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ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS

Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee


Advanced Legal Studies Institute
P.O.Box 3013, Islamabad
Revised edition published
by the Federal Law House,
Head Oce:Mian Plaza, Chandni Chowk,
Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tel. No. (051) 4843011, 4571229
Branch: 7, Turner Road, Near High Court
Lahore, Pakistan. Tel. No. 0322-4843011
First Published: 2013
2013 by Imran Ahsan Khan Nyazee.
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may
be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any
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ISBN
Printed in Pakistan
by
Haji Hanif & Sons
Lahore, Pakistan.
TABIE OI CONTENTS
PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
I INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY OF
LEGAL MAXIMS 13
Ch. 1 Introduction 15
1.1 Tlo Torms Qidah and As
.
l in IsIamic Iav . 15
1.2 Mollods in Us
.
l al-Fiqh Allribulod lo llo }u-
risls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.1 Tlo Mollod of llo H
.
anafs or llo Mollod
of llo }urisls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
1.2.2 Tlo Mollod of llo Majorily SclooIs or llo
Mollod of llo MulakaIIimn . . . . . . 17
1.2.3 Mollod Tlal Combinos llo Tvo Irovious
Mollods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2.4 Tlo Mollod of Takhrj Al al-Us
.
l . . . 17
1.2.5 Tlo Mollod of Us
.
l Tlrougl llo Maqs
.
id 18
1.2.6 Mollod of llo AlI H
.
adll` . . . . . . . 18
1.3 Our AnaIysis of llo CIassicalion of Mollods 18
1.3.1 GonoraI AnaIysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.3.2 AnaIysis RoIovanl for Qawid Fiqhiyyah 2O
Ch. 2 Essential Terminology and the Nature of
Rules in Islamic Law 23
2.1 Tlo MuIlipIo Moanings of llo Torm H
.
ukm . 24
2.2 RuIos, IrincipIos, Illah, H
.
ikmah and RalionaIo 27
2.2.1 Tlo Naluro of a RuIo . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2.2 IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
2.2.3 Tlo RuIo and ils RalionaIo . . . . . . . 3O
2.3 Irosumplions, Iroposilions and IogaI Max-
ims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1
2 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
2.3.1 Irosumplions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
2.3.1.1 IogisIalivo Irosumplions . . . . 33
2.3.1.2 Irosumplions of GonoraI AppIica-
biIily . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.3.1.3 Irosumplion of Iav . . . . . . 34
2.3.1.4 Irosumplion of Iacl . . . . . . 34
2.3.2 Maxims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3.3 Iroposilions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.4 Bb, D
.
awbit
.
, Qawid and Naz
.
ariyyah . . . . 35
2.4.1 Tlo Bb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.4.2 D
.
awbit
.
, Qawid and Naz
.
ariyyah . . . . 36
Ch. 3 Understanding the Development of
Qawid Fiqhiyyah as a Discipline 39
3.1 Tlo Boginning al Kufa . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2 Tlo Soparalion of llo RuIos . . . . . . . . . 41
3.3 SampIo Qawid Us
.
liyyah . . . . . . . . . . 42
3.4 Qawid Fiqhiyyah Aflor aI-Dabbs . . . . . 45
3.5 Qawid Fiqhiyyah in Moro Roconl Timos . . 47
Ch. 4 The Interpretation of Facts and the Func-
tion of the Qawid Fiqhiyyah 49
4.1 Inlorproling llo Iacls . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4.2 Tlo Iunclions Tlal IrincipIos Iorform in Is-
Iamic Iav . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Ch. 5 Analysis of What has BeenStudiedso far
and the Methodology Followed in This
Book 55
5.1 Quoslioning Somo Donilions . . . . . . . . 55
5.2 Wlal Wo Cannol Sludy in Tlis Subjocl . . . 56
5.3 Tlo OvorIap Will Us
.
l al-Fiqh . . . . . . . . 58
5.4 Tlo MollodoIogy of Tlis Book . . . . . . . 6O
5.5 Advanlagos for Iuluro Rosoarcl: IogaI Con-
copls and Associalod Tloorios . . . . . . . . 62
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 3
II LEGAL MAXIMS AND LEGAL CON-
CEPTS 65
Ch. 6 The Sharah as a Single Bb 67
6.1 Siysah Shariyyah: Tlo IogaI and SociaI IoIi-
cios of llo Sharah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.1.1 Tlo Basic Torms of Tlis Topic . . . . . 68
6.1.2 Tlo DovoIopmonl of llo Iivo IrincipIos
and Aroa of Oporalion . . . . . . . . . 7O
6.1.3 Tlo Conlonl of llo IoIicios . . . . . . . 72
6.1.4 Convorling IoIicios inlo Nov Iav . . . 74
6.2 Tlo RoIo of Inlonlions . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.2.1 Inlonlions and llo Horoaflor . . . . . . 76
6.2.2 Inlonlions and llo Iav . . . . . . . . . 77
6.2.2.1 Acls of Worslip . . . . . . . . 78
6.2.2.2 Marriago, Divorco and Emancipa-
lion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.2.2.3 Conlracls in GonoraI . . . . . . 81
6.2.2.4 CriminaI Iav and Torls . . . . 83
6.3 Iooking al llo Consoquoncos . . . . . . . . 86
6.4 TriviaIilios lo bo OvorIookod . . . . . . . . . 9O
6.5 Tlings Occurring IsuaIIy lo bo Assignod llo
IsuaI RuIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
6.6 In llo Caso of Subslilulion, llo Subslilulion
Nood Nol bo CompIolo . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
6.7 Wlon a Iarl lo bo Considorod llo WloIo . 94
6.8 Wlona Iarl of llo WloIo las a Soparalo H
.
ukm 95
6.9 A Conlinuing Acl May bo Assignod llo RuIo
of llo IniliaI Slalo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Ch. 7 The Bb of Ibh
.
ah (Permissibility) 99
7.1 Tlo Govorning IrincipIo of Tlis Bb . . . . 99
7.2 IiabiIily of Human Boings in GonoraI: Tlo
Covonanl Will llo Croalor . . . . . . . . . . 1O1
7.2.1 Tlo Naluro of llo Covonanl: Tlo ObIiga-
lions and llo Domand for Iorformanco 1O2
Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo
4 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
7.2.2 Casos in Wlicl Iorformanco is nol Ro-
quirod and is Suspondod or Exlinguislod
AIlogollor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1O5
7.2.2.1 Tlo Minor . . . . . . . . . . . 1O6
7.2.2.2 Insanily and Idiocy . . . . . . 1O6
7.2.2.3 SIoop and Iils of Iainling . . . . 1O6
7.2.2.4 IorgolfuInoss and Mislako . . . 1O7
7.2.2.5 Monslrualion and SIavory . . . 1O8
7.2.2.6 Tlo IiabiIily of Non-MusIims . 1O8
7.2.3 Hov Doos llo Covonanl DoaI Will llo
Aroa of Ibh
.
ah (IormissibiIily) Nol Cov-
orod So Iar: al-h
.
ujaj al-aqliyyah . . . . . 1O9
7.3 Tlings Tlal Musl AIvays bo Mubh
.
. . . . 11O
7.4 Tlings Tlal Musl AIvays bo Irolibilod . . 112
7.5 Tlings Tlal May IossibIy bo Iormillod, bul
nol NocossariIy: Indorslanding llo Main
IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
7.6 ConcIusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Ch. 8 Presumption of Continuity (Istis
.
h
.
b al-
H
.
l) 119
8.1 Tlo Moaning of Istis
.
h
.
b . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
8.1.1 Typos of Istis
.
h
.
b and Tloir IogaI VaIidily 12O
8.2 Doubl and Corlainly . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
8.3 Istis
.
hb al-h
.
l (Irosumplion of Conlinuily) is
a Dofonsivo Irosumplion and Doos nol Eslab-
Iisl a Rigll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
8.4 MiscoIIanoous Irosumplions . . . . . . . . . 128
Ch. 9 The Bb of Ibdt: Acts of Worship 131
Ch. 10 The Bb of Contracts 137
1O.1 Tlo IrincipIo of Rib and RoIalod Irosump-
lions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
1O.2 Tlo IrincipIo of ConlracluaI IiabiIily . . . 14O
1O.2.1 Tlo Iink Will llo IrincipIo of Rib . . 141
1O.2.2 Iassago of TilIo in SaIos and Wlal can bo
IavfuIIy SoId . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 5
1O.2.3 IrincipIo of IiabiIily and Businoss Organi-
zalion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
1O.3 IrincipIo for llo SoId Commodily: Ovnor-
slip and Iossossion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
1O.3.1 Tlings nol Ovnod . . . . . . . . . . . 145
1O.3.2 Tlings nol in Iossossion: SoIIing Iood Bo-
foro Iossossion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
1O.3.3 Tlo Exomplion in llo Caso of Salam . . 148
1O.4 Tlo IrincipIo of Irolibilion of Gharar: Tlo
Misundorslood IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 149
1O.5 Suspondod (Mawqf ) Conlracls and Ralica-
lion: Tlo Inaullorizod Agonl . . . . . . . . 15O
1O.5.1 BuiIding llo RuIos of Ralicalion . . . 152
1O.5.2 AppIying llo RuIos of Suspondod Con-
lracls and Ralicalion . . . . . . . . . . 157
1O.6 Fasd, Condilions and SlipuIalions . . . . . 159
Ch. 11 Liability in General 165
11.1 DovoIoping a Tloory of IiabiIily . . . . . . 165
11.2 GonoraI RuIo for Injurios . . . . . . . . . . . 166
11.3 Tlo Doslruclion of Iroporly and ils Compon-
salion (D
.
amn) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Ch. 12 The Bb of Shubhah 173
12.1 Tlo Oporalion of Shubhah in Crimos . . . . 173
12.2 Expanding llo Oporalion of Shubhah lo Iam-
iIy Iav and Ollor Casos . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Ch. 13 Legal Necessity, Hardhip, Need, Prohi-
bitions and Permissions 179
13.1 Duross Aocling Human Iifo and Iimbs . 179
13.2 Nocossily as GonoraI Nood . . . . . . . . . . 183
13.3 Casos of Hardslip: Exomplions (Rukhas
.
) . . 185
13.4 Irolibilions and Iormissions . . . . . . . . 188
Ch. 14 dah and Urf 191
14.1 Tlo Dioronl Moanings of dah . . . . . . . 191
Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo
6 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
14.1.1 dah as a IlysicaI or Scionlic Iacl Silua-
lion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
14.1.2 dah as CommorciaI or Ollor Irac-
licoWlollor Good or Bad . . . . . . 197
14.2 Maxims DoaIing Will Urf (Isago, Cuslom-
ary Iraclico) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
14.2.1 Typos of Urf : Division inlo usago and
praclico . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
14.2.2 IogaI Maxims Aboul Urf . . . . . . . 2OO
Ch. 15 Drs, Jurisdiction and Non-Muslims 207
15.1 Tlo Concopl of llo Dr . . . . . . . . . . . . 2O7
15.2 Tlo Dr al-Islm and ils Non-MusIim Rosi-
donls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
Ch. 16 Legal Rights 217
16.1 Riglls Tlal Cannol bo Transforrod or RoIin-
quislod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
16.1.1 Iuro Riglls of AIIal . . . . . . . . . . 221
16.1.2 Wloro llo Rigll of AIIal and llo Rigll of
llo IndividuaI aro Boll InvoIvod, bul llo
Rigll of AIIal is Irodominanl . . . . . 222
16.1.3 Iuro Riglls of llo IndividuaI . . . . . . 222
16.2 Riglls Tlal Can bo Transforrod or RoIin-
quislod . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
16.2.1 Wloro llo Rigll of AIIal and llo Rigll of
llo IndividuaI aro Boll InvoIvod, bul llo
Rigll of IndividuaI is Irodominanl . . 223
16.2.2 Iuro Riglls of llo IndividuaI . . . . . . 223
16.2.2.1 Riglls Iinkod lo llo Ayn (ClalloI) 224
16.2.2.2 Riglls Iinkod lo llo Dayn (Do-
forrod CIaim) . . . . . . . . . 225
16.2.2.3 Iuro Riglls (H
.
uqq Mujarradah) 225
16.3 DoIogaling Riglls Nol Iossossod . . . . . . 228
16.4 RoIinquislod Riglls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Ch. 17 Evidence and Declarations 231
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 7
17.1 GonoraI Irosumplion of Voracily for AII Mus-
Iims . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
17.2 RoIovanl Iacls and Inforoncos lo bo Dravn . 233
17.3 Tlo Prima Facie Iosilion and llo Burdon of
Iroof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Ch. 18 Ijtihd and Fatws 239
18.1 Tlo Inlogrily of ijtihd . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
18.2 Tloro is no Ijtihd Wlon llo Toxl is AbsoIuloIy
CIoar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Appendices 243
A Us
.
l al-Karkh With Translation 245
A.1 Inlroduclion: Imm aI-Karkl . . . . . . . . 245
A.2 IroIiminary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
A.3 Tlo Iirsl IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
A.4 Tlo Socond IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
A.5 Tlo Tlird IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
A.6 Tlo Iourll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
A.7 Tlo Iifll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
A.8 Tlo Sixll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
A.9 Tlo Sovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
A.1OTlo Eiglll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
A.11Tlo Ninll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
A.12Tlo Tonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
A.13Tlo EIovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
A.14Tlo TvoIfll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
A.15Tlo Tlirloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 256
A.16Tlo Iourloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 256
A.17Tlo Iifloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
A.18Tlo Sixloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
A.19Tlo Sovonloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 259
A.2OTlo Eiglloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 259
A.21Tlo Ninoloonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 26O
A.22Tlo Tvonlioll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 261
A.23Tlo Tvonlyrsl IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 262
A.24Tlo Tvonlysocond IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 263
Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo
8 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
A.25Tlo Tvonlyllird IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 263
A.26Tlo Tvonlyfourll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 264
A.27Tlo Tvonlyfll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 265
A.28Tlo Tvonlysixll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 266
A.29Tlo Tvonlysovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . 267
A.3OTlo Tvonlyoiglll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 267
A.31Tlo Tvonlyninll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 269
A.32Tlo Tlirlioll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
A.33Tlo Tlirlyrsl IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 272
A.34Tlo Tlirlysocond IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 273
A.35Tlo Tlirlyllird IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 274
A.36Tlo Tlirlyfourll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 275
A.37Tlo Tlirlyll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
A.38Tlo Tlirlysixll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . . 277
A.39Tlo Tlirlysovonll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . 277
A.4OTlo Tlirlyoiglll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 278
A.41Tlo Tlirlyninll IrincipIo . . . . . . . . . . 28O
B Excerpts From al-Dabbss Tass al-Naz
.
ar 281
B.1 Ab Zayd Ibayd AIIl ibn Imar s aI-
Dabbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
B.2 Tlo Inlroduclion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
B.3 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Ab H
.
anfal and llo
Tvo DiscipIos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
B.4 Disagroomonl of Ab H
.
anfal and Ab Ysuf
Will Mulammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
B.5 Disagroomonl of Ab H
.
anfal and Mulam-
mad Will Ab Ysuf . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293
B.6 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Ab Ysuf and
Mul
.
ammad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294
B.7 Disagroomonl of Our Tlroo }urisls Will Zufar 296
B.8 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Our Tlroo }urisls and
MIik . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298
B.9 Disagroomonl Bolvoon Is and Ibn Ab IayI 298
B.1O Disagroomonl Bolvoon Is and aI-Sl . . 299
B.11 MiscoIIanoous IrincipIos Tlal Havo Aoclod
Issuos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3O2
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
Coxrrxrs ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS 9
C Articles 2 to 100 from Majallat al-Ah
.
km al-
Adliyyah 303
D Maxims From al-Ashbh wa-al-Naz
.
ir by
Ibn Nujaym 311
D.1 Tlo Iirsl Six IrincipIos . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
D.2 Tlo Noxl Ninoloon IrincipIos . . . . . . . . 312
E List of Legal Maxims Discussed in This Book 315
Bibliography 331
Glossary 333
Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo
1O ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Coxrrxrs
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo
PREFACE
Tlo roIalionslip bolvoon llo discipIinos of us
.
l al-qh and qawid
qhiyyah is Iiko llo roIalionslip bolvoon llo lvo arms of llo lu-
man body, lloy cooporalo vill oacl ollor lo yioIdllo ruIos of qh.
Tlis vilaI roIalionslip las boon kopl concoaIod by soparaling llo
lvo discipIinos and by sovoring llo bond bolvoon llom. Working
vill ono land is possibIo, bul il roducos and considorabIy lam-
pors llo ocioncy of llo syslom.
InforlunaloIy, llo discipIino of qawid qhiyyah las boon
buriod undor a mass of misIoading dolaiI in modorn vrilings.
Many books, and ovon an oncycIopaodia or lvo, lavo boon vril-
lon. Tloso oorls aro lo bo approcialod, bul villoul rosloring llo
vilaI Iink llo undorslanding of llis discipIino is nol possibIo, and
llo uliIily of llo dolaiI viII romain quoslionabIo.
Tlo qawid voro acluaIIy, and vory fruilfuIIy, usod by llo oar-
Iiosl jurisls, al a a limo vlon IsIamic Iav vas groving rapidIy.
To undorsland lloir roaI vorll llon, llo qawid lavo lo bo un-
dorslood villin llal mollodoIogy. Tlis book lrios lo oxpIain llo
moaning of soIoclod qawid and lloir oporalion villin llis oarIior
mollodoIogy. Too mucl dolaiI las boon avoidod. Tlo idoa is llal
onco llo roador, and llo sludonl, las graspod llo vilaI Iinks and
llo ossonliaIs of llis oId, lo viII bo voII on lis vay lo landIo aII
llo dolaiI.
Tlo book las boon organizod around a fov basic IogaI con-
copls. Moro concopls couId lavo boon addod, bul lloso lavo boon
Iofl for Ialor vrilors. Tlo scloIars and llo rosoarclors slouId
dirocl lloir rosoarcl lovards lloso concopls and buiId lloorios
around llo concopls oxpIaining llomvill llo loIp of llo qawid.
Anollor purposo is lo rovivo gonuino inlorosl in qh. Tlis can
bo dono by focusing on llo ossonliaIs and by romoving llo unnoc-
ossary mass llal las boon buiIl around ils concopls. Mosl vril-
ors in llis oId lavo lad llis goaI. Wo viII ond by rocording llo
vords of ono of llo groalosl loaclors of boll qh and us
.
l al-qh,
llo iIIuslrious ImmaI-Sarakls. Tlo foIIoving is an oxcorpl from
lis book al-Mabst
.
. Ho compIainod llal poopIo aro nol giving
propor allonlion lo qh and lavo bocomo invoIvod in unnocossary
dolaiIs. Horo is vlal lo said:
11
12 ISLAMIC LEGAL MAXIMS Inrrcr
The Shaykh, the eminent and pious Imm, Shams al-Aimmah Ab Bakr
Muh
.
ammad ibn Ab Sahl al-Sarakhs, may God bless himand illuminate his
tomb, while he was imprisoned at zjand, said by way of dictation:

Thereafter, in my own time, I saw some turning away from qh on the


part of scholars due to several reasons:
1. Among these is inadequate ability on the part of some, so much so
that they have felt satised by issues comprising prolonged disputes.
2. Among them is the neglect of proper guidance by teachers, who inict
on them(the students) divergent issues that have no qh within them.
3. Added to these are prolonged discussions on the part of some of the
Mutakallimn who have brought in philosophical concepts for elabo-
rating the legal meanings thereby mixing up alien concepts with qh.
Accordingly, I considered it appropriate to write a commentary on the
precis not going beyond the most relevant concepts in the elaboration of
issues being satised by what is most reliable in each section. To this I
added the questions raised by some of my selected companions during the
period of my imprisonment, who helped me due to their aection for me and
asked me to dictate my response. I complied with their demand.
Tlo groal Imm llon vonl on lo vrilo lis famous book in 3O voI-
umos. May AIIal bIoss lim for lis conlribulion. IoIIoving lim,
aII dolaiI las boon avoidod in llis book.
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo
IsIamabad
}uno, 2O13
Imran Alsan Klan Nyazoo Advancod IogaI Sludios Inslilulo