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What is the difference between a caloric equivalent and an oxycaloric equivalent? Outline how you would determine them?

Adenosine is a potent metabolic regulator and may be an important signal that initiates metabolic arrest in an anoxia tolerant organism. Show using a diagram how a small change in ATP concentration can result in an increase in adenonsine concentration. And how adenosine leaves the cell and interacts with its receptor to reduce the activity of PK. Do not include the glycolytic pathway and terminate your regulatory pathway at PK. Include two types of enzyme regulation in your diagram and name them.

What conclusions would you make from an experiment showing Na/K ATPase Activity Decreasing by 75% in response to anoxia while membrane potential and ATP concentration do not change in a group of cells.

Excitotoxic cell death is generally defined by a sequence of 4 events, what are they?

Spike Arrest is an important mechanism that protects brain from anoxic injury. What is spike arrest and how do excitatory and inhibitory NT receptors produce it? Name the receptors and very briefly describe their role in brining about spike arrest.

Heat shock proteins or stress proteins (SP) are part of a larger group of proteins expressed in unstressed cells. What is this group, what is their primary function and show using a digram how expression is increased rapidly in heat stressed cells? Also list 4 stressors that induce Sps.

EPO was the first example of oxygen sensitive gene expression. Use a diagram to show how a decrease in O2 concentration can result in an increase in EPO synthesis in one type of tissue that can exert an effect on another tissue name the tissues.

Name 3 types of systemic oxgeyn sensors, what they sense and where they are located. Also outline the sequence of events in a glomus cell that leads to NT release. A diagram may be used.

Plot ATP turnover (%) against oxygen availability and outline a facultative anaerobes metabolic response to decreasing env oxygen avaibility. Show graphically how oxidative and anaerobic pathways contribute to maintain ATP turnover. Use point form notes to explain your figure and compare and contrast this response to an oxygen regulator.

A scientific expedition has brought back a facultative anaerobe from Lake Vostok. The lake is about 100 meters deep but has been covered by a km of ice for the last 10,000 yrs and the anaerobe is an invertebrate weighing 1 g. We have determined that glycogen is its only anaerobic substrate and strombine is one of its anaerobic endproducts. A calorimeter measures its anoxic heat flux to be 0.2 mW/g and we know it produces 3 umol of strombine/g*h. How much of the heat produced can be accounted for from the production of strombine? If there is any unaccounted heat produced, explain why, name 2 other endproducts that should be tested for and what is the anoxic ATP turnover rate based on strombine?