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10 Tips When Facilitating Discussion

Posted by Yudha Argapratama on June 19th, 2008


Your role during a group discussion is to facilitate the flow of comments from participants. Although it is not necessary to interject your comments after each participant speaks, periodically assisting the group with their contributions can be helpful. Here is a ten-point facilitation menu to use as you lead group discussions. 1. Paraphrase what a participant has said so that he or she feels understood and so that the other participants can hear a concise summary of what has been said.

So what youre saying is that you have to be very careful about asking applicants where they live during an interview because it might suggest some type of racial or ethnic affiliation.
2. Check your understanding of a participants statement or ask the participant to clarify what he or she is saying.

Are you saying that this plan is not realistic? Im not sure that I understand exactly what you meant. Could you please run it by us again?
3. Compliment an interesting or insightful comment.

Thats a good point. Im glad that you brought that to our attention.
4. Elaborate on a participants contribution to the discussion with examples, or suggest a new way to view the problem.

Your comments provide an interesting point from the employees perspective. It could also be useful to consider how a manager would view the same situation.
5. Energize a discussion by quickening the pace, using humor, or, if necessary, prodding the group for more contributions.

Heres a challenge for you. For the next two minutes, lets see how many ways you can think of to increase cooperation within your department.
6. Disagree (gently) with a participants comments to stimulate further discussion.

I can see where you are coming from, but Im not sure that what you are describing is always the case. Has anyone else had an experience that is different from Jims?
7. Mediate differences of opinion between participants and relieve any tensions that may be brewing.

I think that Susan and Mary are not really disagreeing with each other but are just bringing out two different sides of this issue.
8. Pull together ideas, showing their relationship to each other.

As you can see from Dans and Jeans comments, personal goal setting is very much a part of time management. You need to be able to establish goals for yourself on a daily basis in order to more effectively manage your time.

9. Change the group process by altering the method for obtaining participation or by having the group evaluate ideas that have been presented.

Lets break into smaller groups and see whether you can come up with some typical customer objections to the products that were covered in the presentation this morning.
10. Summarize (and record, if desired) the major views of the group.

I have noted four major reasons that have come from our discussion as to why managers do not delegate: (1) lack of confidence, (2) fear of failure, (3) comfort in doing the task themselves, and (4) fear of being replaced.
Source : 101 Ways to Make Training Active, 2nd Ed. Mel Silberman.2005

Menghadapi orang Sulit : Mengenali 10 perilaku yang tidak diinginkan


Posted by Yudha Argapratama on July 15th, 2008
Apa saja 10 perilaku yang tidak diinginkan ? Kita menjawab pertanyaan tersebut dengan sedikit berbeda, tergantung kekuatan dan kelemahan komunikasi interpersonal kita. Tapi secara umum kita setuju tentang orang yang sulit dan apa yang mereka lakukan yang membuat mereka terlihat sulit. Saat ini telah diidentifikasi 10 pola perilaku yang spesifik yang dirasakan orang secara umum ketika merasa terancam atau terhalang, yang menggambarkan usaha mereka dengan atau (menghindar dari) keadaan yang tidak diinginkan. Berikut tipe dan ciri-cirinya :

1. Si Panser (The Tank)


Ambisius dan kejam, keras dan kuat, atau dengan intensitas yang tenang dan presisi sinar laser, Si panser berasumsi bahwa hasil akhir adalah tujuan. Jika anda menghalangi jalan, anda akan dieliminasi. 2.Si Penembak Jitu (The Sniper) Orang licik yang bersembunyi ini benci kepada anda dengan beberapa alasan. Dari pada marah, dia akan membalas dengan mengidentifikasi kelemahan anda dan menggunakannya untuk melawan anda, melalui sabotase, gosip dan isu. 3.Si Granat (The Grenade) Orang ini meledak dengan kemarahan yang hebat yang terlihat tidak proporsional dengan kondisi, membuat orang lain lari bersembunyi dan bertanya-tanya apa yang terjadi. 4.Si Serba Tahu (The Know-It-All) Orang ini mengetahui 98 persen tentang apa saja. (silahkan Tanya) Si Serba Tahu akan memberi tahu anda apa yang yang mereka tahu selama berjam-jam tetapi tidak mau memberi kesempatan untuk mendengarkan pendapat anda.

5.Si Sok Tahu (The Think-They-Know-It-All) Walaupun orang ini tidak tahu banyak, mereka tidak membiarkan hal tersebut menghalangi mereka. Jika anda tidak tahu banyak tentang hal yang mereka bicarakan, mereka mungkin akan menyesatkan anda ke dalam kesulitan atau membuat project keluat jalur. 6.Si Penjilat (The Yes Person) Cepat sekali setuju, lambat bergerak, Si Penjilat meninggalkan jejak komitmen yang tidak terpenuhi atau janji yang dilanggar. Walaupun mereka tidak menyenangkan siapapun, mereka bersikeras untuk menyenangkan hati. 7.Si Plin Plan (The Maybe Person) Ketika menghadapi keputusan yang penting, Si Plin plan membiarkan hal tersebut sampai semuanya terlambat. Akhirnya, keputusan tersebut terjadi dengan sendirinya. Hal itu bukan salah siapapun kecuali dirinya sendiri. 8. Si Tidak ada (The Nothing Person) Anda tidak pernah tahu apa yang terjadi karena orang ini tidak memberi tahu anda apapun tidak ada masukan, verbal maupun non verbal. 9.Si Negatif (The No Person) Orang ini selalu mengatakan, setiap kabut selalu punya kegelapan dan Saya bukan negatif, hanya realistis Muram dan menakut-nakuti, Si negative menggiring orang menuju keputusasaan. 10.Si Perengek (The Whiner) Orang ini selalu merasa sengsara, merengek terus menerus, dan menarik orang melamah dengan generalisasi bahwa tidak ada yang benar, semuaya salah, dan semua hal akan terjadi seperti itu kecuali anda melakukan sesuatu. Beberapa ide awal untuk menghadapi 10 tipe yang tidak diinginkan : 1. Memahami bahwa setiap orang bereaksi berbeda terhadap berbagi macam tipe perilaku : Orang yang sangat mengganggu anda mungkin bisa diterima dengan baik oleh orang lain. 2. Mengenali dengan baik setiap tipe: Masing masing menuntut respon yang berbeda. Pikirkan tentang orang lain di sekitar anda. Apakah ada orang di kantor atau di rumah yang memenuhi criteria tersebut ? 3. Mengenali peran yang anda mainkan: Kita dapat menjadi sulit pada suatu waktu. Memahami setiap perilaku akan membantu anda sukses dengan orang lain. Diadaptasi dari : Dealing With Difficult People. Rick Brinkman & Rick Kirschner .2003

10 Assignments to Give Learning Partners


Posted by Yudha Argapratama on June 17th, 2008

One of the most effective and efficient ways to promote active training is to divide a class into pairs and compose learning partnerships. It is hard to get left out in a pair. It is also hard to hide in one. Learning partnerships can be short term or long-term. Learning partners can undertake a wide variety of quick tasks or more time-consuming assignments, such as those in the list below. 1. Share your reactions to an assigned reading, an exercise, or a video (for example, What were your reactions to the ways in which customers were entertained in the Fish video?). 2. Discuss a short written document with each other (for example, Please discuss the strategic plan you read before class and identify anything you thought was unclear). 3. Practice a skill with each other (for example, Please take a few minutes with your partner and practice giving constructive performance feedback to someone you supervise). 4. Recap a lecture or demonstration together (for example, With your partner, review the key points of the presentation we just heard from our guest speaker). 5. Develop questions together to ask the facilitator (for example, I would like each pair to create a question together about the software we just tried out). 6. Analyze a case problem or exercise together (for example, Take the next ten minutes and work together on the business ethics problem concerning conflicts of interest). 7. Test each other (for example, I would like each of you to take turns testing your partners product knowledge of each of the four new loan programs we are introducing next month). 8. Respond to a question posed by the facilitator (for example, Get together with your partner and come up with a joint answer to the first question in our discussion guide). 9. Compare how you completed a task, such as a survey (for example, Show your partner your scores on the EQ scale we just completed. See where you differ). 10. Read each others written work (for example, Show your partner the functional resume you prepared for this session and ask for feedback).
Source : 101 Ways to Make Training Active, 2nd Ed. Mel Silberman.2005

10 Questions for Obtaining Participant Expectations


Posted by Yudha Argapratama on June 6th, 2008 Ada bermacam pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang dapat anda lakukan untuk menemukan kebutuhan, harapan-harapan, dan perhatian dari peserta training sehingga anda dapat mencocokkan penyampaian training dengan tepat. Anda dapat memperoleh jawab melalui diskusi terbuka, berkeliling ruangan, response cards, polling, panel-panel, game-game, dan seterusnya. Berikut bebrapa pertanyaan yang dapat anda gunakan : 1. Mengapa anda memilih training/program ini? Mengapa anda datang?

2. Pertanyaan-pertanyaan apa yang muncul tentang [topik/materi training] ini? 3. Apa masukan, informasi, atau ketrampilan-ketrampilan yang ingin Anda dapat dari program ini? 4. Apa masukan, informasi, atau ketrampilan-ketrampilan yang tidak anda perlukan atau anda inginkan? 5. Apa yang anda ingin hilangkan/kurangi dari program ini? sebutkan satu hal. 6. Apakah yang anda harapkan dari program ini? Apakah yang perhatian anda? 7. Apakah sasaran program ini sesuai dengan keinginan anda ? 8. Apa pengetahuan atau ketrampilan-ketrampilan yang Anda rasakan ingin anda miliki? 9. Apakah harapan-harapan Anda tentang program ini? 10. Apa yang sudah anda pelajari dari program sebelumnya tentang topik ini? Source : 101 Ways to Make Training Active. Mel Silberman.2005

Defining and demystifying coaching


Posted by Yudha Argapratama on June 2nd, 2008
By Jessica Jarvis
The term coaching has come to refer to many different activities. Although this guide focuses on the use of coaching in organizational settings, it can be used in many other situations. Its early use in the business world often carried a remedial connotation people were coached because they were under performing or their behavior was unsatisfactory. These days, coaching is more usually seen as a means of developing people within an organization in order that they perform more effectively and reach their potential. Confusion exists about what exactly coaching is, and how it is different from other helping behaviors such as counseling and mentoring. A variety of niche types of coaching have also developed as the term has been popularized life coaching, skills coaching, health coaching, executive coaching, to name but a few. In part, this may have arisen as a result of some practitioners taking advantage of a popular new term and applying it to their general services. Consequently, coaching has suffered from a degree of mis perception and misrepresentation. To make things worse, people often use the terms interchangeably so that one persons life coaching is anothers developmental mentoring. Many organizations use the terms to mean specific things in th eir own organizational contexts and others choose the terminology that seems most acceptable within their organization. The result is that the same definitions are being applied to a variety of terms. These problems around terminology are illustrated in the 2004 training and development survey results, where 81% of respondents agreed that there is a great deal of confusion around what is meant by the term coaching. There is lively debate about this topic by academics and practitioners alike, which has led to a certain fixation about the need for agreed definitions. While this debate rages, more and more terms emerge

and there seem to be almost as many definitions of coaching as there are practitioners. The fact that Europe and the US interpret the words slightly differently adds further to the confusion. A selection of definitions of coaching are provided in Table 6, but these are merely a handful of those in use. In this Guide, we simply try to illustrate and explain the key differences between some of the common terms that are currently being used. We will then concentrate on suggesting ways for practitioners to ensure they have secured a good understanding of what exactly coaches mean when they describe their services.

Definitions of coaching
Parsloe (1999) A process that enables learning and development to occur and thus performance to improve Whitmore (1996) Unlocking a persons potential to maximize their own performance CIPD coaching courses definition The overall purpose of coach-mentoring is to provide help and support for people in an increasingly competitive and pressurized world in order to help them: develop their skills improve their performance maximize their potential and to become the person they want to be Clutterbuck (2003) Primarily a short-term intervention aimed at performance improvement or developing a particular competence Starr (2003) A conversation, or series of conversations, one person has with another Downey (1999) The art of facilitating the performance, learning and development of another Concise Oxford Dictionary Defines the verb coach tutor, train, give hints to, prime with facts Caplan (2003) A coach is a collaborative partner who works with the learner to help them achieve goals, solve problems, learn and develop

Hall et al (1999) Meant to be a practical, goal-focused form of personal, one-on-one learning for busy executives and may be used to improve performance or executive behavior, enhance a career or prevent derailment, and work through organizational issues or change initiatives. Essentially, coaches provide executives with feedback they would normally never get about personal, performance, career and organizational issues Grant (2000) A collaborative, solution-focused, results-oriented and systematic process in which the coach facilitates the enhancement of work performance, life experience, self-directed learning and personal growth of the coach

Some generally agreed characteristics of coaching in organizations


Although there is a lack of agreement about precise definitions, there are some core characteristics of coaching activities that are generally agreed on by most coaching professionals: It consists of one-to-one developmental discussions. It provides people with feedback on both their strengths and weaknesses. It is aimed at specific issues/areas. It is a relatively short-term activity, except in executive coaching, which tends to have a longer time frame. It is essentially a non-directive form of development. It focuses on improving performance and developing/enhancing individuals skills. It is used to address a wide range of issues. Coaching activities have both organizational and individual goals. It assumes that the individual is psychologically healthy and does not requir e a clinical intervention. It works on the premise that clients are self-aware, or can achieve self-awareness. It is time-bounded. It is a skilled activity. Personal issues may be discussed but the emphasis is on performance at work. Broadly speaking, from the CIPDs perspective, coaching is developing a persons skills and knowledge so that their job performance improves, hopefully leading to the achievement of organizational objectives. It targets high performance and improvement at work, although it may also have an impact on an individuals private life. It usually lasts for a short period and focuses on specific skills and goals. Source : Coaching and buying coaching services. A Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development Guide. By Jessica Jarvis. 2004

METODE METODE PENGUKURAN & EVALUASI TRAINING Posted by Yudha Argapratama on May 26th, 2008 Beberapa waktu lalu pernah diposting di Milis Trainers Club Indonesia tentang pengukuran dan evaluasi pelatihan. Pada posting tersebut mengambil Kerangka atau Metode yang dipopulerkan oleh Jack J Philips tentang 5 Level Evaluasi Training. Sebenarnya ada cukup banyak metode evaluasi pengukuran yang dipakai saat ini. Semuanya bertujuan untuk melaporkan keberhasilan program training dan program perbaikan kinerja. Beberapa metode berfokus pada kesuksesan secara Finansial, yang lain pada data non Finansial, serta ada juga yang menawarkan pendekatan yang seimbang dalam mengukur hasil dari suatu program. Sebagai bahan untuk memperkaya wawasan kita, berikut beberapa metode Evaluasi & Pengukuran Training yang dipakai saat ini. Metode metode ini dikutip dari buku THE ROI FIELD BOOK, Strategies for Implementing ROI in HR & Training (Patricia Phillips, Jack J Phillips, Ron Drew Stone, & Holly Burkett), 2007 : 1. Benefit Cost Analysis Mungkin proses/metode tertua untuk mengevaluasi pengeluaran suatu program adalah benefit cost analysis. Didasarkan pada kerangka teori ekonomi dan keuangan, maksud utama dari Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) adalah untuk memastikan organisasi mempertahankan level optimum dari efisiensi dalam alokasi sumber daya. Seperti penggunaan utamanya dalam ekonomi & keuangan, metode ini juga dipakai dalam pendidikan dan pelatihan. 2. Four-Level Framework dari Kirkpatrick Kerangka yang paling umum dalam training dan evaluasinya adalah yang dikembangkan oleh Donald Kirkpatrick pada akhir 1950-an. Kerangka ini menggambarkan 4 level evaluasi : 1. 1. 2. 3. 4. Level 1 : Reaction Level 2 : Learning Level 3 : Job Behavior Level 4 : Results

Banyak usaha yang berhasil dibangun pada konsep 4 level dari Kirkpatrick ini. 3. Five-Level ROI Framework dari Jack J Phillips Metode dari Jack Phillips ini merupakan metode yang paling luas digunakan untuk mengevaluasi program training dan program perbaikan kinerja. Philips menambahkan ROI (Return on Investment) sebagai level ke 5. Memperkenalkan bahwa untuk memindahkan level 4 ke level 5, pengukuran level 4 harus dikonversi ke nilai moneter (uang), seluruh biaya harus dicatat, keuntungan intangible harus diidentifikasi, dan keuntungan moneter dibandingkan dengan biaya. Karena itu, mengkombinasikan pendekatan Kirkpatrick dengan Benefit Cost Analysis untuk memastikan keseimbangan pengukuran dilaporkan.

Jack Philips menggunakan 5 level sebagai kerangka. Dia juga mengembangkan proses yang sistematis termasuk Performance-based methodology, strategi, pendekatan, dan tool untuk mengimplementasikan evaluasi di semua level. Metode tersebut juga termasuk tahap kritis untuk mengisolasi efek dari program pada pengukuran dari pengaruh faktor lain. Selain itu, proses tersebut mengidentifikasi penghambat & pendorong untuk berhasil dan memberikan rekomendasi untuk perbaikan berkelanjutan (Continuous Improvement) 4. Five Level of Evaluations dari Kaufman Kaufman memperluas kerangka Kirkpatrick dengan mendefinisikan Level 1 termasuk kemungkinan dari berbagai sumber daya dan masukan yang penting untuk berhasil, serta menambahkan level 5 evaluasi pada perhatian pada aspek sosial dan respon dari organisasi. 5. CIRO Watt, Bird & Rackham mengemukakan kerangka lain yang mengkategorikan empat kategori evaluasi yang disebut CIRO. CIRO merupakan singkatan dari Context (Konteks), Input (Masukan), Process (Proses), dan Outcome (Hasil). 6. CIPP CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model yang diperkenalkan oleh Stufflebeam memiliki kerangka yang fokus pada sararan program, fasilitasi isi training, implementasi program, dan hasil dari program. 7.Model of Evaluation Knowledge & Skills dari Marshal & Schriver Model lima tahap ini mengevaluasi pengetahuan & ketrampilan. Model ini terbagi: 1. 1. Level 1 : Mengukur sikap & perasaan peserta 2. Level 2 : Mengukur pengetahuan dengan test tertulis 3. Level 3 : Mengukur Ketrampilan dan pengetahuan dengan mensyaratkan peserta untuk menunjukkan kemampuan unjuk kerja berdasarkan standar 4. Level 4 : Mengukur Transfer ketrampilan 5. Level 5 : Mengukur dampak bagi organisasi & ROI 2. 8. Business Impact ISD Model dari Indiana University Proses evaluasi yang termasuk dalam Business Impact Instructional Systems Design Model ini didasarkan pada enam strata dari dampak yang dimulai dari Stratum 0, yang menghitung aktivitas seperti volume dari training yang diselenggarakan atau jumlah peserta dalam program. Stratum 1, mengukur kepuasan peserta terhadap program Stratum 2, mengukur tingkat peserta dalam mendapat pengetahuan dan ketrampilan dalam program

Stratum3, mengukur transfer dari training, untuk menjawab petanyaan apakah peserta menggunakan/memanfaatkan apa yang mereka pelajari ? Stratum 4, mengukur tingkat perbaikan kinerja peserta dan apakah perbaikan tersebut berpengaruh terhadap profit Stratum 5, berusaha mengukur pengaruh perubahan kinerja dalam organisasi 9. Success Case Evaluation Success Case Evaluation yang diperkenalkan Brinkerhoff menggunakan purposive sampling (mengambil sample secara sengaja/terencana) dibandingkan random sampling (mengambil sample secara acak) untuk mengumpulkan data mengenai keberhasilan program. Proses ini fokus pada masukan dari peserta yang paling berhasil dan paling tidak berhasil dalam mengimplementasikan pengetahuan dan ketrampilan yang didapat selama program. Selama proses, peserta diminta untuk menceritakan keberhasilan aplikasi program dan merinci penghsmbat atau pendorong yang menghalangi atau mendukung penggunaan ketrampilan dan pengetahuan yang dipelajari. 10.Utility Analysis Cascio yang memperkenalkan utility analysis kepada umum. Utility analysis adalah proses yang memasukkan hasil yang diharapkan dan biaya dari keputusan yang diambil ke dalam perhitungan. Hasil yang spesifik didefinisikan dan kepentingan relatif dari pendapatan diputuskan. 11.Integral Framework dari Brown & Reed Pendekatan yang menyeluruh dalam evaluasi mencakup pembelajaran individu dan organisasi. Empat konsep kunci dalam pendekatan ini termasuk kumpulan pengembangan; merujuk pada hubungan antara peserta dengan organisasi; hubungan antar bidang, mengusulkan bahwa pengembangan tergantung interaksi individu dengan group yang lebih besar;Kerangka Integral, mengusulkan bahwa pengembangan satu bidang berhubungan dengan pengembangan bidang yang lain. 12. Balanced Scorecard Metode yang umum dalam level strategi organisasi, adalah Balanced Scorecard yang dikembangkan oleh Kaplan & Norton. Kerangka ini menampilkan visi organisasi ke dalam empat perspektif (Financial, Costumer, Internal Process, dan Learning & Growth). Fokus dari Scorecard adalah mengarahkan strategi dari unit bisnis seperti Fungsi Training.

The Benefits of Positive Attitude

Posted by Yudha Argapratama on May 9th, 2008 These are many and easy to see. But what is easy to see is also easy to miss. To mention a few, a positive attitude increases productivity fosters teamwork solves problems improves quality makes for congenial atmosphere breeds loyalty increases profits fosters better relationships with employers, employees, and customers reduces stress helps a person become a contributing member of society and an asset to their country makes for a pleasing personality Source : Shiv Khera. You Can Win

The Four Steps to Positive Momentum


Posted by Yudha Argapratama on May 6th, 2008
We will explore all the necessary steps to stop and intervene the downward spiral towards depression. If you want to make positive progress in your life, then you need to think about how to apply these four steps. 1. Begin believing you can change. Often we try improving our physical, financial and emotional circumstances so many times, without success, that we are afraid of trying to change again. This naturally leads to skepticism. People are not skeptical by nature, people are skeptical as a result of past failures. Its impossible to stop and intervene into your present downward spiral unless you believe you can. Arent there people who seem to have everything in life going against them, who have nevertheless intervened and stop the momentum of a downward spiral? Of course there are. The truth is that you can change anything you want if you have a BIG enough why. And this is the first step to intervening in your downward spiral. Begin by using the power of pain-threshold to cause motivation in the area you want to change. 2. Get Confident If other people have changed the momentum of a downward spiral then so can you. How do you go about stopping and intervening the momentum of a negative downward spiral? Focus on your circle of control. When you feel you are in control of your life, then you are more likely to have confidence in yourself. There are only three commonalties worldwide. We all have 24/hours per day. We are all motivated by pain and pleasure. We all have free-will (the ability to make choices). All interventions into our downward spiral require three things: 1. New goals.

2. A plan we believe in. 3. The necessary motivation. All three of these steps are within your circle of control. All progress requires some level of control. Control breeds confidence confidence that you can do it, then confidence that you will do it. The truth is if you follow all these three steps, along with the key to success, you will get positive results. In fact I can guarantee it. Unless some circumstances outside of your circle of control stops you, you have the power to achieve your desired goals. You will be able to intervene and turn your downward spiral into one that shoots for the moon. 3. Get Excited If you believe your future finances, relationships, career and all other areas of your life will get better, you will get excited. This excitement is what fuels you for the next necessary step of positive momentum. But before you can experience the benefits of your excitement, you will need to feel uncomfortable. 4. Get Uncomfortable All worthy progress on the upward spiral of success first requires that we get uncomfortable. And this is the problem. As you learn in this book people dont want to get uncomfortable. But to reverse the negative spiral, this is a prerequisite. Unless you control pain and pleasure, you will not be able to pay the price necessary to succeed. The Two Discomforts and How They Control Your Success Positive momentum requires a necessary push. This requires effort. Effort requires motivation. Once momentum gets going, you wont require so much motivation but until then you need to push hard. Pushing hard means getting uncomfortable. You wont push hard unless you get the necessary motivation and get a 100% committed. This is the first type of discomfort. This type of discomfort works against you. The other type of discomfort is the one that compels you to follow through on your goals. Its uncomfortable to work, achieve goals and work your plan BUT its more uncomfortable quitting. If youve used the power of motivation effectively then quitting will be unbearable and extremely uncomfortable. Quitting must be more uncomfortable then the effort necessary if youre going to achieve any worthy goals. After discomfort comes 4. Joy, Love and Peace After discomfort comes joy. As you achieve financial independence, good health, great relationships, a great career you begin feeling the joy, love and peace of these achievements. Source : Michael Bolduc. Power of Motivation. 2000