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How do we check if the VERB agrees with the SUBJECT?

Some basics to help us decide whether the subject and verb are in agreement.
•To find out the subject of a particular verb,
we ask the questions
who/what
BEFORE the verb.

1. The subject and the verb should agree with each other in number and person.

What is meant by number?

•By number we mean how many.


One or more than one?
•We see if the subject is singular or plural. If singular, then we use a singular verb and if
plural we use a plural verb. Remember we add ‘s’ to make a verb singular!

What is meant by Person?


•The personal pronoun has 3 persons:
In the subject position the
•first person - I
•second person - you
•third person- he, she, we, they, it, who.
2. If 2 or more singular nouns or pronouns are joined by “and” they require a plural verb,
but if they suggest one idea to the mind, or refer to the same person, a singular verb is
used.

3. Words joined to a singular subject by with, as well as, etc., are parenthetical. The
words should therefore be put in the singular.

4. Two or more singular subjects joined by or, nor, the verb is singular. But if one of the
subjects is plural , the verb must be plural and should be closer to the verb.
5. If the subjects are of different persons, then the verb agrees with the person it is nearer
to.

6. Either, neither, each, everyone, many a , must be followed by a singular verb.


7. Two nouns qualified by each or every, even though connected by and requires a
singular verb.

8. Nouns plural in form , but singular in meaning take a singular verb.- news politics,
wages, mathematics
•Pains and means can be singular/ plural, but construction should be consistent.
•Great pains have been taken/ much pains has been taken

9. Nouns singular in form , but plural in meaning take a plural verb.


• Twelve dozen cost one hundred rupees
10. NONE, though properly singular, takes a plural verb.
11. A collective noun when thought of as one whole, takes a singular verb but when we
mean the individuals of the group we use the plural verb. We must be consistent

12. When a plural noun is a proper name for some single object/ collective unit, the
singular verb is used
• The United States, Gulliver’s travels
13. When a plural noun denotes some specific quantity or amount as a whole, the verb is
generally singular.
•Fifteen minutes is allowed to each speaker.
•Three parts of the business is left for me to do.
Subject-verb agreement.
1. Sita, in spite of her family’s support , object to this proposal.
2. The jury were unanimous in its acquittal.
3. The jury argues among themselves before taking decisions Key:
1. Sita, in spite of her family’s support , objects to this proposal.
2. The jury were/was unanimous in their/its acquittal.
3. The jury argue among themselves before taking decisions.
..

Subject verb agreement.


4. Fifteen kilos are too much to carry in a bag.
5. What he believes in and what he practices is two different things.
6. Preethi as well as Rajani have gone to the supermarket.
Key:
4. Fifteen kilos is too much to carry in a bag.
5. What he believes in and what he practices are two different things.
6. Preethi as well as Rajani has gone to the supermarket.

Subject verb agreement.


7. Either Soman or his colleagues has gone to the supermarket.
8. None of the players on our team is likely to make it to the national scene.
9. Disagreement on issues in the bill lead to a furore in the assembly.
Key:
7. Either Soman or his colleagues have gone to the supermarket.
8. None of the players on our team are likely to make it to the national scene.
9. Disagreement on issues in the bill leads to a furore in the assembly.
Subject verb agreement.
10. The horse and carriage are in the station.
11. Many an examinee have failed for less than what you have done.
12. Neither Ram’s case nor the case we received from the class have contained an iota of
truth.
Key
10. The horse and carriage is in the station.
11. Many an examinee has failed for less than what you have done.
12. Neither Ram’s case nor the case we received from the class has contained an iota of
truth.

Subject verb agreement.


13. Most of the wall charts is stolen.
14. This is one of the books that is prescribed for the course.
15. Four assistants together with the manager from plant 4 is responsible for the project.

Key
13. Most of the wall charts are stolen.
14. This is one of the books that are prescribed for the course.
15. Four assistants together with the manager from plant 4 are responsible for the project.

Subject verb agreement.


16. My friend and benefactor have come.
17. Majority are against the new decision.
18. Each of the boys have a motorcycle.
19. Every man, woman and child were lost in the accident.

Key
16. My friend and benefactor has come.
17. Majority is against the new decision.
18. (Each of the boys) has a motorcycle.
19. (Every man, woman and child) is lost in the accident.

Subject verb agreement.


20. Ramu is not to blame and nor is you.
21. Some of the allowance are used.
22. The number of people taking up the BULATS have increased every year.
23. A number of people has called for you.

Key
20. Ramu is not to blame and nor are you.
21. Some of the allowance is used.
22. The number of people taking up the BULATS has increased every year.
23. A number of people have called for you.
Subject verb agreement.
24. The technician and not the three managers are running this show.
25. The array of educational programs benefit both the students and the company.
26. Fire and water does not agree.
27. He and his friend has arrived.

Key
24. The technician and not the three managers is running this show.
25. The array of educational programs benefits both the students and the company.
26. Fire and water do not agree.
27. He and his friend have arrived.

Subject verb agreement.


28. The orator and the statesman is dead.
29. Bread and milk are his only food.
30. Early to bed and early to rise, make a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

Key
28. The orator and the statesman are dead.
29. Bread and milk is his only food.
30. Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

Subject verb agreement.


31. No nook or corner of the forest were left unexplored.
32. Either he or I are mistaken.
33. Neither Rohit nor Raju, two of the best students in class, have joined the team.
34. Rama, and not you, have won the prize.

Key
31. No nook or corner of the forest was left unexplored.
32. Either he or I am mistaken.
33. (Neither Rohit nor Raju), two of the best students in class, has joined the team.
34. Rama, and not you, has won the prize.

Subject verb agreement


35. Many of the objects has been place under investigation.
36. A fair means do not always bring success.
37. His use of discord and harmony do not appeal to me.
38. The wing span of these planes are too small.

Key
35. Many of the objects have been place under investigation.
36. A fair means does not always bring success.
37. His use of discord and harmony does not appeal to me.
38. The wing span of these planes is too small.
Subject verb agreement
39. He outlined all the errors in our reasoning that has caused us continuing problems.
40. The strain of all the difficulties and anxieties are more than he could bear.
41. Not one of these five boys were present.

Key
39. He outlined all the errors in our reasoning that have caused us continuing problems.
40. The strain of all the difficulties and anxieties was more than he could bear.
41. Not one of these five boys was present.

Subject verb agreement


42. He is one of the authors who is destined to be immortal.
43. You who is my friend should not worry me.
44. He loves everybody and everything that are connected with his work.

Key
42. He is one of the authors who are destined to be immortal.
43. You who are my friend should not worry me.
44. He loves everybody and everything that is connected with his work.

Subject verb agreement


45. Corn and beans is ingredients of succotash.
46. Corn and beans are common mixture.
47. One of the lesser known training programmes that would solve your problems have
been ignored.

Key
45. Corn and beans are ingredients of succotash.
46. Corn and beans is a common mixture.
47. One of the lesser known training programmes that would solve your problems has
been ignored.

Subject verb agreement


48. One fourth of the periodicals has missing pages.
49. One quarter of the name list have been deleted.
50. None of the equipment have been damaged.

Key
48. One fourth of the periodicals have missing pages.
49. One quarter of the name list has been deleted.
50. None of the equipment has been damaged.

Subject verb agreement


51. The Arabian Nights are interesting.
52. Neither of the two men are very strong.
53. Everyone of the prisons are full.
54. All possible means has been tried.
55. The means employed by you are sufficient.

Key

51. The Arabian Nights is interesting.


52. (Neither of the two men) is very strong.
53. (Everyone of the prisons) is full.
54. All possible means have been tried.
55. The means employed by you is sufficient.
Ps. When you take of means as ‘income’ it is plural.

Subject verb agreement


56. Ten kilometers are a long walk.
57. The introduction of tea and coffee and such other beverages have not been without
some effect.
58.The quality of the mangoes were not good.
59.Sanskrit, as well as Arabic, were taught there.
60. Many men has done so.

KEY
56. Ten kilometers is a long walk.
57. The introduction of tea and coffee and such other beverages has not been without
some effect.
58.The quality of the mangoes was not good.
59.(Sanskrit, as well as Arabic), was taught there.
60. Many men have done so.
Key- Home work

VERB TENSES
Past time
•Past time is indicated by different tenses.
•Simple past
•Past progressive/ continuous
•Present perfect
•Present perfect continuous
•Past perfect
•Past perfect continuous.

SPELLING OF VERBS IN SIMPLE PRESENT & PRESENT CONTINUOUS


•PRESENT TENSE
•in the singular form
to the base form of the
verb we add -s, -es, -ies.
He sees. She polishes the shoes. The bird flies.
•in the plural form the base form of the verb remains unchanged.

•PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE


• before the base form of the verb we add ‘to be’ ( am, is, are) and after the verb we add
‘ing’.
•I am going. He is going.
•We are going

SPELLING OF VERBS IN SIMPLE PAST & PAST CONTINUOUS


•PAST TENSE
•for the past tense, to the base form of the verb we usually
add -d, or -ed to form past tenses.
•But irregular verbs deviate from the pattern and fall into different categories
•PAST POGRESSIVE TENSE
• To the base form of the verb we add the word, ‘was/ were’ before the verb and ‘ing’
after the verb.
Categories of irregular verbs - forming of past tense & past participle

1. The past tense and past participle remains the SAME as the base form:

bet, burst, cast, cost, cut, hit, hurt, let, put, set, shed, shut, slit, split, spread….
2.In some cases the past tense and past participle are the SAME:

3.Sometimes the past tenses which do not end


in -ed have the same form as the past participle

4. Lastly, the past tense and


the past participle are different from
the base form and each other

Complete using the simple past- regular/ irregular verbs, taking the clue
form the verbs in brackets..
1. Maria (walk)_____ to school today. Rebecca (drive)______ her car. Olga(ride)____
her bicycle. Yoko (take)__ the bus.
2. I(live)____ in Mysore with my parents. Then I (shift)_____to Bangalore.My parents
(come) ______with me.

Complete using the simple past- regular/ irregular verbs, taking the clue
form the verbs in brackets..
3. Frank was thirsty. He (drink)_____ four glasses of water.
4. My husband(give)_____me a ring. I (put) ____ it on, but it (slip)______ from my
finger and it got (lose)______.
5. The police (catch)_____ the bank robbers, but they(escape)___ .

Key: Complete using the simple


past- regular/ irregular verbs, taking
the clue form the verbs in brackets.

Key: Complete using the simple


past- regular/ irregular verbs, taking
the clue form the verbs in brackets..
3. Frank was thirsty. He drank four glasses of water.
4. My husband gave me a ring. I put it on, but it slipped from my finger and it got lost.
5. The police caught the bank robbers, but they escaped.
Score=14

Pronunciation
•Verbs that end with a
•with a /t/ sound after the sounds /k/, /p/, /s/, /ch/,/sh/
•with a /d/ sound after the sounds /l/, /n/, /v/, /b/
•with the -id- sound if there is a -t or -d before -ed.

final -ed are pronounced:


talked, stopped, hissed, watched, washed.

called, rained, lived, robbed, stayed


waited, needed, crafted, boasted, raided, faded
Pronounce after me!
Spelling of - ing and -ed forms
•verbs that end with 2 consonants, just add -ing or -ed.
•Verbs that have 2 vowels+ a consonant, just add -ing or -ed.
•Verbs with 2 syllables, if the 1st syllable is stressed, just add -ing or -ed.

•help- helping/ helped

•rain- raining/ rained

•vi/sit- visiting/ visited


•of/fer- offering/ offered

Spelling of - ing and -ed forms


•Verbs that end in -e, just add -d or drop the -e and add -ing.
•verbs that end with a vowel and -y, just add -ing or -ed.
•Verbs that end with
-ie, change the -ie to
-y to form- ing words and but for the -ed form keep the -ie and just and just add -d.

•Smile- smiled/ smiling

•play- playing/ played


•enjoy- enjoying/ enjoyed

•die- dying
•die- died

Spelling of - ing and -ed forms


• for one syllable verbs, having one vowel and one consonant,DOUBLE the consonant
and add -ing or -ed.
•for two syllable verbs, having one vowel and one consonant, when the second syllable
is stressed, DOUBLE the consonant and add -ing or -ed.

•Stop- stopping/ stopped


•plan- planning/ planned

•prefer- preferring/ preferred


•admit- admitting/ admitted
Check your spelling!
Change to- ing and -ed forms.
When do we use the SIMPLE PAST tense ?
•SIMPLE PAST
•Describes things that happened or completed in the past. The event could be short,
quickly finished actions & happenings or longer situations
•Used for past habits

•EXAMPLES:
•I saw John yesterday.
•My parents lived in that house.
•He bounced the ball, then kicked it.
•We usually went by train.
•He studied many hours.
•She always carried a stick.
When do we use the PAST PROGRESSIVE tense ?
•PAST PROGRESSIVE
•describes activity that was in progress at a point of time in the past
•describes background situations of what was going on when some other activity/ event
took place
•EXAMPLE
•I was talking on the phone.
•When the visitors came, they all were sleeping soundly.
•It was raining(situation), when we got (action) to the bus stop.
Word form of simple past and past progressive
•SIMPLE PAST
•Statement:
They worked.
•Negative:
They did not work.
•Question:
Did they work?
•Subject+verb (past)
•PAST PROGRESSIVE
•Statement:
They were working.
•Negative:
They were not working.
•Question:
Were they working?
•Subject+was/were +verb+ing
Differences between simple
past and past progressive
1. Used to describe a situation that has come to an end.
•The rain got heavier and heavier.
• I became less and less certain about what he wanted us to do.

1. Used to describe a gradual process or development in the past.


•The rain was getting heavier and heavier.
•I was becoming less and less certain about what he wanted us to do.
Differences continued...
2. It is used with adverbial phrases of time. It means that the action described, happened
or perhaps began at the stated time.
What did you do last night at nine? I watched television.
•2. It is used with adverbial phrases of time. It means that the action started before the
stated time and continued after it.
•What were you doing last night at nine?
•I was watching television.
Differences continued...
3. It implies that the action was deliberate.

I told James yesterday about your problem.


( I deliberately told him).
3. It implies that the action was casual and unplanned.
I was telling James about your problem.
( It just happened).

Remember!
•Past progressive is interchangeable with simple past. But when we want to give
importance for the DURATION of the action. The past continuous tense is used to
indicate past time.

Tenses are used to indicate different time sense.

•Simple present and simple present continuous can be used to refer to future events or
actions.
•a) The bus leaves at 12.
b) I am leaving the next day.
•The PAST CONTINUOUS can refer to something that, at the past time was going to
happen in the future.
•A) I did not talk to Rose on the phone for long, as I knew she WAS FLYING to Paris in
the morning.
B) James studied hard because he WAS SITTING for his exams the next day.
Use the simple past or the past
progressive/ continuous
1. At 6.00 in the evening, Bob(sit)____ down at the table and (begin)______ to eat. Ten
minutes later, while he(eat)_____ , Ann(come) ____ through the door. In other words,
Bob (eat) _____ dinner.
2. Bob(go)_____ to bed at 10:30. By 11:00 Bob (sleep)____.
3. While Bob (sleep)______,the phone (ring)
________
Use the simple past or the past
progressive/ continuous
4. In other words, the phone (ring)___ ,but Bob(sleep)_______.
5. Jim (leave)______ his house at eight, and (begin)______ to walk to class.
6. While he(walk)_____, to class, he (see)____ Smita.
7. She (stand)______ in the garden and she (wave)_____ to him.
8. Jim (stop)_____ and (speak)_____ to her.

Key :Use the simple past or the past progressive/ continuous

Key: Use the simple past or the past progressive/ continuous


4. In other words, the phone rang ,but Bob was sleeping.
5. Jim left his house at eight, and began to walk to class.
6. While he was walking, to class, he saw Smita.
7. She was standing in the garden and she waved to him.
8. Jim stopped and spoke to her. (Score=19)

Choose the correct


form of the verb
1.The sales clerk just (throw, threw, thrown) away the opportunity to make a huge
commission.
2. The senator ( speak, spoke,spoken) at the press conference last Monday.
3. The speaker (come, came) to the point very early in the speech.
Key:Choose the correct
form of the verb
1.The sales clerk just (throw, threw, thrown) away the opportunity to make a huge
commission.
2. The senator ( speak, spoke,spoken) at the press conference last Monday.
3. The speaker (come, came) to the point very early in the speech.
Choose the correct form
of the verb
4. Harriet ( see, saw, seen) the new product.
5. Gary (announce, was announcing, announced) the results yesterday.
6. The doctor( write, wrote, was writing) my prescription when I (faint, fainted, was
fainting).
Key: Choose the correct
form of the verb
4. Harriet ( see, saw, seen) the new product.
5. Gary (announce, was announcing, announced) the results yesterday.
6. The doctor (write, wrote, was writing) my prescription when I (faint, fainted, was
fainting).
(Score=7)

Expressing past habit with


‘ used to’
•Used to is for expressing a past situation or habit that no longer exists.
•It can be used in the question form.
•it can be used in the negative form.
•In negatives and question forms both used to and use to are possible.English language
authorities do not say which is preferable.
•I used to live with my parents.

•Did you use / used to live in Paris?


•I didn’t use to drink coffee after breakfast.
•With didn’t, used to is infrequently used.
•I never used to drink tea.
• With never use to is infrequently used.
Past habit with ‘used to’ . Correct the errors.
•Alex used to living in Cairo.
•Jane used to worked at an insurance company.
•Margo was used to teach English, but now she works at a hotel.
•Were you used to live in Delhi?
•I did not use to watching cartoons.
•I was never used to sing.
Key: Past habit with ‘used to’ . Correct the errors.
•Alex used to live in Cairo.
•Jane used to work at an insurance company.
•Margo was used to teaching English, but now she works at a hotel.
•Were you used to living in Delhi?
•I did not use to watch cartoons.
•I was never used to singing.
(score= 6) Total score=55+ 6(h.w.)
Tenses
SIMPLE PRESENT
and
PRESENT PROGRESSIVE
Tenses

•The tenses show not only the time but also the state of the action
or event.
•When we want to indicate whether the action happens in the past,
present or the future; whether the action is a single action, or a
repeated action; whether the action is complete or unfinished and
so on, we have to use the VERB in the right TENSE.
.
Present time is shown by the use
of
1. The simple present tense
2. The present continuous tense
3. Sometimes the past tense may refer to present time, when to
express a wish.
Simple present tense is used to indicate DAILY
HABITS

Examples:
•In the morning I brush my teeth and take a shower . Then I eat
my breakfast.
•I go for a walk daily.
•I always study in the evening.

Simple present tense is used to indicate USUAL


ACTIVITIES
•He usually reads the newspaper in the morning.
•They sometimes get up at 6:30.
•Do you always argue a lot?
•Anna never eats meat.
•Karen generally tells the truth.
Simple present tense is
used to indicate
•GENERAL STATEMENTS

•Babies cry.
•Birds fly.
•Dogs are faithful.
•It is a beautiful day.
•UNIVERSAL TRUTH
•The sun rises in the east.
•Water freezes at zero degrees centigrade.
•The moon rotates around the earth.
Present progressive/ continuous tense is used to
show
•That the activity is in progress. The activity is occurring right
now, the event began in the past, is in progress now and will
probably continue in the future.It is formed with the verb ‘to be’
and present participle.
Example:
•An English class is going on now.
• The students are listening to the lecture.
The tenses indicate different kinds of time :
simple present
•Indicates:
•PRESENT TIME
•now- exact moment
•Taylor shoots and it’s a goal.
•general time
•My parents live near here.
•momentary action- commentaries where the stress is on the happenings, rather than on
duration.
•The fielder catches the ball.

•PAST TIME
•For dramatic effect in vivid narrative, instead of the past tense.
•The boy on the boat waves to catch our attention.
•About artists, writers,etc. and their works.
•Shakespeare is a great dramatist.
•For photograph captions
•Tony addresses a meeting.
•To introduce quotations
•Keats says, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.”

The tenses indicate different kinds of time :


simple present ...
•FUTURE TIME
•Commonly used when we talk about fixed programmes and timetables.
The train leaves in 10 minutes. The concert begins at 7:30.
•In business letters when you are describing what you are doing or thinking.
We note your concern. I enclose a cheque.
I look forward to hearing form you.
•Often used with a future meaning after conjunctions
I’ll phone you when I arrive. I’ll always love you whatever you do.
•Simple present is used to refer to future action in adverbial clauses of time and in conditional clauses.
I’ll tell him when I see him . (not when I will see him).
If it rains we shall get wet.

Different kinds of time indicated by the use of


present progressive
•The activity going on around ‘now’.
•That girl is standing on the table. But we say the castle stands on a hill.(not
the castle is standing on the hill).
•For a temporary action which may not be happening at the time of
speaking. Eg. I am reading a book.
•For future actions that are planned, we often give the date or time.
•We are going to Mexico next summer.
•I’m washing my hair tonight.

Different kinds of time indicated by the use of


present progressive
•If the future activity is continuous rather than a single action
•While you are unpacking, I will go and hire a car.
•About changes and developing situations.
•The child is getting bigger and bigger everyday.
•We use the simple present for habitual actions, but for a particularly obstinate habit, we
use the Present continuous tense with adverbs like always, continually, constantly.
•He is always running on the road.
•John is constantly making mistakes.
•They are continually calling.
In informal English
•The present tenses- simple present is used to describe past events
and actions and present continuous tense describes what was
happening before and often after these events or actions when we
are telling a story or describing something that has happened.
Use of present tenses in
describing what happened before/after.
•What do you think happened to me today?
•“I am standing on the path beside the river, watching the ducks
when someone taps me on the shoulder. I look around and see my
old friend. We start to chat and while we are talking, along comes
my son. We decide to go for a cup of coffee. When we go to the
café, who do we see? Another old friend!”
The format:
•Simple present
•subject
+ verb (present)
•I walk.
•He drives a car.
•You learn fast.
•Present progressive
•subject + is/am/ are+ verb+ ing
•I am walking
•He is driving a car
•You are learning fast.
The format continued...
•Simple present
•Statement: The teacher speaks clearly.
•Negative: The teacher does not speak clearly.
•Question: Does the teacher speak clearly?
•Present progressive
• Statement: The teacher is speaking clearly.
•Negative:The teacher is not speaking clearly.
•Question: Is the teacher speaking clearly?
Identify if it is in simple present
tense or present progressive tense.
•It is 7.30 a.m. and the Saits are in their kitchen. Mrs. Sait is sitting
at the breakfast table. She is reading a newspaper. Mr. Sait is
pouring a cup of coffee. He drinks two cups of coffee every
morning before he goes to work.. There is a cartoon on television,
but the children are not watching it. They are playing with their
toys. They usually watch cartoons in the evening.
answer key: (S) simple present
(PP) present progressive
•It is (S)7.30 a.m. and the Saits are(S) in their kitchen. Mrs. Sait is
sitting(PP) at the breakfast table. She is reading (PP) a newspaper. Mr. Sait is
pouring(PP) a cup of coffee. He drinks(S) two cups of coffee every morning
before he goes(S) to work.. There is (S)a cartoon on television, but the
children are not watching (PP)it. They are playing(PP) with their toys. They
usually watch(S) cartoons in the evening. (score=11)
Complete the sentences using the words in parenthesis. Use the
simple present or the present progressive.
1. Shh. The baby(sleep)______.The baby(sleep) ____for ten hours
every night.
2. Right now I’m in class. I (sit) ____ at my desk . I usually (sit)
___at the same desk in class everyday.
3. Ali (speak) _____Arabic. It is his native language, but right now
he(speak)___ English.
Complete the sentences using the words in parenthesis. Use the
simple present or the present progressive.
4. May I have the yellow flowers. I (buy)___ them for my wife. I
(buy) ____her flowers on the first day of every month.
5.Oscar usually (walk)____ to work. (Walk , you)________ to
work every day too?
KEY: Using the simple present or
the present progressive.
1. Shh. The baby(sleep) is sleeping.The baby(sleep)sleeps for ten
hours every night.
2. Right now I’m in class. I (sit) am sitting at my desk . I usually
(sit) sit at the same desk in class everyday.
3. Ali (speak) speaks Arabic. It is his native language, but right
now he(speak) is speaking English.

Key continued...
4. May I have the yellow flowers. I (buy) am buying them for my
wife. I (buy) buy her flowers on the first day of every month.
5.Oscar usually (walk) walks to work. (Walk, you) Do you walk to
work every day too?
(Score=10)
Please note:
•Some verbs are not used in the progressive tense. They are called
“non- action” verbs. They express a situation that exists, not an
action in progress.
•Some non- action verbs are:
•hear, see, sound, believe, understand, know, be, exist, own,
possess, belong, need, want, prefer, like, love, hate, forget ,
remember, think, have, taste.

Identifying non-action verbs:


•Verbs of emotion:They express feelings, emotions or effects.
•adore, astonish, desire, dislike, fear, impress, prefer, satisfy, value, want,
wish.
•Verbs of perception that describe something that affects the senses.
•Hear, see, smell, taste, notice, recognize.
•Verbs of thinking
•think, suppose, believe, agree, consider, trust, remember,forget, know,
understand, imagine, mean, mind
Identifying non-action verbs:
•Verbs of appearing.
•Appear, seem look.
•Verbs that describe states or relationships between things, Apply, hold,
have, belong, seems, weighs fits.
•I have a car (owns) . Rules apply to all of us.
•But when they describe action rather than state they become
progressive.
•I am having a bath. The man is weighing the parcel.
•She is tasting the soup. I am thinking of going abroad.
•They are having lunch.

Progressive verbs versus non progressive verbs.


Fill in the blanks
•Right now the children (be)____ at the beach. They (have) ____a
good time. They (have)____a beach ball, and they (play)____
catch with it. They (like) ____ to play catch. Their parents
(sunbathe)____. They (try)_____to get a tan.
Key:Progressive verbs versus non
progressive verbs. Fill in the blanks.
•Right now the children (be) are at the beach. They (have) are
having a good time. They (have) have a beach ball, and they
(play)are playing catch with it. They (like) like to play catch.
Their parents (sunbathe)are sunbathing. The (try) are trying to get
a tan. (score=7)
The use of the final -s in verbs
•A plural noun ends with -s. Birds sing.
•A singular verb ends with -s. A bird sings.
•Exercise: Identify the verbs . Say whether they are plural or singular.
•Ali lives in an apartment. He grows plants. He listens to the radio in the
morning. Mali usually likes to go to the park in the evening. He takes the
bus and sits on a bench and feeds the ducks which swim towards him for
food. If both go they walk it up.

The use of the final -s in verbs


•Exercise: Identify the verbs. Say whether they are plural or singular - answer key.
(P- Plural verb S- singular verb).
•Ali and Mali live(P) in an apartment. They grow(P) plants. Ali
listens(S) to the radio in the morning. Mali usually likes(S) to go to
the park in the evening. He takes(S) the bus and sits(S) on a bench
and feeds(S) the ducks which swim(P) towards him for food. If
both go(P) they walk(P) it up. (score=10)

Spelling of final -s/ -es.(Verbs)


•Many verbs end in -e. Simply add -s.
•Final -es is added to words that end in
-ch, -sh, -s, -x, -z.
•The singular form of the verbs that have irregular forms
go , do , have.
goes, does, has.

•If a word ends in a consonant +y, remove -y and add -ies.


Fly becomes flies.
•If a word ends in a vowel +y , just add -s.
Pay becomes pays
Add -s or -es to the
verbs if necessary.
•A dog bark.
•The teacher ask us a lot of questions.
•Wood floats on water and birds fly.
•Rivers flows towards the sea.
•My mother worry about me.
•Dogs bark.
•Mr. Cook watch game shows on television.
•Airplanes flies all around the world.
•Mr. Will teach Chinese.
•A student buy a lot of books.
Key to: Add -s or -es to
the verbs if necessary.
•A dog barks.
•The teacher asks us a lot of questions.
•Wood floats on water and birds fly.
•Rivers flow towards the sea.
•My mother worries about me.
(score=10)
•Dogs bark.
•Mr. Cook watches game shows on television.
•Airplanes fly all around the world.
•Mr. Will teaches Chinese.
•A student buys a lot of books.
A review of the use of simple present and
present progressive
•Complete correctly.
•Sally (come) ___ for dinner tomorrow evening.
•Sally(come)___ for dinner every Saturday.
•According to the timetable, the train(leave)__ at five past seven.
•I (leave) ____the job soon.
•If you (take) ____ a look, you will see for yourself.
•I (write) _____a book.
•He (take)______ after his father.

Key:A review of the use of simple present and


present progressive
•Complete correctly.
•Sally is coming for dinner tomorrow evening.action arranged to take place in future
•Sally comes for dinner every Saturday.- habitual action
•According to the timetable, the train leaves at five past six.
Future event that is part of a pre-planned timetable.
•I am leaving the job soon. An action already arranged to take place in the near future
•If you take a look, you will see for yourself.clause of condition
•I am writing a book.a temporary action may not be actually happening at the moment
•He takes after his father.general statement
•(score=7)

Correct the errors


•I no like cold weather.
•I be living in this city.
•We are always coming to class on time.
•Do Anna have a job?
•Omar does he going to school?
•I am not knowing my teacher’s name.

Key- Correct the errors


•I do not like cold weather.
•I am living in this city.
•We always come to class on time.
•Does Anna have a job?
• Does Omar go to school?
•I do not know my teacher’s name.
•(Score= 6) TOTAL SCORE=61
Home work
•That (seem)_____ like a good idea to me.
•Look out! He (hold)________ a gun.
•I can’t talk to you for long. I (expect)_____ visitors.
•The price of the room(include)_____ breakfast and lunch.
•These grapes( taste)_____ good.
•Today, he (drive)______towards the north.
Key- Home work
•That seems like a good idea to me.
•Look out! He is holding a gun.
•I can’t talk to you for long. I am expecting visitors.
•The price of the room includes breakfast and lunch.
•These grapes taste good.
•Today, he is driving towards the north.
What is a conditional sentence?
•A conditional sentence has a subordinate clause which states the
condition that is necessary for what is talked about in the main
clause. A conditional clause begins if, unless and providing, until,
etc.
•We will arrive tomorrow night if we are lucky.
•I wouldn’t come to the party unless she invited me.

Conditional tenses
•The Conditional tense

•The Conditional continuous tense

•The Perfect Conditional tense

•The Perfect Conditional future tense

•The conditional and conditional continuous describe what would


happen/what would not happen; what would be true/ what would not be true
in the future if something else happened/ was true first.
•Of course I would lend you the money if you asked me .
•She would not buy a dog unless she was sure she could look after it.
•If I was being chased by a dog, I would be running even faster.
•If you had not wakened him, he would still be sleeping

•The perfect conditional and perfect conditional continuous say what would
have happened in the past / what would not have happened or what would
have been true, if / unless something else had happened first.
•We would have won if we had played better.
•We would have escaped if we had had a ladder.
•We would never have believed it if we hadn’t seen it with our own eyes.
•I would have been laughing if the joke had not been on me.
•The police would not have been chasing you unless they thought you were
the thief.
Conditionals
•FIRST CONDITIONAL states simple facts about what will or may happen in the future if something
else happens or unless something else happens.
If you look after the plants, they will survive
•SECOND CONDITIONAL describes what would happen in the future if something else happened first
or was true
They would probably promote you if you worked harder.

•THIRD CONDITIONAL says what would have/might have happened first if something else had been
true.
If I had known that I would never have come.
IMPLICATIONAL CONDITIONAL says that if is true something must also be true
If there was no reply, he must have been out
If it is raining here, it must be raining there.
GENERAL CONDITION state that if one thing happens first something else also generally happens.
If any one shouted at her (she always burst into tears/ would always burst into tears)

•1. The dog always barks if it (hear)___ someone coming up the


path.
•The dog always barks if it hears someone coming up the path.
•GENERAL CONDITION:what generally happens or happened if
something else happens or happened
•main clause :past or present.
•Conditional clause: same as main clause

•2. If someone shouted at her, she always burst(_____)into tears.


•If someone shouted at her, she always burst/ would always burst
into tears
• GENERAL CONDITION: what generally happens or happened
if something else happens or happened
•main clause :past
•Conditional clause: past/ may use WOULD

•3. If I ever (win) ______the lottery, I’ll buy a car.


•If I ever win the lottery, I’ll buy a car.
•FIRST CONDITIONAL: something will happen in the future if
something else happens first.
•Here in the main clause, the verb is in simple future tense
•The conditional clause is in the simple present.
•4. If she (know)____ the fate that was awaiting her that night, she
would never have set out on her own.
•If she had known the fate that was awaiting her that night, she
would never have set out on her own.
•Perfect conditional(3rd conditional)- what would have happened in the past
if something else had happened first.`
•main clause- would(modal)+ present perfect
•conditional clause- past perfect

•5. What would you do if you (see) ____ someone stealing a car?
•What would you do if you saw someone stealing a car?
•SECOND CONDITIONAL: what will happen in the future if something
else happened first or was true
•main clause: would+ base form of the verb
•conditional clause:simple past

•6. If you (ask)____ me, I would have explained the plan again.
• If you had asked me, I would have explained the plan again.
•Perfect conditional(3rd conditional)- what would have happened in the past
if something else had happened first.`.
•main clause- would(modal)+ present perfect
•conditional clause- past perfect

•7. If it is a genuine Indian vase, it must (be) ______very


expensive.
•If it is is a genuine Indian vase, it must be very expensive.
IMPLICATIONAL CONDITIONAL says that if is true something must
also be true
•main clause : present.
•Conditional clause: same as main clause
•8. If I (had)______ the talent I’m sure I could have won the Indian
Idol competition.
•If I had had the talent I’m sure I could have won the Indian Idol
competition
•Perfect conditional(3rd conditional) - what would have happened in the past
if something else had happened first.`
•main clause- would(modal)+ present perfect
•conditional clause- past perfect

•9. If you hadn’t woken up, the thieves might (get) ______
away with the cash.
•If you hadn’t woken up, the thieves might have got away
with the cash.
•Perfect conditional(3rd conditional)- what would have happened in
the past if something else had happened first.`
•main clause- (modal)+ present perfect
•conditional clause- past perfect

•10. If I should (die)_____, do not weep for me.


•If I should die, do not weep for me.
•FIRST CONDITIONAL
•Main clause: may be simple present, present continuous, present
perfect.
•Conditional clause may be formed with a should and an infinitive

•11. If it (snow)______ in winter in England, then it probably snows in


London.
•If it snows in winter in England, then it probably snows in
London.
•IMPLICATIONAL CONDITIONAL says that if is/was true something must also be
true/have been true.
•Main clause:usually in the same tense or else formed with will/ shall
•Conditional clause:present continuous, simple present, past continuous, simple past.

•12. If it is raining in Mysore, it (rain)____ no doubt ______ in


Bangalore
•If it is raining in Mysore, it is no doubt raining in Bangalore/ …
it will no doubt be raining in Bangalore.
IMPLICATIONAL CONDITIONAL says that if is true something must also be true
Main clause:usually in the same tense / else formed with will/ shall
conditional clause:present continuous, simple present, past continuous, simple past.

•13. If you (wear) _______more sensible shoes, you would not


have fallen.
•If you had worn /had been wearing more sensible shoes, you
would not have fallen.
•THIRD CONDITIONAL says what would have/might have happened first if
something else had been true.
•Main clause:uses perfect conditional/ perfect conditional continuous
•conditional clause:past perfect/ past perfect continuous
Look how verbs convey meaning!
1. Bobby discovered that Nandu had left work and gone home.
2. Bobby discovered that Nandu had left work and went home.
In sentence 1 gone is the participle form and goes with had left in the second
part of the sentence. So Nandu has gone home
In sentence 2 went is in the simple past tense like discovered in the first
part. So it is Bobby who went home.
Choose the right verb.

1. The team has certainly (do, did, done) a good job on this
presentation.
2. The owner just (throw, threw, throw) away the opportunity to
make a huge profit.
3.The queen( speak, spoke, spoken)at the press conference last
Monday.
4. The phone has( ring, rang, rung) only once today.

Key:Choose the right verb.

1. The team has certainly (do, did, done) a good job on this
presentation.
Present perfect to describe past events having effect in the present.
2. The owner just (throw, threw, throw) away the opportunity to
make a huge profit.
Simple past to indicate action completed in the past.
3.The queen( speak, spoke, spoken)at the press conference last
Monday.
Simple past is used with time reference for something completed.
4. The phone has( ring, rang, rung) only once today.
Present perfect to indicate an activity completed in the past.

Choose the right verb.

5. They have not yet ( begin, began, begun) the admissions.


6. Has the office staff( go, went, gone) to lunch?
7. Ram could not believe that someone had actually
( steal, stole, stolen) his book.
8. Before I opened the door, I ( ring, rang, had rung) the bell.

Key: Choose the right verb.


5. They have not yet ( begin, began, begun) the admissions.
Present perfect to denote an action beginning at some time in the past and continuing up
to the present.
6. Has the office staff( go, went, gone) to lunch?
Present perfect to describe past events whose time is not given
7.Ram could not believe that someone had actually
( steal, stole, stolen) his book.
Past perfect is used to describe an action completed before a certain moment in the past.
8.Before I opened the door, I ( ring, rang, had rung) the bell.
Past perfect is used to show one of the two actions happened first.
Choose the right verb.

9. They ____always _____ barefoot in their childhood. (never


walk, had walked, were walking)
10.I am so busy that I (am, was, had been) still reading the book.
11. You (will be coming, am coming, was coming) with us
tomorrow.

Key: Choose the right verb.

9. They were always walking barefoot in their childhood.


Past continuous is used for Persistent habits in the past and with ‘always’
10. I am so busy that I (am, was, had been) still reading the book.
Present continuous besides being used action going on at that time is also is used for
temporary action that may not be happening in the present time.
11. You will be coming with us tomorrow.
Future continuous is used for future events that are planned and for an action going on
some time in the future.
Choose the right verb.

12. Suraj explained why Saturn (is,was) surrounded by rings.


13.I would ask for a transfer if I ( was, were) you.
14. Mr.Das announced that the team leader
( is , was) responsible for work schedules.
15. We (are, were,will) cut transportation costs.

Key:Choose the right verb.

12. Suraj explained why Saturn (is,was) surrounded by rings.


Simple present is used for universal truths
13.I would ask for a transfer if I ( was, were) you.
Second conditional tense is used in situations to describe something would be true if
something else that existed was true. Often used in imagined situations. “I were you”
is a set phrase. We can never say
“if I was you”.
14. Mr.Das announced that the team leader ( is , was) responsible for work
schedules.
Simple present is used for habitual actions
15. We(are, were,will) cut transportation costs.
Simple future is used for an action still to take place.
Choose the right verb.

16. It (had been raining, has been raining, will have been raining)
since last night.
17. The baby (had been, has been, will have been) sick all of last
month.
18.I (have learnt, will have learned, had learned) some Japanese
before I go there in the summer.

Key: Choose the right verb.

16. It (had been raining, has been raining, will have been raining)
since last night.
Present perfect continuous indicates an action began in the past and is still continuing.
17. The baby (had been, has been, will have been) sick all of last
month.
Past perfect continuous tells of an action that began before a certain time in the past and
continued up to that time.
18.I (have learnt, will have learned, had learned) some Japanese
before I go there in the summer.
Future perfect is used to indicate completion of an action by a certain time in the future.
Correct the errors.
1. Have you rode a 750cc motorbike?
2. He would have been playing the part now if he did not offend
the teacher last week.
3. I shall wait till you finished your lunch.
4. The baby cries all morning.
5. My friends have seen the Prime Minister yesterday.
Key: Correct the errors.
1. Have you ridden a 750cc motorbike?
2. He would have been playing the part now if he had not offend
the teacher last week.
3. I shall wait till you finish your lunch.
4. The baby cried / was crying/ has been crying all morning./ The
baby cries every morning.
5. My friends saw the Prime Minister yesterday.

Correct the errors


6. I shall telephone you when he came back.
7. After the alarm had rung I laid in bed for too long.
8. My uncle will have been arriving tomorrow.
9. She jumped off the bus, while it had moved.
10. He just finished his homework.

Key:Correct the errors


6. I shall telephone you when he comes back.
7. After the alarm had rung I lay in bed for too long.
8. My uncle arrives/ will be arriving/ is arriving/ will arrive
tomorrow.
9. She jumped off the bus, while it was moving.
10. He has just finished his homework.

Correct the errors.


11. He had started walking after the rain had stopped.
12. If he heard of our marriage he will be surprised.
13. It rained since early morning.
14. I am sure I have seen him at the party last night.

Key:
11. He started walking after the rain had stopped.
12. If he hears of our marriage he will be surprised. / If he heard of
our marriage he would be surprised.
13. It has been raining since early morning.
14. I am sure I saw him at the party last night.

Correct the errors


15. I was singing a song while she played on the piano.
16. We are living in Bangalore for ten years.
17. An interpreter is one who is translating from one language to
another.
18. We can’t have a fire until we shall sweep the chimney.
Key: Correct the errors
15. I was singing a song while she was playing on the piano.
16. We have been living in Bangalore for ten years.
17. An interpreter is one who translates from one language to
another.
18. We can’t have a fire until we sweep the chimney.