cam, personal cam, weather cam, building cam, etc. For different usage objectives and purposes, different supporting hardware and software may be required (Churchill 200 1 ).

New application of web camera is developed every now and then. The new applications of web camera require software or both hardware and software to achieve the desired function.

Background Video surveillance and security systems have become very common in modem days. This kind of system can easily be found in places like retail stores, banks, supermarkets, airports, commercial buildings and even private premises. There are two kinds of video surveillance and security systems: analogue system and digital system. In traditional systems for security

operations, cameras are used to deliver analogue video images to monitors or time-lapse videocassette recorder (VCR). Although many local image processing functions are possible to improve the system application, this requires a lot of processing resources and high-powerconsuming hardware. Although digital video surveillance and security system is widely used, analogue system still serves as a cheaper alternative. Charge coupled devices (CCD) camera and digital camera one among the most popular cameras used in the system.

Digital surveillance systems are mostly specifically designed for commercial use and it has always been out of reach for other users. The cost for CCD cameras, networking devices and the software designed for this system has made it inaccessible and unpractical for home users with moderate requirements. Also, not all the existing product has the motion detection function.

Most of the video surveillance and security systems in the market does not issue alarms in real time, manual monitoring system are costly in term of manpower. This can be overcome by a real time motion detection system with the ability to automatically analyze the video images and archive the images with moving objects.

1.1 Aim:

Information is a strategic resource which is paramount for the effective functioning of any organization. This information needs to be managed and safeguarded from malicious and unauthorized users. Various encryption and data security standards have been suggested and implemented for this purpose.

The Aim of this project is to propose new DATA ENCRYPTION and DECRYPTION software that amalgamates the best of many encryption algorithms creating a new unified approach to data security, confidentiality, and authentication by bringing all these diverse algorithms to work in tandem.

1.2 Objective: In todays competitive environment, the security concerns have grown tremendously. In the modern world, possession is known to be 9/10ths of the law. Hence, it is imperative for one to be able to safeguard ones property from worldly harms such as thefts, destruction of property, people with malicious intent etc.

Therefore, it is necessary for the surveillance techniques to also improve with the changing world. With the improvement in mass media and various forms of communication, it is now possible to monitor and control the environment to the advantage of the owners of the property.

The flaws of existing surveillance and security system would be overcome by a real time motion detection system with the ability to automatically analyze the video images and archive the images with moving objects. Therefore, a digital surveillance system based on web camera and targeted for small-scale user is developed.

Main Objective of this Project is to provide To investigate if motion detection is possible for web camera. To develop a low cost security system using web camera. To develop software with motion detection function algorithm.

This project aims to achieve web camera application system with automatic motion detection capability. The main idea is to develop a low cost surveillance system using web camera, which runs the software that is incorporated with motion detection algorithm. It uses the concept of "motion detection by vision" to achieve motion detection capability where no hardware sensors are required.

Automatic motion detection capability helps to reduce archive space and monitoring manpower. The system would be a simple "do-it-yourself' system, which means anyone can just setup by himself/herself.

1.3 Organization profile :

ABE Technologies, a fast growing Indian company, was started as ABE Automation in the year of 2003 with the primary goal of the imparting quality training in the various areas of PLC, SCADA, Softwares to various students and corporate Employees.

In the year of 2008, the company has new board of technical people and started its new wing expertise in the various technologies like Embedded Systems, VLSI, DSP, Wireless domains, etc.

Vision

Taking the Technology to the last man of the society"


The companys aim is to design the products and also provide the world-class training in the above mentioned technologies.

As the first part of the educational revolution, the company has linked up with many Polytechnics, Engineering Colleges and Industries in Tamil Nadu. With this, we have trained nearly 2700 students and 280 corporate employees for the past 6 years.

The company is functioning in Kanchipuram as its Head Office and has operations at Chennai & Perundurai. Now the company has planned to expand its operations all over the Country shortly.

The Company is the Registered Partner of

Intel , Microsoft WindowsEMBEDDED , ARM

ABE Technologies is recognized as a certified member of the Intel Software Partner Program. ABE Technologies has strong technical team and it was its first kind to design the products in the ARM7 and ARM9 processors for the academic and corporate sectors.

Our products range from Various Microcontroller development boards, DSP Boards, CPLD/FPGA boards, Communication Kits, Power electronics ,Basic electronics, Robotics ,Sensors and much more .Our goal is to make finding the parts and information you need easier and affordable so you can create awesome projects and training from Basic to Cutting edge technology.

We are eminent manufacturer, supplier, wholesaler & exporter of a comprehensive range of Wireless Communication Products. Our range comprises Wavecom Q24 Plus Quad-Band GSM/GPRS Voice/Data Module, ABEs Lite Gsm Modem, Wireless Time Display Unit and High-Security Linux Fpga Computer. In addition to these, we also offer Embedded Hardware Design, Embedded Firmware Design, RF and Analog Design, ABES Litegsm Modem and Wavecom Q24 Plus Quad-Band Gsm. These products are manufactured using

premium quality raw material, which is procured from reliable sources of the market. Our range is known for its various features such as: We are backed by a team quality controllers, who are highly experienced and make sure that each product is checked stringently

Reliability Low power consumption High performance Safe to use Durability

Some of the specifications of our range are as follows:


GPRS DAQ Server for Automatic Mains Failure Relay panel Embedded Firmware GPRS , TCPIP Stack driver, Q24 Plus Wave COM Modem ABE Developed a TCPIP driver based on AT Command and integrated the GPRS Connectivity in the AMF Relay panel for Continuous monitoring of the Data received from the panel

The features of the driver are as follows:


Proprietary GPRS interface TCPIP, HTTP, POP3, SMTP and FTP Implementation DHCP, DNS configuration

ABE helps in the following operations:

GPRS Connectivity and Data collection

Driver Code generation for MAXQ Controller

Our Services

Apart from the designing and developing and procuring of our quality range of Wireless Communication Products, we are also engaged in providing reliable services to our clients. We offer our clients installation, repairing, networking and computer assistance services, which caters to the needs of both residential and business establishments. Our quality and time proven services has helped us to win the trust and confidence of our clients all across the country. Various other services offered by us are as follows:

Computer repair Networking Computer upgrades Troubleshooting Windows training

In addition to this, we also provide turnkey project management and training services of the products, to our clients, which helps them to gain a better understanding of the range.

Warehousing & Packaging

In order to keep our products safely, our organization has developed a separate warehousing and packaging unit. We not only manufacture but also procure a wide range of Wireless

Communication Products, which is properly stored at our warehousing unit. Our products are taken utmost care of by our team of warehousing professionals, who are well versed and hold expertise in this domain. These experts help us to maintain the quality standards of our range by taking various precautionary measures in the storage of our range. Apart from this, we also offer packaging of our range as per the specific requirements of our clients. All our products are packed using high quality packaging material that is procured from reliable sources.

Our Team

Having experience in this domain from several years, we have understood the power and importance of a workforce in any organization. At our organization, we have hired a diligent team of professionals, which hold, in-depth knowledge of the market domain and hold expertise in the same. To ensure that we manufacture our range in compliance with the set industry standards, our team put in all the efforts and works with dedication. Our team encompasses the following members:

Technocrats Engineers Quality controllers Warehousing and packaging experts Sales and marketing executives

Quality Assurance

Quality has always been the foremost priority in the manufacturing and procuring of our range of Wireless Communication Products. Therefore, we manufacture the products using premium quality raw material. It is the quality of the products, which has helped us gain a respectable position in the industry. We are backed by a team quality controllers, who are highly experienced and make sure that each product is checked stringently. Further, these experts test the products on various quality parameters, which include the following:

Durability Safe in use Reliability Voltage protection Power consumption

Manufacturing Facility

To make sure that we meet the growing demands of our clients, we have developed a sophisticated manufacturing unit. Our vast unit helps in conducting an organized and streamlined manufacturing process. This unit is equipped with all the facilities, required to manufacture our range in accordance with the set industry standards. We make sure that we deliver a flawless range to our clients by manufacturing our range with the help of advanced technology machines. Some of the advanced machinery installed at our unit is as follows:

Lathe machines Drilling machines

Sapping machines Cutting machines Special purpose machines

Client Satisfaction

We are a client-oriented organization, thus, strives hard to offer quality proven range of Wire Communication Products to our clients. The team of skilled professionals hired by us always tries to comprehend the client's specific requirements to offer them with the same. Our capabilities lie in service, commitment to time and proven project and program management processes, which help us to achieve maximum client satisfaction. Furthermore, we also make sure that projects stay on schedule and on budget for our clients. Apart from above mentioned embedded design services, we also provide clients with turnkey project management and training services for our products in various industrial and Government sectors, of Indian Subcontinent.

As per our Customer Values, we offer our clients with the following services:

Custom Designed Hardware and Software Systems Upgradable and software designs Value Engineering and Quality Engineering OEM Products for larger production and manufacturing ROHS, CE and other Testing Certifications Quick Time to Market

2. SYSTEM STUDY

2.1 EXISTING SYSTEM: Digital surveillance systems are mostly specifically designed for commercial use and it has always been out of reach for other users. The cost for CCD cameras, networking devices and the software designed for this system has made it inaccessible and unpractical for home users with moderate requirements. Also, not all the existing product has the motion detection function.

In traditional systems for security operations, cameras are used to deliver analogue video images to monitors or time-lapse videocassette recorder (VCR). Although many local image processing functions are possible to improve the system application, this requires a lot of processing resources and high-power-consuming hardware. Although digital video surveillance and security system is widely used, analogue system still serves as a cheaper alternative.

2.2 PROPOSED SYSTEM: Most of the video surveillance and security systems in the market do not Issue alarms in real time, manual monitoring system are costly in term of manpower. This can be overcome by a real time motion detection system with the ability to automatically analyze the video images and archive the images with moving objects.

The flaws of existing surveillance and security system would be overcome by a real time motion detection system with the ability to automatically analyze the video images and archive the images with moving objects and it alerts automatically when the motion detects from the

view of camera. Therefore, a digital surveillance system based on web camera and targeted for small-scale user is developed.

The latest technologies used in the fight against thefts and destruction are the video surveillance and monitoring. By using the technologies, it is possible to monitor and capture every inch and second of the area in interest. However, so far the technologies used are passive in nature, i.e., the monitoring systems only help in detecting the crime but do not actively participate in stopping or curbing the crime while it takes place.

Therefore, we have developed a methodology to detect the motion in a video stream environment and it generate alert by sending alert message to nearest Police station (or) Security service. So our Proposed Project gives the camera the capability to capture when needed rather than capture all the time and this leads to huge reduction in storage space.

2.3 FEASIBILITY STUDY The feasibility study is carried out to test whether the proposed system in words is being implemented. The feasibility study is based on the following major factors.

TYPES OF FEASIBILITY

Economical Feasibility Technical feasibility

2.1.1 ECONOMICAL FEASIBILITY

Economical feasibility is the most recently used method for evaluating effectiveness of the proposed system .It is obliquely known as cost benefit analysis. This procedure determined the benefits and savings that are expected from the proposed system and compared with the cost of the existing system. In case of the existing system, the hardware in the company is sufficient for system development and maintenance.

2.1.2 TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY

The hardware, the software and to what extent they can support the proposed system are the keys for this study .The airways has all the required software necessary development and maintenance. Taking into consideration of the above criteria, the proposed system is technically feasible and further developments could be accomplished easily.

Social Feasibility
Infrastructure projects will often have significant social and environment impacts arising from their construction and operation, which can be both positive and negative. The impact may

include flow on affects beyond the immediate project area and beyond the people directly associated with the project. In this project the social relationship between the traffic police and the highway group. 3. SYSTEM SPECIFICATION

3.1 HARDWARE USED:

P4Processor Keyboard Mouse Multimedia Color monitor 256MBRAM Net work modem

3.2 SOFTWARE USED:

Windows xp. Dot Net Frame work 4.0.

Software Description:
About the Software we used.
WHAT IS .NET? Microsoft .net is a set of micro soft software technologies for rapidly building and integrating xml web services, micro soft windows-based applications, and web solutions. The .net framework is a language-neutral platform for writing programs that can easily and securely interoperate. Theres no language barrier with .net: there are numerous languages available to the developer including managed c++, c#, and visual basic and java script. The .net framework provides the foundation for components to interact seamlessly, whether locally or remotely on different platforms. It standardizes common data types and communications protocols so that components created in different languages can easily interoperate. The .net is also the collective name given to various software components built upon the .net platform. These will be both products (visual studio.net and windows.net server, for instance) and services (like passport, .net my services, and so on).

The .net framework


The .net framework has two main parts: 1. The common language runtime (CLR). 2. A hierarchical set of class libraries. The CLR is described as the execution engine of .net. It provides the environment within which programs run. The most important features are: Conversion from a low-level assembler-style language, called intermediate language (il), into code native to the platform being executed on.

Memory management, notably including garbage collection.

Checking and enforcing security restrictions on the running code.

Loading and executing programs, with version control and other such features.

The following features of the .net framework are also worth description:

Managed code - is code that targets .net, and which contains certain extra information metadata - to describe itself. Whilst both managed and unmanaged code can run in the runtime, only managed code contains the information that allows the CLR to guarantee, for instance, safe execution and interoperability. Managed data - with managed code comes managed data. CLR provides memory allocation and deal location facilities, and garbage collection. Some .net languages use managed data by default, such as c#, visual basic.net and jscript.net, whereas others, namely c++, do not. Targeting CLR can, depending on the language youre using, impose certain constraints on the features available. As with managed and unmanaged code, one can have both managed and unmanaged data in .net applications - data that doesnt get garbage collected but instead is looked after by unmanaged code.

Common type system - the CLR uses something called the common type system (cts) to strictly enforce type-safety. This ensures that all classes are compatible with each other, by describing types in a common way. Cts define how types work within the runtime, which enables types in one language to interoperate with types in another language, including cross-language exception handling. As well as ensuring that types are only used in appropriate ways, the runtime also ensures that code doesnt attempt to access memory that hasnt been allocated to it.

Common language specification - the CLR provides built-in support for language interoperability. To ensure that you can develop managed code that can be fully used by developers using any programming language, a set of language features and rules for using them called the common language specification (cls) has been defined. Components that follow these rules and expose only cls features are considered cls-compliant.

The class library The .net provides a single-rooted hierarchy of classes, containing over 7000 types. The root of the namespace is called system; this contains basic types like byte, double, Boolean, and string, as well as object. All objects derive from system. Object. As well as objects, there are value types. Value types can be allocated on the stack, which can provide useful flexibility. There are also efficient means of converting value types to object types if and when necessary. The set of classes is pretty comprehensive, providing collections, file, screen, and network I/O, threading, and so on, as well as xml and database connectivity. The class library is subdivided into a number of sets (or namespaces), each providing distinct areas of functionality, with dependencies between the namespaces kept to a minimum.

Languages supported by .NET The multi-language capability of the .net framework and visual studio .net enables developers to use their existing programming skills to build all types of applications and xml web services. The .net framework supports new versions of Microsofts old favorites visual basic and c++ (as vb.net and managed c++), but there are also a number of new additions to the family: Visual basic .net has been updated to include many new and improved language features that make it a powerful object-oriented programming language. These features include inheritance, interfaces, and overloading, among others. Visual basic also now supports structured exception handling, custom attributes and also supports multi-threading. Visual basic .net is also cls compliant, which means that any cls-compliant language can use the classes, objects, and components you create in visual basic .net. Managed extensions for c++ and attributed programming are just some of the enhancements made to the c++ language. Managed extensions simplify the task of migrating existing c++ applications to the new .net framework. C# is Microsofts new language. Its a c-style language that is essentially c++ for rapid application development. Unlike other languages, its specification is just the grammar of the language. It has no standard library of its own, and instead has been designed with the intention of using the .net libraries as its own.

Microsoft visual j# .net provides the easiest transition for java-language developers into the world of xml web services and dramatically improves the interoperability of java-language programs with existing software written in a variety of other programming languages. Active state has created visual Perl and visual python, which enable .net-aware applications to be built in either Perl or python. Both products can be integrated into the visual studio .net environment. Visual Perl includes support for active states Perl dev kit. Other languages for which .net compilers are available include: Fortran Cobol Eiffel

Fig1 .net framework asp.net xml web services base class libraries common language runtime operating system windows forms

Dwide field training


ADO.NET

Ado.net provides a set of classes which a script can use to interact with databases. Scripts can create instances of ado.net data classes and access their properties and methods. A set of classes which work with a specific type of database is known as a .net data provider. Ado.net comes with two data providers, the SQL server.net data provider (which provides optimized access for Microsoft SQL server databases) and the oledb.net data provider, which works with a range of databases. The main ado.net oledb data access classes are oledbconnection, oledbcommand, oledbdatareader and oledbdataadapter.

Features of Visual Basic .Net


Visual studio .net is the single ide that all the .net languages can use. It makes everything available to all languages. Visual studio .net is a great multilanguage development environment and offers a complete set of tools to build windows forms, asp.net web applications, and xml web services.

Start page The start page offers three tabs at the top of the window that enables to modify visual studio.net as well as find important information. The tabs are html server controls versus web server controls control type Html server controls when to use this control type When converting traditional asp 3.0 web pages to asp.net web pages and speed of completion is a concern. It is a lot easier to change your html elements to html server controls than it is to change them to web server controls. When you prefer a more html-type programming model. When you wish to explicitly control the code that is generated for the browser. Web server controls When you require a rich set of functionality to perform complicated page requirements. When you are developing web pages that will be viewed by a multitude of browser types and that require different code based on these types. When you prefer a more visual basic-type

programming model that is based on the use of controls and control properties.

Projects tab this tab is the one to start new projects and launch projects that already exists. This tab lets you to create a new project or open an existing project. Online resources tab this tab provides a number of online resources when connected to the internet. My profile tab this tab enables to customize the visual studio.net environment to resemble the structured environment that is familiar with. Server explorer This window enables to perform a number of functions such as database connectivity, performance monitoring, and interacting with event logs. By using server explorer you can log on to a remote server and view database and system data about that server. Many of the functions that are performed with the enterprise manager in SQL server can now be executed in the server explorer. Solution explorer This provides an organized view of the projects in the application. The toolbar within the solution explorer enables to View code page of the selected item. View design page of the selected item. Refresh the state of the selected item. Copy the web project between web servers. Show all the files in the project, including the hidden files. See properties of the selected item.

Class view The class view window can be viewed from the start page by clicking the class view tab. The class view shows all the classes that are contained within your solution. The class view shows the hierarchical relationship among the classes in your solution as well as the number of other items including methods, enumerations, namespaces, unions, and events. It is possible to organize the view of these items within the window by right-clicking anywhere in the class view area and choosing how the items are sorted.

Toolbox The toolbox window enables to specify elements that will be part of the windows forms or web forms. It provides a drag and drop means of adding elements and controls to the pages or forms. The code snippets can also be stored within the toolbox. Properties window This window provides the properties of an item that is part of the application. This enables to control the style and behavior of the item selected to modify. Dynamic help This window shows a list of help topics. The help topics change based on the item selected or the action being taken. The dynamic help window shows the help items displayed when you have a button control on the page selected. After the item is selected, a list of targeted help topic is displayed. The topics are organized as a list of links. Clicking one of the links in the dynamic help window opens the selected help topic in the document window.

Document window The document window is the main window within visual studio.net where the applications are built. The document window shows open files in either design or html mode. Each open file is represented by a tab at the top of the document window. Any number of files can be kept open at the same time, and you can switch between the open files by clicking the appropriate tab. Design mode versus html mode Visual studio.net offers two modes for viewing and building files: design and html. By clicking the design tab at the bottom of the document window, you can see how the page will view to the user. The page is built in the design mode by dragging and dropping elements directly onto the design page or form. Visual studio .net automatically generates the appropriate code. When the page is viewed in html mode, it shows the code for the page. It enables to directly modify the code to change the way in which the page is presented. Working with SQL server through the server explorer Using visual studio.net, there is no need to open the enterprise manager from SQL server. Visual studio.net has the SQL servers tab within the server explorer that gives a list of all the

servers that are connected to those having SQL server on them. Opening up a particular server tab gives five options: Database diagrams Tables Views Stored procedures Functions

Database diagrams To create a new diagram right click database diagrams and select new diagram. The add tables dialog enables to select one to all the tables that you want in the visual diagram you are going to create. Visual studio .net looks at all the relationships between the tables and then creates a diagram that opens in the document window. Each table is represented in the diagram and a list of all the columns that are available in that particular table. Each relationship between tables is represented by a connection line between those tables. The properties of the relationship can be viewed by right clicking the relationship line.

Tables The server explorer allows working directly with the tables in SQL Server. It gives a list of tables contained in the particular database selected. By double clicking one of the tables, the table is seen in the document window. This grid of data shows all the columns and rows of data contained in the particular table. The data can be added or deleted from the table grid directly in the document window. To add a new row of data, move to the bottom of the table and type in a new row of data after selecting the first column of the first blank row. You can also delete a row of data from the table by right clicking the gray box at the left end of the row and selecting delete. By right clicking the gray box at the far left end of the row, the primary key can be set for that particular column. The relationships to columns in other tables can be set by selecting the relationships option. To create a new table right-click the tables section within the server explorer and selecting new table. This gives the design view that enables to start specifying the columns and column details about the table.

To run queries against the tables in visual studio .net, open the view of the query toolbar by choosing view->toolbars->query. To query a specific table, open that table in the document window. Then click the SQL button which divides the document window into two panes-one for query and other to show results gathered from the query. The query is executed by clicking the execute query button and the result is produced in the lower pane of the document window. Views To create a new view, right-click the view node and select new view. The add table dialog box enables to select the tables from which the view is produced. The next pane enables to customize the appearance of the data in the view.

MODULE SPECIFICATION

This thesis project consists of three main stages, namely hardware setup, simulation and implementation.

Hardware setup and capturing Simulation and Comparing frames Implementation and Alert generation system

Hardware setup: The first stage is setting up the system of which consists of PC and web camera. The web camera is only operable with the web camera driver installed in the PC.Our Project recognize the installed Hardware (WEB CAM ) , It provides control for the setting facilities of camera such as Resolution, size of the frame in pixels, and Rate of frame to be captured.

System capture the view at particular rate of speed as specified at the settings of camera. Captured image is stored temporarily.

Simulation and Comparing frames In the second stage, simulation done on the frame images using VB .Net with Image Processing Module as simulation tool to investigate the possibilities of motion detection algorithm on images captured by web camera.

In this stage First, grab image from web cam called Old. Second, grab another image from web cam after a while, called Current. Compare Current& Old by comparing each pixel color. If difference is greater than tested value (according to the quality of your web cam & light system you are using is 60 or 50 Hz), then save the two pictures. Finally, make the old picture the Cur picture. Back to second step (infinite loop).

Implementation and Alert generation system In the third stage, implementation process is done by coding the motion detection software using Microsoft Dot Net. The algorithm that was successfully simulated is used as the reference for forming the working mechanism in creating motion detection software.

In this stage the new frames will be stored at specified Locations, and alert system will be generated with any sound alert Or GSM based message alert for anybody.

SYSTEM DESIGN

In this paper we propose an advanced system of motion detection techniques along with multimedia techniques. This system will be more secure than any other these techniques alone and also as compared to traditional video surveillance systems.

After some research, I came up with an algorithm which detected motion by comparing each frame captured by the camera with the previous one. If the frames were more or less the same, fine, but if they had differences above a certain limit, the program would trigger a motion detection event. So, for every frame captured, I compared the pixels with the previous frame for brightness changes. If the brightness change of a certain pixel exceeded a tolerance limit, the program would increment a counter. At the end of the scan, it checked the value of the counter and if it exceeded a certain limit, it triggered a motion detection event.

So my idea was to take a picture from a web cam every period of time (make it the current picture) and compare it with a previous picture and if we find a big difference between them we will save both pictures else will free memory from the old picture and make the new picture the current picture.

The system architecture is going to function in following way: Capturing the live video feed through a web cam : To detect motion we first have to capture live video frames of the area to be monitored and kept under surveillance this is done by using a web cam which continuously provides a sequence of video frames in a particular speed of FPS (frames per second). Comparing the current frames captured with previous frames to detect motion: For checking whether any motion is present in the live video feed, we compare the live video frames being provided by the web cam with each other so that we can detect changes in these frames and hence predict the occurrence of some motion..

Storing the frames on the memory if motion is detected : If motion is being detected, we would require storing such motion so that the user can view it in the near future. This also helps the user in providing a legal proof of some inappropriate activity since a video coverage can be used as a proof in the court of law.

Indicating through an alarm when the motion is detected: The user may want to be notified immediately that there has been some intrusion detected by the software, hence an alarm system is included in the software. This alarm system immediately activates a WAV file format audio alarm signal if any kind of motion is detected hence. This helps in preventing any kind of breach of security at that moment of time. And the software sends the alert message to the Nearest Police station (or) Security services.

Line Flow Diagram:

The motion detection method that was selected is a background subtraction technique. A previous frame is used as the background, and its color is subtracted from the current frame to detect any differences in the new frame. This background frame will be resettable at any time by the user, but the first background frame used is the first frame that is processed by the application. A sliding window for the background frame was considered as well. The sliding time window would change the background frame at intervals so that it would come closer to what we are seeing in the current frames. This would improve the motion detection overall, but it would also eliminate any detected blobs that stop moving. Once the blob stops moving, the background sliding window would slowly incorporate the blobs into the background.

First, grab image from web cam called Old. Second, grab another image from web cam after a while, called Cur. Compare Cur & Old by comparing each pixel color. If difference is greater than tested value (according to the quality of your web cam & light system you are using is 60 or 50 Hz), then save the two pictures. Finally, make the old picture the Cur picture. Back to second step (infinite loop). Purpose The problem of automatic recognition of human activity is one of the most important and challenging areas of research in computer vision because of the wide range of possible applications, for example surveillance, advanced human-computer interactions, monitoring. This paper presents statistical computer vision approaches to automatically recognize different human activities. Design/methodology/approach The human activity recognition process has three steps: firstly human blobs are segmented by motion analysis; then the human body

posture is estimated and, finally a temporal model of the detected posture series is generated by discrete hidden Markov models to identify the activity. Findings The system was tested on image sequences acquired in a real archaeological site while some people simulated both legal and illegal actions. Four kinds of activity were automatically classified with a high percentage of correct detections. Research limitations/implications The proposed approach provides efficient solutions to some of the most common problems in the human activity recognition research field: high detailed image requirement, sequence alignment and intensive user interaction in the training phase. The main constraint of this framework is that the posture estimation approach is not completely view independent. Practical implications Results of time performance tests were very encouraging for the use of the proposed method in real time surveillance applications. Originality/value The proposed framework can work using low cost cameras with large view focal lenses. It does not need any a priori knowledge of the scene and no intensive user interaction is required in the early training phase.

CAMERA

MOTION DETECTION

VIDEO STREAMING

CAPTURE AND SAVE IN TEMP MEMORY 20 FRAMES PER SEC

COMPARE NEW FRAME WITH OLD FRAME PIXEL BY PIXEL

IF ANY CHANGE IN RGB VALUE OF PIXELS THEN

NO

YES

ALERT SYSTEM GENERATE SMS ALERT SEND MESSAGE TO SECURITY SERVICES

SAVE THE NEW FRAME

TESTING AND VALIDATION

TESTING PROCESS The purpose of testing is to discover errors. Testing is the process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or weakness in a work product. It provides a way to check the functionality of components, sub assemblies, assemblies and/or a finished product It is the process of exercising software with the intent of ensuring that the Software system meets its requirements and user expectations and does not fail in an unacceptable manner. There are various types of test. Each test type addresses a specific testing requirement.

The system was designed using an image of size 640x480(307200) pixels. Initially, the pixel values were incremented to the next higher multiple of 5.

The detection of motion essentially requires the user to perform two major steps. They are: foremost step is to setup the hardware for acquiring the video data in which the motion is to be detected and the later step is to actually device an algorithm by which the motion will be detected. The AVI video format is actually an interleave of Audio and Video. The video stream is stored or acquired as a series of frames occurring in an ordered sequence one after the other

Compared with a conventional camera, images taken with a web camera have lower resolution due to the mapping of large field of view to the small camera lens in web camera and its sensor limitations. The image has generally non-uniform resolution and the resolution cannot be better than the cameras with standard imagers and is often inferior for most parts in an image

due to bigger pixel size. Hence, in this project investigation need to be done to check if motion detection is possible with such a low-resolution images by simple simulations.

TYPES OF TESTS UNIT TESTING Unit testing involves the design of test cases that validate that the internal program logic is functioning properly, and that program input produces valid outputs. All decision branches and internal code flow should be validated. It is the testing of individual software units of the application .it is done after the completion of an individual unit before integration. This is a structural testing, that relies on knowledge of its construction and is invasive. Unit tests perform basic tests at component level and test a specific business process, application, and/or system configuration. Unit tests ensure that each unique path of a business process performs accurately to the documented specifications and contains clearly defined inputs and expected results.

INTEGRATION TESTING Integration tests are designed to test integrated software components to determine if they actually run as one program. Testing is event driven and is more concerned with the basic outcome of screens or fields. Integration tests demonstrate that although the components were individually satisfaction, as shown by successfully unit testing, the combination of components is correct and consistent. Integration testing is specifically aimed at arise from the combination of components. exposing the problems that

FUNCTIONAL TESTING Functional tests provide systematic demonstrations that functions tested are available as specified by the business and technical requirements, system documentation and user manuals. Functional testing is centered on the following items: Valid Input Invalid Input Functions Output Systems/Procedures : identified classes of valid input must be accepted. : identified classes of invalid input must be rejected. : identified functions must be exercised. : identified classes of application outputs must be exercised. : interfacing systems or procedures must be invoked.

Organization and preparation of functional tests is focused on requirements, key functions, or special test cases. In addition, systematic coverage pertaining to identify Business process flows; data fields, predefined processes, and successive processes must be considered for testing. Before functional testing is complete, additional tests are identified and the effective value of current tests is determined.

SYSTEM TESTING System testing ensures that the entire integrated software system meets requirements. It tests a configuration to ensure known and predictable results. An example of system testing is the configuration oriented system integration test. System testing is based on process descriptions and flows, emphasizing pre-driven process links and integration points.

BOX TESTING White Box Testing is a testing in which the software tester has knowledge of the inner workings, structure and language of the software, or at least its purpose. It is used to test areas that cannot be reached from a black box level.

BLACK BOX TESTING Black Box Testing is testing the software without any knowledge of the inner workings, structure or language of the module being tested. Black box tests, as most other kinds of tests, must be written from a definitive source document, such as specification or requirements document, such as specification or requirements document. It is a testing in which the software under test is treated, as a black box .you cannot see into it. The test provides inputs and responds to outputs without considering how the software works.

UNIT TESTING Unit testing is usually conducted as part of a combined code and unit test phase of the software lifecycle, although it is not uncommon for coding and unit testing to be conducted as two distinct phases. TEST STRATEGY AND APPROACH Field testing will be performed manually and functional tests will be written in detail. Test objectives All field entries must work properly. Pages must be activated from the identified link. The entry screen, messages and responses must not be delayed. Features to be tested Verify that the entries are of the correct format

No duplicate entries should be allowed All links should take the user to the correct page.

Integration Testing Software integration testing is the incremental integration testing of two or more integrated software components on a single platform to produce failures caused by interface defects. The task of the integration test is to check that components or software applications, e.g. components in a software system or one step up software applications at the company level interact without error.

Acceptance Testing User Acceptance Testing is a critical phase of any project and requires significant participation by the end user. It also ensures that the system meets the functional requirements

Test Results All the test cases mentioned above passed successfully. No defects encountered.

CONCLUSION

A video monitoring & detection system was thus developed successfully in this paper. This system mainly provides an efficient method for surveillance purposes and is aimed to be highly beneficial for any person or organization. Thus, motion based change detection in avi video streaming was completed and successfully implemented. The future scope of the work done could be as follows: the due course of time as we started to understand the minute details of our work, we significantly realized that our software would be tremendously important in the future world. Following changes or additions can be done on our work to include some new features. With the existing alarm system, SMS alert system has been implemented

This method can be used to increase the security on web based applications. The user will be asked to provide the secret key and the password can be compared from image files using the key. It can be used as advancement over the existing option to input the security phrase in various web based applications. The stored video (or) Image can be automatically transferred to some email account so that an extra backup data can be used in future.

BIBILILOGRAPHY:

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