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3 (DENERGY

MONTANA

GUIDEBOOK

ALCOHOL FERMENTATION
ANAEROBIC DIGESTION

COGENERATION
DENSIFICATION

DIRECT COMBUSTION
GASIFICATION

LANDFILL GAS

LIQUEFACTION
OILSEED EXTRACTION
PYROLYSIS

333.9539

N7MBG
1991

R 333 9539 N7ml>9 1991 6 S 333 9539 M7m>9 Montana bioenergy guMJebook

MONTANA STATE LIBRARY

.,,
^ ^ o^^988

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


ARM
ASCS
Administrative Rules of Montana
U.S.

gpm
HjS

Gallons Per Minute

Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Stabili2ation and Conservation Service


of Mechanical Engineers

Hydrogen Hydrogen
Interstate

Sulfide

ASME BACT
BATF
BBER
BIA

American Society
U.S.

ICC

Commerce Commission

Best Available Control Technology

LAER
of

Lowest Achievable Emission Rate

Department of the Treasury, Bureau Alcohol, Tobacco, and R rearms

MACT
MASS

Maximum Available Control Technology


Montana Agricultural Statistics Service Montana Code Annotated Montana Envirorunental Policy Act Montana Groundwater
System
Pollution Control

Montana Bureau
U.S.

of Business

and Economic
Bureau of

Research, University of Montana

MCA
MEPA MGWPCS
MPDES

Department of the

Interior,

Indian Affairs

BLM

U.S.

Deportment of the Interior, Bureau of

Land Management

Montana
System

Pollutant Discharge Elimination

BOD
BPA
Btu

Biological

Oxygen Demand

MSW
NAAQS
NEPA
NO, NPDES

Municipal Solid Waste


National Ambient Air Quality Standards

U.S.

Department of Energy, Bonneville


Thermal Unit

Power Administration
British

National Environmental Policy Act

CFR

CO
COj

Code of Federal Regulations Carbon Monoxide


Carbon Dioxide
Chemical Oxygen

Compounds of Nitrogen and Oxygen


National Pollutant Discharge Elinnination

System

COD
cwt

Demand

O3

Hundredweight
Distillers' E>ried

Oxygen Ozone
U.S. Occupational Safety

DC)GS

OSHA
of Fish, Wildlife

and Health Ad-

Grains

ministration

DBNT
DHES

Montana Department
Parks

and

PAH
PER
PM-10

Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons
Preliminary Environmental Review
Particles

Montana Department
ronmental Sciences

of Health

and Envi-

With an Aerodynamic Diameter

DNRC

Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation

of 10 Microns or Less

POM
PSC PSD
psi

Particulate Organic Matter

DOA
EXXZ
EXDE

Montana Department of Agriculture Montana Department of Commerce


U.S.

Montana Public Service Commission


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

Department of Energy

Pounds Per Square Inch


Qualifying Facility

DOJ

Montana Department of Justice

DOU
IXDR
EXDT

DSL

Montana Department of Labor and Industry Montana Department of Revenue Montana Department of Transportation Montana Department of State Lands
En\'ironmental Assessment
Eastern Agricultural Research Center

QF RCRA

Resource Conservation Recovery Act

SHWB

Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Solid and Hazardous Waste Bureau
Standard Industrial Qassification
State Implementation Plan

SIC
SIP

EA EARC ED
EIS

S02

Sulfur Dioxide

Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, Energy Division


Environmental Impact Statement
U.S. Environmental Protection

so,

Compounds of Sulfur and Oxygen


Total

EPA EQC
F

TSP UIC

Suspended

Particulates

Underground
U.S.

Injection Control

Agency

USDA
USPS

Department of Agriculture Department of Agriculture, Forest

Envirorvmental Quality Council

U.S.

Fahrenheit
U.S. Federal

Service

FERC

Energy Regulatory Commis-

VOC

Volatile Organic

Compounds

WQB

Montana Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Water Quality Bureau

MOMTANA
15i5

E. 6>-h

STATE LiE?<ARY AVE.

HELENA,

MONTAMA

59620

MONTANA
BIOENERGY

GUIDEBOOK
Prepared by
Raelen Williard
Information Specialist
Information

Now
'HfinnuUion nout

and

Howard

E.

Haines,

Jr.

Biomass Program Engineer

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION


EAST SIXTH AVENUE HELENA, MONl^ANA 59620-2301
1520
(406) 444-6697

DECEMI5ER

1991

ACKNOWLEDGMENTTS
This guidebook
the
is

a revised version of Montana's Bioenergi/ Project Permitting Guidebook, published of Natural Resources

by

Montana Department

individuals contributed to
Williard, Information
E.

and Conservation G3NKC), July 1986. A number of the development and production of this publication, including: Raelen
Helena, Montana, author and research and infonrwjtion services;

Now,

Howard

Haines,

Jr.,

DNRC,

author and project manager; Carole Massman,


Barbara Lien,

DNRC,

editor;

Dan

Vichorek,

DNRC, assistant editor; and

DNRC, desktop publishing technician.


and
local, state,

sf^ecial

thank you goes

to all of the individuals in businesses


this publication.

and

federal agencies

who provided

information for

NOTICE
This guidebook
Pacific

was prepared with the support of DNRC and the U.S. Department of Energy OX)E), Northwest and Alaska Biomass Energy Program administered by the Bonneville Power Ad-

ministration (BPA). Such support does not constitute an endorsement by

BPA or DNRC of the views

expressed in

this

work.

of the preparers. Neither

from the use of

this

Any opinions, findings, or conclusions presented in this guidebook are those BPA nor DNRC assumes any responsibility for economic losses resulting guidebook. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made for the accuracy, com-

pleteness, or usefulness of the information found herein.

Every project

is

unique, and

it

is

recommended

that this

guidebook be used as a starting place


projects.

to

leam
li-

about and understand the planning and permitting process for bioenergy
censes, or areas of compliance that are not included in the
project.

Some

permits,

guidebook may be necessary

to a particular

Finally, the

guidebook

is

not a substitute for working closely uith

local, state,

and

federal

agencies during the development of a project.

The information
presented here

in this

guidebook was developed from written and

oral

communications with each

regulatory agency. Regulatory stahJtes


is

and programs are

periodically changed. Thus, information

subject to

change or reinterpretation.

Permission

is

granted for reprinting material from the Montana Bioenergy Guidebook provided that

DNKC,

Pacific

Northwest and Alaska Biomass Energy Program, and Bonneville Power Administra-

tion are contacted

and

credited.

Cover of

this

guidebook

is

printed

on recycled paper.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS

Inside front cover

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
NOTICE

ii

ii

GLOSSARY
SECTION
1.

ix

WHERE TO START
1 1

Introduction

How to Use the Guidebook


What isBiomass Energy? How toPbna Bioenergy Project

2 2

SECTION 2. BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES


Intrcxiuction

9
12

Alcohol Fermentation

Environmental Pemiits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues

Anaerobic Digestion

16

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues

Cogeneration

19

Environmental Pemiits
Construction and l^nd Use Permits
Special Issues

III

Densification

22

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues

Direct Combustion: Boilers

and Furnaces

25

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues
Gasification

28

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues
Landfill

Gas

31

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues

Liquefaction

33

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues

Oilseed Extraction

35

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Issues

Pyrolysis

37

Environmental Permits
Construction and Land Use Permits
Special Lssues

SECTION 3. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


Introduction

39 39

Air Quality

Overview
Air Quality

Laws and Regulations

Prevention of Significant Deterioration

G^D)

Nonattainment
Air Toxics

PM-10 Standards Waste Management Solid Waste Disposal OVonhazardous) Hazardous Waste Disposal
Water Quality

47

"^1

IV

SrCTION4. rCRMITS BY CATEGORY


Introduction
51

Agriculture

52
Dealer's License

Commodity

Feed Dealer's Permit

Warehouseman's License
Air Quality Air Quality Permit

54

Open Burning Perniit


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

G^D) Review
56

Alcohol Production Alcohol Fuel Producer's Permit Alcohol Distributor's License


Building, Mechanical, Electrical, and

Plumbing Permits

57

Building Permit

Mechanical Permit
Electrical

Permit

Plumbing Permit
Forest Clearing
Fire

and Burning

59

Hazard Reduction /Certificate of Clearance


60

Timber Removal Permit

Land Use
Floodplain Development Permit

Lakeshore Development Permit

Major

Facility Siting

61

Need and Environmental Compatibility Occupational Safety and Health


Certificate of Public

62

Boiler Operating Certificate

Boiler Operator's License


Fire Safety Inspections

Waste Management

63
Facility

Hazardous Waste Management


Solid

Pennit

Waste Management System License


65

Water Quality

Montana Groundwater Pollution Control System (MGWPCS) Permit Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Permit
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permit

Stream Protection Act Pennit

Streambed and Land Preservation Pennit (310 Permit) Water Use


Beneficial

68

Water Use Permit

SECTION

5.

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
71

Business Licensing Requirements

Cogeneration and Small Power Production

71

Dam Safety
Forested Areas

72
73 73

Highways /Transportation
Indian Reservations
Local Areas

74 74
75 75 76

Navigable Waters
Occupational Safety and Health

Urban Areas/Municipalities
Water Use

77

APPENDIX A.

MONTANA BIOENERCY FACILITIES


by Technology
Facilities

Projects Listed

79

Alcohol Production

Biogas

Facilities
Facilities

Combustion
Projects Listed

Wood Pellet Plants


by Location
82

APPENDIX B. AGENCIES/ORGANIZATIONS

83

APPENDIX C. BIOMASS RESOURCES


Introduction

93 93 94 94

Wood Resources
Agricultural Resources
Solid

Waste Resources

REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

105

117

MONTANA ENERGY COST COMPARISON CHART

Inside back cover

VI

HGURES
1.

How To Plan a Bioenergy Project


Permit Calendar
Alcohol Fermentation

4 5 13

2.

3.
4. 5. 6.

Anaerobic Digestion
Cogeneration
Densification
Direct

17

20
23

7.
8.

Combustion

26 29

Gasification

9.

LandHUGas
Liquefaction

32
34

10.
11.
12.

Oilseed Extraction
Pyrolysis

36
38
41

13.
14.

Maximum Allowable Emission of Particulate Matter from New Fuel-Burning Installations Montana PSD Class Areas
1

45 95
101

15. 16. 17.


18.

Areas With Forest Residue Potential Areas of Surplus Straw Areas With Safflower Production Potential Areas With Canola Production Potential

102 103

TABLES
1.

Bioenergy Technologies
Information Sources for Bioenergy Technologit-s

10
11

2. 3. 4.

Alcohol Fermentation Permits, Licenses, and Special Issues

14 18
21

Anaerobic Digestion Permits,

Liceiises,

and Special Issues

5. 6.
7. 8.

Cogeneration Permits, Licenses, and Special ksues


Densification Permits, Licenses,
Direct

and Special

Issues

24

Combustion Permits,

Licenses,

and

Special Issues

27
40

Bioenergy Technologies and Potential Environmental Emissions

9.

AirPollutantsRegulatedby the State of Montana

42 44 47
51

10;
11.

Montana and National Ambient Air Quality Standards


Areas Exceeding National Ambient Air Quality Standards

12.

PennitsThat Might BeRa]uired


Available Bark and Sawdust

for

Bioenergy Technologies

13.
14.
15.

94 96
l>istressed

Infonnation Sources for Biomass Availability


Polenlial Ethanol Production (in Gallons)

From

Grains Based on a Percentage of 97

Total Harvest
Iti.

TotalStraw Available

(in

Dry Tons) After Conservation

99
104

17.

MunicipalSolid Waste Available by County

vu

Vlll

GLOSSARY
A chemical
process in which

Acid hydrolysis:
acid
is

used

to convert cellulose or starch to

Backup electricity (backup services): Power and /or services that are only occasionally
needed,
i.e.,

sugar.

when

on-site generation equipK

ment
Alcohol:

fails.

general class of hydrocarbons that

contain a hydroxyl group (OH). In this guide-

Best available control technology (BACT):

book, the term "alcohol"

is

used interchangeably

That combination of production processes,


methods, systems, and techniques that
of pollutants from a given facility.
wrill re-

with the term "ethanol," even though there are

many

typ>es of alcohol. (See Bulanol, Etlwnol,

and

sult in the lowest achievable level of emissions

Methanol.)

BACT
It

is

an

emission limitation determined on a case-by-

Ambient

air quality:

The condition of the air in

case basis by the permitting authority.

may

the surrounding environment.

include fuel cleaning or treatment, or innovative fuel

combustion techniques.

Anaerobic: Pertaining to the absence of free


oxygen.

Biochemical conversion process: The use of


living

organisms or their products

to

convert

Anaerobic digestion:

biochemical degrada-

organic material into fuels.

tion process that converts


terials to

complex organic main the

methane and other coproducts

Bioenergy: The conversion of the complex car-

absence of free oxygen.

bohydrates

in organic niatter into energy, either

by using the matter directly as a

fuel or

by pro-

Attainment

area:

geographic region where

cessing

it

into liquids

and gases

that are

more

the concentration of a specific air pollutant does

efficient.

not exceed federal standards.

Biogas:

combustible gas derived from debiological waste. Biogas normally

Avoided

costs:

The incremental

costs to an

composing

electric utility of electric

energy or capacity or

consists of 50 to 60 percent methane.

both which, but for the purchase from the qualifying facility or
generate
itself

facilities,

such

utility

would

or purchase from another source.

IX

Biological oxygen

demand (BOD):
oxygen required
to

The
meet
such

Canola:

A
that

winter rapeseed developed in


produces an edible
oil

amount
isms
in

of dissolved

Canada
rated

low

in satu-

the metabolic needs of anaerobic microorgan-

fat.

water that

is

rich in organic matter,

as sewage.

Capital cost: The total investment needed to

complete
Biomass:

a project

and bring

it

to a

commer-

Any

organic matter that

is

available

cially

operable status.

on a renewable basis including forest and mill residues, agricultural crops and wastes, wood

Cellulose:
plants,

The main carbohydrate

in living

and wood wastes, animal wastes, livestock operation residues, aquatic plants, and municipal
wastes.

forming the skeletal structure of the

plant cell wall.

The carbohydrate molecule

is

composed
Biomass
fuel,

of long chains of glucose molecules.

Cellulose molecules are

much

larger

and

struc-

Biomass energy:

energy, or

steam derived from the direct combustion of


biomass for the generation of
electricity,

me-

more complex than starch molecules, which makes the breakdown of cellulose to glucose more difficult.
turally

chanical power, or industrial process heat.

Char: The remains of solid biomass that has

Biomass

fuel:

Any liquid, solid, or gaseous fuel

been incompletely combusted, such as charcoal


if

produced by conversion from biomass.

wood

is

incompletely burned.

Board

feet (BF):
to a

Unit of measure for logs and

Chemical oxygen demand (COD): The amount


of dissolved

lumber equal

board

inch thick, 12 inches

oxygen required

to

combine with

wade, and 12 inches long. The material is commonly measured in thousand board feet (MBF) or million board feet (MMBF).

chemicals in the water, usually for industrial


wastewater.

Class
Boiler:
rial

area:

Any

area designated for the mo.st

Any device used


to heat

to

bum biomass mate-

stringent protection from future air quality


degradation.

and wastes

water for generating

steam.

Class
British thermal unit (Btu):

II

area:

Any area where air is cleaner than

unit of heat en-

required by federal air quality standards and


designated for a moderate degree of protection

ergy equal to the heat needed to raise the tem-

perature of one
Fahrenheit.

pound

of water one degree

from

air quality

degradation. Moderate in-

creases in

new

pollution

may be

permitted in

Qass n areas.
Butanol (butyl alcohol):

An

alcohol vAth the


It

chemical formula CHjCCHj)'^?^.

is

formed

Cogeneration:

The technology

of simulta-

during anaerobic fermentation using bacteria


to

neously producing electric energy and other


forms of thermal or mechanical energy from a
single facility for industrial or commercial heat-

convert the sugars to butanol and carbon

dioxide.

ing or cooling purposes.

Combustion: The transfonmation of biomass into heat, chemicals, and gases through chemical

Furnace:

An
is

enclosed chamber or container

used

to

bum

biomass

in a controlled

manner

combination of hydrogen and carbon


fuel

in the

where heat
heating.

produced

for space or process

wood

with oxygen in the

air.

Densif ication:

process that compresses biointo pellets, bri-

Gas

shift process:

process where carbon


react in the presence of

mass (usually wood waste)


to

monoxide and hydrogen

quettes, cubes, or densified logs

by subjecting

it

a catalyst to form methane

and water.

high pressure.
Gasification:

A chemical or heat process used to

The process by which the components of a mixture (e.g., ethanol-water) are separated by boiling and recondensing the reDistillation:

convert a feedstock into a gaseous form.

Gasohol: Registered trade

name

for a

blend of

90 percent (by volume) unleaded gasoline writh


10 percent ethanol.

sultant vapors.

Distillers' dried grains


tillers'

(DDGS): The dried disa high-

Hogged

(hog) fuel:

Wood
to

residues processed

grains coproduct of the grain fermenta-

through a chipper or mill


for fuel. Bark, dirt,

produce coarse chips

tion process,

which may be used as

and

fines

may be included.

protein animal feed.


Incinerator:

Any

device used to

bum

solid or

Emissions: Substances discharged into the en-

liquid residues or wastes as a


posal. In

method

of disfor

vironment as waste material, such as discharge


into the air

some models,

provisions are

made

from smokestacks or discharge

into

recovering the heat produced.

the water from waste streams.

Kilowatt-hour (Kwh):
Enzymatic hydrolysis:

measure of energy

process by which en-

equivalent to the expenditure of one kilowatt for

zymes

(biological catalysts) are

used

to

break

one hour, equal


Landfill gas:

to

about 3,412 Btus.


that is generated

starch or cellulose

down into sugar.


Gas
by decompo-

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol):

An alcohol compound

sition of organic material at landfill disposal sites.

v^th the chemical formula

CHjCHjOH

formed

The gas generated


methane.

is

approximately 50 percent

during sugar fermentation by yeast.

Fermentation: The biological conversion by


yeast of sugar into carbon dioxide

Leachates: Liquids derived from or percolated

and

alcohol.

through, and containing soluble portions


waste
piles.

of,

Leachate can include various miner-

Forested areas or land:


of producing or has
if

Any land

that is capable

als,

organic matter, or other contaminants and

produced
not

forest

growth

or,

can contaminate surface water or groundwater.


Liquefaction: The process of converting bio-

lacking forest growth, has evidence of a


is

former forest and

now

in other use.

mass from
process
is

a solid to a liquid.

The conversion

a chemical

change

that takes place at

elevated temperatures

and

pressures.

XI

Liquid hydrocarbon:
of chemical

One of a very large group compounds composed only of carlargest source of hydro-

Organic compounds: Chemical compounds based on carbon chains or rings and also con-

bon and hydrogen. The


carbons
is

petroleum.

hydrogen with or without oxygen, trogen, and other elements.


taining
Particulate:

ni-

Megawatt (MW): An electric generation


one million watts or 1,000 kilowatts.

unit of

small, discrete

mass of

solid or

liquid matter that remains individually dis-

persed in gas or liquid emissions, such as aero-

Methane:

An

odorless, colorless, flammable

sol, dust,

fume, mist, smoke, and spray. Each of

gas with the formula

CH^

that

is

the primary

these forms has different properties.

constituent of natural gas.

pH:

A measure of acidity

or alkalinity of a so-

Methanol (methyl
ally

alcohol):

An

alcohol with
is

lution that numerically equals 7 for a neutral


solution. Acid solutions

the chemical formula

CH3OH. Methanol

usu-

have a lower

pH

apa

produced by chemical conversion

at

high

proaching
higher

0,

and alkaline solutions have

temperatures and pressures.

pH approaching 14.

Mill residue:

Wood and

bark waste produced

Prevention of significant deterioration (PSD):

in processing lumber.

planning and management process for air

quality that applies

when
in

new

source of air

Nonattainment

area:

geographic area in
Ls

pollution

is

proposed

an area

where ambient

which the quality of the


allowed by federal

air

worse than

that

air quality is better

than applicable standards.

air pollution standards. Pre-

vention of significant deterioration require-

Producer gas: Fuel gas high


ide (CO)

in

carbon monox-

ments do not apply

in

nonattainment areas.

and hydrogen

(Hj),

produced by
air

burning a solid fuel (biomass) with a deficiency


Oilseed extraction: The separation of vegetable
oil

of air or

by passing a mixture of

and steam

from seeds (safflower, sunflower) by the


oil

through a burning bed of solid

fuel (biomass).

combination of pressing a portion of the

out
Pyrolysis:

and dissolving the remainder


solvents.

of the oil with

The breaking apart of complex molby the use


of heat. For

ecules into simpler units


this

handbook, the process involves chemical


charcoal.

Opacity: The extent to which


ticles

smoke

or par-

decomjxisition of biomass to producer gas, fuel


oil,

emitted into the air obstruct the transmis-

and

sion of light.

Qualifying
Organic: Of, relating
to,

facility:

nonutility operation that


electric

or derived from living

produces or cogenerates

power

for sale

organisms;

of,

rebting

to,

or containing carbon

and meets certain

state requirements.

compounds.

xu

Refuse-derived

fuel;

Fuel preparod from

mu-

Stillage:

The grains and/or

liquid effluent re-

nicipiil M)lid vvasle

by refining

Minimum

refine-

maining after distillation.


Total suspended particulates (TSP): Quantity
of solid particles in a gas or exhaust stream.

ment
tions,

is

usually removing nonconibustible porglass,

such as rocks,
into

and

metals, before

chopping pieces

uniform

sizes.

Renewable energy
natural means.
It

resource:

Any energy

re-

Waste streams:
nomic
value.

Solid and/or liquid by-products

source that can be replaced after use through


includes solar energy,

of a biomass process that

have no use or eco-

wind

energy, hydropower, and energy from plant


matter.

Watt: The

common

base unit of power in the

Solvent extraction:

metric system equal to one joule per second, or

method

of separation in

to the

which a
to

solid or solution is contacted with a

of

power developed in a circuit by a current one ampere flowing through a potential dif-

liquid solvent (the

two are mutually insoluble) transfer one or more components into the sol-

ference of one volt.

vent. This
oils.

method

is

used

to purify vegetable

Xlll

SECTION 1 WHERE TO START

INTRODUCTION
The Montana

this

guide

may

be necessary to a particular
is

project. If a

proposed project

at all related to
it

was written to provide project developers, government officials, professionals, and the general public with
Bioenerg]/ Guidebook

specific areas of regulation listed,

is

recom-

mended

that the appropriate agencies

be con-

tacted for further information.

a brief description of the technologies used in

developing bioenergy projects and the permitting process involved with those projects.

Many

HOW TO USE THE GUIDEBOOK


The Montana
five

individuals, businesses,

and municipalities are


affect

Bioenergy Guidebook
1,

is

divided into
to Start, ex-

interested in developing bioenergy projects.

major sections. Section

Where

Many

laws and regulations


to

such

projects.

plains the purposes of the guidebook


to

and how

There are applications

file,

time deadlines to

use

it,

introduces the user to bioenergy con-

meet, requirements to comply with, and project

cepts,

and outlines the process of planning a


2,

information reports to
authorities.

file

with the appropriate

bioenergy project. Section

Bioenergy Tech-

Because projects frequently require


local, state,

nologies, discusses 10 bioenergy technologies

{jermits

from
is

and

federal agencies,
all

and provides an overview of the permits,


licenses, or other areas of
to

the guide

designed

to

cover

three levels of

compliance related

regulation.

More detailed information on project


in

each technology. Also included are process

development and technologies can be found


by John Vranizan

flowcharts that detail feedstocks, process steps,

the Biomass Energy Project Development Guidebook


et al.

end products, and potential emissions


technology. Section
3,

for each

Environmental Consider-

ations, discusses air quality,

water quality, and


4,

The purpose of the Montana


is

Bioenergy Guidebook

waste management requirements. Section


Permits By Category,
lists

to help

people developing projects understand


It is

permits by

topical

the permitting process.

not a legal document

area. Section 5, Special Considerations, covers

and should not be relied on exclusively to determine legal responsibilities. It is not a substitute
for obtaining detailed information regarding
li-

items not mentioned elsewhere, including business liceasing requirements, cogeneration,


safety,

dam
lists

and

others.

The appendices include

censes, permits, standards, operating require-

of bioenergy projects, information

on biomass

ments, and enforcement from government agencies.

Some

pennits and licenses not included in

resources, and lists of federal and state agencies and other organizations. An energy cost

comparison chart
books mentioned
the bibliography.

is

inside the back cover. All

cessing biomass

is

called bioenergy. Bioenergy

in the

guidebook are

cited in

can produce

electricity,

mechanical power, space

A glossary and a subject index


list

heat, or industrial process heat.

are included. Finally, a

of abbreviations

and
Bioenergy technologies such as alcohol fermentation,

acronyms
Permit

is

included inside the front cover.

anaerobic digestion, direct combustion,

descriptions in Section 4 are

based on

in-

densification, in

and cogeneration are being used


in

terviews with each agency and information in


the 1991 edition of the laws of Montana, the

Montana Code Annotated (MCA), and

in the state

Montana. Montana projects include biogas use by sewage plants, fuel alcohol production from grains, use of
bioenergy projects

rules, the Administrative Rules of

Montana
college
is

wood waste

for process heat or for conversion

(ARM),
able at

in force in

June 1991 The


.

MCA is availand

into fuel pellets,

and burning municipal waste

to

most large public

libraries

produce process steam. Technologies that are


used elsewhere and are being studied
potential uses in
traction,
sis,

and university libraries, while the available at the Montana State Library,

ARM

for their

the State

Montana include

oilseed ex-

Law Library of Montana, and most college and


university libraries. Copies of specific rules are

use of

landfill gas, liquefaction, pyroly-

and

gasification of various

biomass residues.

usually available from the agency that administers

them.

A
made
to present accu-

bioenergy

facility

nologies. For

may combine several techexample, a boiler burning wood


for

Serious effort has been


rate,

waste could provide process steam


hol plant.

an

alco-

comprehensive information in this guideis

Use of biomass

to

produce energy has


low-

book. However, every project

unique, and the


a starting

numerous

advantages including using local recosts,

guidebook should be used only as


place in the permitting process.
stitute for
It

newable resources, reducing energy


ering the cost of transporting

is

not a sub-

and

disfxasing of

working closely with authorized agencies and other professionals for develop ment of a project that is economically sound and in compliance with all federal and state laws and rules.

waste, stimulating the local economy, and decreasing foreign trade deficits by reducing the

use of imported

oil

and natural

gas.

HOW TO PLAN A BIOENERGY


PROJECT
Successful development of a bioenergy project

WHAT IS BIOMASS ENERGY?


For the purpose of
this publication,

biomass
a

is

dep)ends on a

number of factors,

including thorfinanc-

any organic matter


agricultural crops

that

is

available

on

renew-

ough research and planning, economics,

able basis, including forest

and

mill residues,

ing, resource availability, effective fuel collection

and wastes, wood and wood

wastes, animal wastes, feedlot residues, food

and conversion, appropriate design for a general location, and efficient operation. Other considerations are

processing wastes, and municipal solid waste

how
of

well project developers present

(MSW).
trees,
oils

All

biomass contains carbon. Plants,


to

the project to the

government and the

public,

municipal waste, manure, and vegetable


all

and choice
cific site.

an appropriate design
to the

for a spe-

are

forms of biomass that can be used

For more detailed information on planBiomass Energy Project

produce energy. The energy obtained by pro-

ning a project, refer

DezKlopment Guidebook by John Vranizan

et al.

project plan. Considerations for site selection

The following guidelines,

illustrated in Figure 1,

must include land


market

costs, resource acces-

are helpRil for project planning.

sibility,

accessibility, transportation,

environmental and cultural impacts, zoning


1.

Develop

a Preliminary Project Plan


project plan

restrictions, necessary permits, availability.

and

utility

Coordination wath local planis

Develop an organized preliminary


that includes information

ning departments
the
facility.

required in the siting of

on

project goals, pro-

spective

sites,

resource availability, plant size and

design, technologies to be used,


ses for products.

and market analyfinancial

C.

Economics
financial

A preliminary

and

eco-

Review

and economic

factors

such

nomic

feasibility

assessment should be developed

as resource costs

and

locations; potential
in-

to include estimates of project costs, projected rev-

markets and prices for end products; tax


centives; effects of fuel supply costs
fluctuations;
if

enues or savings, and economic

factors that influ-

and

ence those areas. Prosp)ective develop>ers should


research

applicable, electricity buypotential financing options.


facility to

and

assess possible environmental con-

back

rates;

and

siderations and potential impacts.

Conversion of a

use biomass

fuel

may produce
2.

a savings

from lower

fuel or

Seek Preliminary Approval

for the Project

disposal costs. Fuel costs can be

compared

Submit the preliminary

project plan to the local

quickly using the Montana Energy Cost

authorizing agency such as a local planning board

Comparison Chart on the inside back cover.

or county commissioners for preliminary review

An

accountant or business consultant can

and approval. Local


projxjsal to see
if it

authorities will review the


local land

help prepare a business plan or loan prospectus.

compbes with
It

use
4.

regulations

and ordinances.

also

may

be necesif

sary to consult the local health office to see


lations

regu-

Prepare a Detailed Project Plan


that includes detailed
site

on

air quality,

sewage

disposal, or waste

Develop a written plan

disposal apply to the project

information on cost, design, and


ations. This project plan will

consider-

provide informa-

3.

Conduct a Detailed Study of the Proposed


Project

tion

on the project

to potential investors

and

other interested parties including local, state,

A. Facility Design

and

federal agencies involved in the permitting

process.

Apply

for all permits necessary to the


this

Review

the project goals, technologies to be

project

by using

used, and plant size

and design

to

determine

place to

guidebook as a starting review laws and regulations related to


is

the technical feasibility of the project.

An engiand

a project. Because each project

unique,

it

is

neer can complete preliminary plant and sys-

usually necessary to contact federal and state


agencies to obtain

tem designs, develop


alternative plans,
sions, effluents,

technical options

more detailed information on


2,

and

identify potential emis-

permits and other areas of compliance. Develop


a project timetable such as Figvire

and environmental

impacts.

Permit Cal-

B. Site Considerations

endar. Identify other areas of compliance that

Select a preferred

and an alternative

may
site

not require a permit, such as the


if it is

bond an

from the

sites identified in the

preliminary

ethanol plant must have

to

handle grain

FIGURE

HOW TO PLAN A BIOENERGY PROJECT

DEVELOP PRELIMINARY PROJECT PLAN

Develop project goals Determine technical


feasibility

Conduct preliminary
investigations

Evaluate economics

SEEK APPROVAL OF DECISION MAKERS^


yes

no

->

PROJECT STOPS

CONDUCT DirrAILED STUDY


Design

facility

Identify pemiits

Review

site

considerations

Study financial and economic factors

JikL

DEVELOP DETAILED PROJECT PLAN


\'

\k

k^

^
SECURE CONTRACTS FOR END PRODUCTS

OBTAIN BUILDING, LAND


USE,

AND ENVIRONMENTAL

ARRANGE
FINANCING

PERMITS FROM AGENCIES

_^kL

BEGIN CONSTRUCTION

START-UP,

COMPLETE CONSTRUCTION, AND TESTING PHASE


\k_

BIOENERGY PROJECT ON

LINE!

FIGURE

PERMIT CALENDAR

Minimum
Months

time you can expect before approval of a project (Most

facilities

do not require

all

these permits.)

prior to construction:

12

11

10

AIR QUALITY
;^SXXJ
::

^vi4wft!yjw4.ft'ii

Air Quality Permit (An

environmental impact
statement can add 6 months.)

ALCOHOL PRODUCTION
Alcohol Fuel Producer's Permit ^
(2 years)

(See

Commodity

Dealer's License,

page

52).

insp)ect

buildings and equipment before opera-

Identify areas of business regulation such as

tion begins.

company

registration, licenses, taxes,

and emEnvironmental permits are generally required

ployment information

that require compliance.

5.

Arrange Financing

and water discharges or waste disposal. Some air and water permits may require site
for air

monitoring for data before a permit can be

is-

Review the economic section of the detailed


study to determine the project's best selling
points. Contact financial institutions with the

sued. Finally, monitoring of the site

may be

re-

quired at intervals after the project

is initiated.

business plan and loan prospectus. Assistance

may be available from the Montana Science and Technology Alliance, which has some loan money available for Montana business ventures
and
is

The total time needed to obtain required project permits may vary from a few months for a
small project to over a year for a larger one, as
illustrated in Figure 2. Factors that influence the

establishing a

Montana venture

capital

time involved include delays in the land use

network. For more information, contact OCXZ.

approval process and compliance with environmental monitoring requirements.

may be available through the Montana Growth Through Agriculture ProAssistance also

gram, which can fund a variety of agriculturerelated activities. Eligible activities include for-

Once

all

permits are obtained, construction can

begin. Be

aware

that additional permits

may

be

eign and domestic

market development,

required during construction for specific tasks

agricultural technology research

and

transfer,

such as a permit for open burning during


clearing, a grading permit, a permit
to

site

and seed
cesses.

capital

awards

for

development and

operate

commercialization of

new

products and pro-

overweight vehicles on roads, a sewage holding


tank variance, and others. Coordination with
the appropriate federal, state,
will alleviate

For more information, contact

DOA, Ag-

riculture

Development

Division.

and

local agencies

unexpected delays.

6.

Obtain Permits For Building, Land Use,

and Environmental Controls


Contact the appropriate
for land
city or

7.

Secure Contracts for End Products

county agency
forms, and

Contact potential buyers of bioenergy products

use permits. Permit


differ,

titles,

such as

electric utilities,

gas

utilities, pellet

or

procedures

but local governments must

wood

fuel distributors,

and

refineries.

A continin-

approve project plans before construction can


begin. Site approval for a large energy project

gency contract with a buyer will greatly


absence of a contract, a
letter

crease chances for obtaining financing. In the

can be a long, complicated process.


clude
tion.

It

can

in-

expressing interest

site

surveys, public hearings,

and

litiga-

from a reputable buyer

would be of value. Once


is

Land use permits are required before envi-

the required pemiits are obtained, financing

ronmental permits can be issued.

secured, and construction has begun, contract


negotiations for supplies

and

sales

should be

fi-

Construction plans and building operations

nalized.

The time of product delivery should be


left for

must be approved by
building
office,

either the state or local


jurisdiction in the

the only item

possible negotiation

by the

depending on

buyer when construction begins.

plant area.

The authorizing agency may have to

8.

Complete Construclion and Slart-Up/


Testing

struction

is

a "turnkey" project, then the engi-

neer from the turnkey


to

company

will

be resjX)n-

Completing construction requires attention


detail. Final checklists identifying

sible for the integrity of the construction.

modifications

to the

design plans

made during

During start-up and


construction

testing,

environmental

should be reviewed with the construction engineer and contractor. This on-site review
is

monitoring

is

usually required. Requirements

may
sions
to

include close monitoring of stack emis-

to en-

sure that

all

items noted during construction


If

and

special treatment of wastes.

The time
facility is

have been checked and corrected.

optimize the actual operation of the


testing.

the con-

during

SECTION 2

BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

INTRODUCTION
Bioenergy technologies are in various phases of

ergy

Facilities (Sifford 1987),

and the Washington

Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities (Kerstetter


1987).

development throughout the world. Both eco-

nomic viability and technical development must be considered when evaluating a bioenergy technology for commercial use.

Table

describes the 10 technologies that are

introduced in this section, listing the process,

major biomass resources, and energy products


for each technology.

Some

of the technologies

Selected information

on Montana
in

projects using

are used in Montana, while others are in the de-

these technologies
tailed in the

is

Appendix
Facilities

and de-

veloping stages. Table 2 identifies agencies that


serve as information sources for each technology.

DNRC

publication. Directory of

Montana Biomass Energy


soon
ties.

(Haines 1988),
Facili-

Addresses
in

for all agencies listed


B.

can be

to

be updated as Montana Bioenergy

found

Apf)endix

Information on bioenergy projects outside Montana may be reviewed in Bionote: An Inven-

Figures 3 through 12 are process flowcharts for

tory of Industrial

and Commercial

Boilers

Burning

each of these 10 technologies and are generic in


nature to cover
a bioenergy

Wood or

Related Biomass Fuels in Alaska (Woodell

many

possible configurations of
lists

1986), Biomass Energy Facilities


the Great Lakes Region (Great

1988 Directory of

facility.

Each process flowchart

Lakes Regional Bio-

feedstocks, process steps,

and

potential environ-

mass Energy Program


Biomass Energy

mental emissions. The


1988), Idaho Directory of

text that

accompanies

Facilities

(Peppersack and

each flowchart gives an overview of the permits, licenses, or other areas of

Galinato 1987), Directory of Oregon Biomass En-

compliance or

regulations that apply

to that technology.

TABLE 1

BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

TECHNOLOGY
Alcohol fermentation

MAJOR BIOMASS RESOURCES


Grains, starch, cellulose, food processing

ENERGY PRODUCTS
Ethanol, butanol

waste, forest and agricultural residue

Anaerobic digestion

Manure

(poultry, dairy cows, pigs),

Biogas,

methane

cellulose, food processing waste,

wastewater (sewage), garbage


Cogeneration

Wood,

densified biomass, agricultural

Heat, steam, electricity,

residue, garbage, biogas

mechanical power
Pellets, briquettes,

Densification

Forest

and

agricultural residue, sawmill

wastes, garbage
Direct combustion

densified logs, cubes

Wood,

straw, densified biomass, garbage,

Heat, steam, electricity


(cogeneration)

(suspension burners,
fluidized

agricultural residue, sawmill waste

bed combusfurnaces)
Forest

tors, boilers,

Gasification

and

agricultural residue, garbage

Methane, producer gas, methanol


Methane, biogas

Landfill gas

Garbage
Forest

Liquefaction

and

agricultural residue, garbage.

Hydrocarbons

(oil)

sawmill waste
Oilseed extraction
Agricultural crops (sunflowers, safflowers,
Diesel fuel substitute,

canola)

replacement for petroleum-derived

oils

Pyrolysis

Forest and agricultural residue, sawmill

waste, garbage

Producer gas, fuel oil, hydrocarbons, char

10

TABLE 2

INFORMATION SOURCES FOR BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

ALCOHOL FERMENTATION
Feedstocks such as wheat, barley, potatoes,
waste paper, sawdust, and straw contain sugar,
starch, or cellulose

Air quality permits are required for discharge of

exhaust gases from the boiler and the grain


dryer depending on the size of the burner and
the type of fuel. Special consideration
to

may have

and can be converted


to sugar,

to alis

be given to odor control. (See Air Quality,


54.) If

cohol by fermentation with yeast. Fuel alcohol

pages 39 and
fuel,
it

an alcohol plant bums solid

produced by boiling grain starch

add-

may need

to

comply with PM-10 ambiEPA.


with
less.

ing yeast, fermenting the sugar to alcohol,

and

ent air quality standards established by

then separating the alcohol mixture by


tion,

distilla-

These standards are

for particulate matter

as illustrated in Figure

3.

Feedstocks used

an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or


(See Air (Quality, pages 44 and
46.)

Montana are barley and wheat. Agricultural and forest residues, such as straw and wood,
in

contain cellulose and require special pretreat-

ment and processing


ethanol
is

to convert the cellulose to

and hazardous waste regulations are becoming more stringent, and cleanup costs may
Solid

sugar. Conversion of cellulose feedstocks to


a developing technology. Pilot scale

be imposed

if

improper disposal occurs. Waste

generators are legally liable for proper disposal


of waste. Solid waste disposal permits are not

plants operate in

New York and Utah.


fuel ethanol plant is

required

if

wastes, such as unmarketable

distill-

Montana's only operating


nol projects
the

ers' grains,
If

are disposed of at licensed


is

facilities.

in Ringling. Detailed information


is in

on other etha-

the waste

classified as a

hazardous waste,

DNRC

publication,

Monis

there are detailed reporting requirements for


disposal.

tana Bioenergy Facilities (forthcoming). Selected

Any

facility

storing solid waste, such

information on Montana bioenergy projects

in

as hog fuel or refuse-derived fuel,


solid

may

require a

Appendix A.
Most of the permits,
plants in
licenses,

waste management system

license.

For a

definition of solid waste

and information on the

and

special issues

law, rules,

and exceptions, see Waste Manage63.

pertaining to the operation of fuel ethanol

ment, pages 47 and


specific

For more information on


contact

Montana are summarized

in

Table

3.

wastes or

facilities,

SHWB.

Environmental Permits
Alcohol plants, illustrated in Figure
3,

Construction and Land Use Permits

have

Local permits are required for different phases


of planning

waste streams with high biological oxygen de-

and construction.
affect

Fire

and explo-

mand (BOD),
no use
is

high chemical oxygen

demand
If

sion safety are considerations at alcohol plants

(COD), high solids content, and varying pH.


found for
this "stillage,"
it

and may even


hol the
is

insurance coverage. Alco-

can create a

classified as a class

IB flammable liquid

large waste disposal problem. Acid hydrolysis

of cellulose creates waste streams that require

same as gasoline, and presents a fire and explosion hazard. Grain handling and milling
present dust explosion hazards. Explosionproof equipment and wiring are needed in areas

sophisticated neutralization processes.

Water

pollution permits will be required to discharge

any of these waste streams or possibly


or hold these wastes on
site.

to

pond

where alcohol

is

handled and grain dust

is

(See

Water Quality,

present.

pages 50 and

65.)

12

FIGURE 3

ALCOHOL FERMENTATION
Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

emissions/effluents

Grains, starch, cellulose,

Storage and
physical pretreatment
Particulates

food processing waste, forest

and

agricultural residue

Cellulose,

'wood, waste paper^ straw

Organic solvents

Steam

= zr ~
Cooking

Chemical
pretreatment

Liquid wastes, gaseous emissions,


particulates

Gaseous emissions,

Enzymes

particulates

\kL

Liquid wastes

Acid

Acid

(acidic, organic),

hydrolysis

solid wastes
(lignin)

M/ Enzymes

Enzymatic
hydrolysis

Jik
Yeast

J^1Z_

Alcohol
fermentation

Liquid wastes,
solid wastes

Gaseous emissions,
particulates

13

TABLE 3

ALCOHOL FERMENTATION PERMITS, LICENSES, AND SPECIAL ISSUES


Alcohol Production

Environmental Considerations

Alcohol E>istributor's License CDOR) Alcohol Fuel Producer's Permit (BATF)


Gasoline License Tax on Gasohol Sold in

Air C^iality Construction and/or Operating

Permit (DHES)
Beneficial

Water Use Permit (DNRC)


Facility

Montana (DOR) and Personal Property Tax Reduction for Prof)erty Used in the Production of
Real

Hazardous Waste Management


Permit (DHES)

Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements

Alcohol (IX)R)

Tax (BATF) Blended with on Alcohol Tax Incentive


Special Occupations

Gasoline for Sale as Gasohol (DOR)

(DHES) Montana Groundwater Pollution Control System (MGWPCS) Permit (DHES) Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination
System (MPDES) Permit (DHES)
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

Construction and Land Use


Boiler

Operating Certificate (DOLl)

System (NPDES) Permit (DHES)


Nonattainment Permitting Requirements

Boiler Operator's License (DOLI)

Building Permit (IX)C or local building

(DHES)

department)
Electrical

Odor Control (DHES)

Permit

(DOC or local building


(DNRC)
(local

PM-10 Air (Quality Standards (DHES)


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

department)

Floodplain Development Permit

(PSD) Review (DHES)

Lakeshore Development Permit

Solid

Waste Management System License

government)

(DHES)

Mechanical Permit (EXX! or local building


department)
Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Stream Protection Act Permit (DFWP)

Streambed and Land Preservation Permit


(310 Pemiit) (normally, local conservation
district)

Standards (OSHA)

Odor Control (DHES) Plumbing Permit (DOC or local building


department)

Special Concerns

Business Licensing Recjuirements

(DOC

and

local

government)
Dealer's License (EXDA)

Commodity

Electrical

Energy Producer's License (EXDR)

Feed Dealer's Permit (DOA)


Safety Inspections (EXDJ, state fire
fire chief,

Fire

marshal 1, municipal
sherifO

or county

Warehouseman's License (DOA)

14

Boilers

and

boiler operators

must be licensed by
(EXDLI),

modity dealer's

license or a

warehouseman's
52.)

li-

the Dejsartment of Labor

and Industry

cense. (See Agriculture,

page

Safety Bureau. (See Occupational Safety and


Health, pages 62

and

75.)

Prior to doing business in Montana, every fuel

alcohol distributor

Special Issues

the state

DOT, Motor

must obtain a license from Fuels Tax Division, Acfile

counting Services Bureau, Gasoline Unit. EXDT

Alcohol producers must properly qualify the

requires alcohol distributors to

detailed This

and obtain a permit from the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF). Bonding requirements vary depending
alcohol plant

monthly statements on
centive

all sales activities.

information qualifies a distributor for a tax in-

on each gallon of alcohol

sold,

provided

on the

size of the plant.

BATF has detailed

re-

porting requirements. Application forms and an

information packet are available from the San

Francisco office of BATF. (See Appendix B,

Montana from Montana agricultural products, including wood or wood products, and that the alcohol was blended with gasoline for sale as gasohol or was
the alcohol

was produced

in

Agencies/Organizations.)
1988,

Since January

1,

exported from Montana and blended with gasoline for sale as gasohol.

anyone engaged

in

an alcohol activity
re-

who holds a BATF permit or license may be


quired to pay a special occupations
Francisco office of
tion
tax.

The San

Gasoline distributors

who
it

blend alcohol with


in

BATF can

supply informa-

gasoline and distribute

Montana are
If

re-

and forms

related to this tax.

quired to pay a gasoline license tax on each gallon of gasohol sold in Montana.
the gasohol
is

A Feed Dealer's Permit from DOA, Plant Industry Division is required for distillers' dried

exported,

no

tax

is

required.

grains

(DDGS)

or other coproducts that are dis-

Real and personal property used in gasohol or


fuel ethanol

tributed as commercial feed in Montana.

commercial feed

The must be registered and comply

production

facilities in

Montana

may
the

be

eligible for

property tax reductions for

with labeling format and other requirements as


stated in

first

three years of use. For

more information

DOA rules.

on

this,

contact the Agricultural Bureau Chief of

CXDR, Property Assessment Division.


Additionally, anyone marketing or housing
grain

may have

to obtain

an agricultural com-

15

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Anaerobic digestion converts organic matter
a mixture of methane, the major
natural gas,
to

Most

of the permits, licenses,

for anaerobic digesters in

and sj^ecial issues Montana are summa-

rized in Table 4.

component of and carbon dioxide (CO2). Biomass,


mixed with water and fed
air.

Environmental Permits

such as manure, straw, sewage, or food processing wastes,


is

into a

The main environmental concern with anaerobic digesters is that digested sludge

digester tank without


bacteria break the

There microbes and

and wastefacility is

biomass

down

to biogas, liq-

water cannot be discharged into state waters.


For example, an animal confinement
point source of pollution
a
a

uid effluent, and sludge, as

shown

in Figure 4.

The methane content of biogas can be as high as


80 percent
output.
if

and may require

the reactor

is

designed for energy


is

At present, the digestion process


be used

used

primarily to process animal


nicipal sewage, but also can

manure and muto process

Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Permit. (See Water Quality, pages 50 and 65.)

most cellulose materials. The methane produced can be used for heating, process heat,
mechanical energy, or
electrical generation.

DHES

is

responsible for enforcement of odor

control rules.

Any business or person using any

device, facility, or process that discharges odor-

ous matter, vapors, gases, dusts, or combination

and Missoula use the biogas they produce from sewage treatment operations. The biogas is used to fire
Billings,

Bozeman, Helena,

Kalispell,

of these that creates odors


tion.

is

subject to regulainstall,

That person must provide, properly

maintain, and operate odor control devices or

boilers or fuel-modified diesel engine generators.

procedures as specified by DHES.

Plants at Billings

and Helena use the

coolIf

ing water

warmed by

the biogas-fired diesel en-

a facility discharges particulates


it

from raw

gine to heat digesters or to preheat boiler feed


water.

materials,

may need

to

comply with PM-10


for particulate matter

The biogas can


if

also be

used directly
is

to

ambient

air quality

standards established by

fuel the boilers

the

methane content

greater

EPA. These standards are

than 50

{jercent.

with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or


less.

(See Air (Quality, pages 44

and

46.)

Montana's only on-farm anaerobic digester


located in Conrad.

is

Low

electricity

prices
start-

coupled with other factors have delayed

up of the Conrad digester. A smaU digester at a Missoula dairy was destroyed in a fire in June
1988.

and hazardous waste regulations are becoming more stringent, and cleanup costs may be imposed if improper disposal occurs. Waste
Solid

generators are legally liable for propter disposal


of waste. Solid waste disposal permits are not

required

if

wastes are disposed of at licensed


is

fa-

Detailed information on bioenergy projects

is

cilities. If

the waste

classified as

hazardous,

contained in the

DNRC

publication, Montana

there are detailed reporting requirements for


disposal.

Bioenergy Facilities (forthcoming). Selected infor-

Any

facility storing solid

waste, such

mation on Montana bioenergy projects


cluded in Appendix A.

is in-

as hog fuel or refuse-derived fuel,


solid

may require a
license.

waste management system

For a

16

FIGURE 4

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION
Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

em issinns/ef fluents

Manure,

cellulose,

Collection,

Odor,
particulates,

food processing waste, wastewater (sewage),

storage,

and

municipal solid waste

pretreatment

liquid wastes

_\Jii.

Anaerobic
digestion

Liquid wastes,
solid wastes

JiJ^

NkL

Liquid wastes,
solid wastes,

Gas conditioning

sulphur
\L/
\1/

Internal

combustion

Direct combustion

or turbine

\/
Electricity,

mechanical
^_energ>^

17

definition of solid waste

law, rules,

and information on the and exceptions, see Waste Manage63.

Special Issues

ment, pages 47 and


specific

For more information on


contact

Anaerobic digestion projects that produce


tricity

elec-

wastes or

facilities,

SHWB.

may

be required

to

pay an

electrical en-

ergy producer's license


that each

tax.

Montana law

states
in the

person or organization engaged

Construction and Land Use Permits

generation, manufacture, or production of elecec}uip>-

The biogas digester and biogas-handling

tricity

and

electrical

energy for barter,


electrical

sale,

or

ment must comply with all mechanical, electrical, and building codes. (See Building, Mechanical, Electrical,

exchange must pay an


producer's tax of $.0002
pjer

energy

kilowatt-hour. For

and Plumbing Permits, page 57.)

information contact IX)R, Natural Resource

and Corporation Tax

Division.

TABLE 4

ANAEROBIC DIGESTION PERMITS, LICENSES, AND SPECIAL ISSUES


Construction and Land Use
Boiler Boiler

Montana Groundwater Pollution Control


System

Operating Certificate (DOLI)


Operator's License (DOLI)

(MGWPCS)

Permit (DHES)

Montana

Pollutant Discharge Elimination

Building Permit (EXDC or local building

System (MPDES) Permit (DHES)


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

department)
Electrical

Permit (EXDC or local building

System (NPDES) Permit (DHES)


Nonattainment Permitting Requirements

department)

Floodplain Development Permit

(DNRC)

(DHES)

Lakeshore Development Permit Oocal

government)

Odor Conh-ol (DHES) PM-10 Air C^ality Standards (DHES)


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

Mechanical Permit
department)

(DOC or local building

(PSD) Review (DHES)


Solid

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Waste Management System License

Standards (OSHA)

(DHES)
Sb-eam Protection Act Permit (DFWP)

Plumbing Permit (DOC or local building


def)artment)

Streambed and Land Preservation Permit


(310 Permit) (normally, local conservation

Environmental Considerations

district)

Air Quality Construction and/or Operating Permit

(DHES)
Facility

Special Concerns

Beneficial

Water Use Permit (DNRC)

Business Licensing Requirements

(DOC

Hazardous Waste Management


Permit (DHES)

and

local

government)
Producer's License (DOR)
fire

Electrical Energ)' Fire Safety

Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements (DHES)

Inspections (DOJ, state

marshall, municipal fire chief, or county


sherifO

18

COGENERATION
Cogeneration
is

BACT standards are applicable to bioenergy projects. BACT may be more stringent than values
but

the simultaneous production of

shown

in Figure 13, so all jX)int sources

must use

and
ers,

more than one form of energy using a single fuel facility as shown in Figure 5. Furnaces, boilor engines fueled with biomass can cogen-

BACT to be sure of meeting particulate emission requirements. (See Air Quality, page 41.)

erate electricity for on-site use or sale.

Biomass

Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)

cogeneration has

more

potential

growth than

standards and National Ambient Air C^ality

biomass generation alone because cogeneration

Standards

(NAAQS) apply
55.)
If

to

major new
solid fuel,

produces both heat and


using the heat from

electricity. Electric

sources of air pollution. (See Air Quality, pages


41, 43,

power generators can become cogenerators by


electric

and

a facility

bums

it

generation for pro-

may

be required

to

comply wdth EPA's PM-10


These standards

cess heat. Increased fuel efficiency


in fuel

and savings

ambient

air quality standards.

and energy costs are the major incentives

are for particulate matter v^th a diameter of 10

for considering cogeneration.

microns or
46.)
If

less.

(See Air (Quality, pages 44

and

Montana's

wood products industry uses cogenand sawdust prolumber and paper operations. Half

eration to dispose of bark

duced

in its

of the industrial
at

wood waste in Montana is used


plants
in

wood products

Libby and

Frenchtown. These operations


to

bum wood waste

more than 25 megawatts and sells more than one-third of its power to a utility, it may be required to comply with Title rv add rain provisions of the Clean Air Act. Some municipalities have adopted their own air pollution control programs. (See Urban Areas/ Municipalities, page 76.) Odor control is a spea facility produces
cial consideration. (See

generate steam that powers a turbine genera-

Air Quality, pages 40

tor to

reduce

its

pressure for use as process heat.


is

and

42.)

Electricity

generated

used

on-site.

These
Solid

power

plants produce approximately 138.6 mil-

and hazardous waste regulations are bestringent,

lion kilowatt-hours annually

from a

total of 18.5

coming more

and cleanup

costs

may

megawatts of wood-fired generation capacity.


Most of the permits, licenses, and special issues pertaining to biomass cogeneration in
listed in

be imposed for improper disposal. Waste generators are legally liable for the proper disposal

of waste. Solid waste disposal permits are not re-

Montana

are

quired
ties. If

if

wastes are disposed of at licensed


is

facili-

Table 5 and in Sp)ecial Considerations: Co-

the waste

classified as

hazardous, there

generation and Small

Power Production, page 71.

are detailed reporting requirements for disposal.

Any
Environmental Permits
Biomass-fired furnaces and boilers must meet
state air quality regulations.

facility storing solid

waste, such as

wood

waste or refuse-derived

fuel,

may require a solid


license.

waste management system


source

Discharges

permit

of pollutants into state waters from a point


is re-

quired from the

DHES

Air Quality Bureau for

may

require an

MGWPCS Permit.
65.)

(See

furnaces and boilers that have a heat input of


10AX),0(X) Btus per

Waste Management, pages 47 and 63 and Water


C^ality, pages 50

hour

if

they are burning

and

For a definition of
rules,

liq-

uid or gaseous
if

fuels,

or SjOOOfiOO Btus per hour


fuel.

solid waste

and information on the law,

they are burning solid

The

and exceptions, see Waste Management, pages


47 and
63.

rule concern-

ing particulate emissions from


installations,

shown

in

new fuel-burning Rgure 13, may be applied.

For more information on specific


contact

wastes or

facilities,

SHWB.

19

Construction and Land Use Permits


For projects proposed for urban areas, the local

will

be needed (See Urban Areas/Municipalities,


76.)

page

BoUers and boiler operators must be

li-

planning

office

must be consulted

to

determine

censed by iX)Lrs Safety Bureau. (See Occupational Safety

zoning requirements and the land use permits that

and Health, pages 62 and

75.)

HGURE 5
COGENERATION
Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

pmission.s/effluents

Wood, chips,

bark,

hog
~

fuel, agricultural residues,

Storage and

biogas, garbage (mass

Particulates, dust,

odor, liquid

pretreatment

bum), refuse-derived fuel, clean mixed waste paper, wastewater (sewage)

wastes (leachates)

\1/

Gas
conditioning

Solid wastes,
liquid wastes

\/
Furnace or

Gaseous
emissions,

N/
Cogeneration combustion

boiler

particulates, ash

Gaseous
emissions,
particulates

internal

engine, gas turbine

Electricity,

mechanical energy, heat from exhaust or


cooling water

Cogeneration steam engine or


turbine, gas turbine

Gaseous
emissions

20

Special Issues

environmental compatibility. (See Major Facility


sell electric

Before a cogeneration facility can

Siting,

page 61.)
jjerson or orga-

must be certified by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) as a qualifying facility (QF). The Montana Public
in

power

Montana,

it

Montana law specifies that each


ture, or

nization engaged in the generation, manufac-

Service

Commission (PSC) sets


utilities,

rates for sales

by

production of electricity and


sale,

electric en-

cogenerators to public

but not for sales

ergy for barter,


electrical

or exchange must pay an

to electric cooperatives. (See

Cogeneration and

energy producer's tax of $.0002

Small Power Production, page 71 .)


If

per kilowatt-hour. For information, contact


CXDR, Natural Resource and Corporation Tax

the plant produces

DNRC

requires

more than 50 megawatts, a certificate of public need and

Division.

TABLE 5

COGENERATION PERMITS, LICENSES, AND SPEQAL ISSUES


Construction and Land Use
Boiler Boiler

(Operating Certificate (DOLI)

Operator's License (DOLI)

Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Permit (DHES)


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

Building Permit (EXDC or local building

department)
Electrical

System (NPDES) Permit (DHES)

Permit

(DOC or local building


(DNRC)
(local

Nonattainment Permitting Requirements

department)

(DHES)

Floodplain Development Permit

Odor Control (DHES)

Lakeshore Development Permit


ernment)
Mechanical Permit

gov-

PM-10 Air (Quality Standards (DHES)


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

(DOC or local building

(PSD) Review (DHES)


Solid

department)

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Waste Management System License (DHES)

Standards (OSHA)

Stream Protection Act Permit (DFWP)

Plumbing Permit (DOC or local building


department)

Streambed and Land Preservation Permit


(310 Permit) (normally, local conservation
district)

Environmental Considerations

Air (Quality Construction and/or Operating

Special Concerns

Permit (DHES)
Beneficial

Business Licensing Requirements

(DOC

Water Use Permit (DNRC) Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit (DHES) Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements (DHES) Montana Groundwater Pollution Control

and

local

government)
of Public

Certificate

Need and Environmental Compatibility (DNRC)


Energy Producer's License (EXDR)
(DOJ, state
fire fire chief,

Electrical

Fire Safety Insp>ections

marshall, municipal
sherifO

or county

System

(MGWPCS) Permit (DHES)

21

DENSinCATION
Dried compressed
logs,
pellets, briquettes, densified

Selected information on
projects
is

Montana bioenergy
inis

included in Apperudix A. Detailed


in the

formation on bioenergy projects


publication,

DNRC

and cubes are called densified biomass fuels and can be made from wood wastes, agricultural residue, waste paper, trash, or refuse-

Montana Bioenergy

Facilities (forth-

coming).

derived
cation
is

fuel,

as illustrated in Figure

6.

Densifi-

Most of the permits,


are listed in Table

licenses,

and

special issues

a fuel-processing technology used to


to

pertaining to biomass densification in


6.

Montana

reduce the volume of raw biomass

make

it

easier to use or transport. This process reduces

biomass

to particles less than 1/4 inch that to 10 to 15 percent

have

Environmental Permits
Pellet plants

been dried

moisture content,

and then compresses or extrudes the material to between one-quarter and one-third of the origi-

and other biomass-processing


fa-

plants have the potential to emit air pollutants

volume of the feedstock. The heat and pressure from the compression or extrusion soften
nal the lignin

during the drying process. The location of a


cility

and type of combustion source and

equif>If

bonds

ment will determine


a
facility

the permit requirements.


fuel,
it

in the

biomass

to

reform and

maintain the densified shape. The moisture in


the feedstock

bums solid

may have to comply


standards estabfor particu-

becomes steam and

with PM-10 ambient


lished

air quality

acts as a lubrilate

cant in the compression die to release the densified biomass.

by EPA. These standards are

Some

matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10


less.

processes use additional

microns or
46.)

binders or lubricants. Different machines pro-

(See Air Quality, pages 44

and

duce various sizes of densified biomass ranging from pea-sized pellets to logs 6 inches in diameter

their

Some municipalities have also adopted own air pollution control programs. (See
76.) Special

and 12 inches

long.

The

Urban Areas/Municipalities, page


consideration
trol (See

densified biomass

can be used in home-heating


naces,

wood

may need to be given to odor con-

stoves, fur-

and

Air (Quality, pages 40 and 4Z)

fireplaces, or in industrial furnaces

and

boilers for process heat, steam, or electric

Solid

and hazardous waste regulations are bea greater consideration,

generation.

coming
disposal

and improper
Waste

Only sawmill residues have been pelleted in Montana to date. Annual production of pellet mills in Montana was approximately 8,000 tons
in 1989.

may

result in unforeseen costs.

generators are legally liable for the proper disposal of waste. Solid waste disposal permits are

not required
facilities. If

if

wastes are disposed of at licensed


is

the waste

classified as

hazardous,

Residential use of
to the high quality

wood

pellets has grown due and low price of pellets from

there are detailed reporting requirements for

the six
tions

Montana pellet mills. Air quality restricon residential stick-wood burners further

Any facility storing solid waste, such as hog fuel, wood waste, or refuse-derived fuel, may require a solid waste management system
disposal.
license.

contribute to the use of


pellet stoves are

wood

pellets

because
vio-

Discharges of pollutants into state wa-

dean burning and do not

ters

from a point source are regulated by the

late air quality regulations.

Montana Water Quality Act and require an MGWPCS Permit (See Waste Management,

22

FIGURE 6

DENSIFICATION
Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

cmissions/efnucnts

Sawmill waste,

forest

and

agricultural residue,

Wood
Storage and

dust,

particulates, odors,

refuse-derived fuel, clean

pretreatment

liquid wastes

mixed waste paper


\J/

Size reduction

Particulates,

dust

S/L
Heat

Dryer

Gaseous emissions,
particulates

NJ/

Mechanical
densification

:ikL

Cooling, storage,

Particulates

packaging

Pellets,

briquettes,

densified logs,

cubes

pages 47 and 63 and Water Quality, pages 50

forest

and

agricultural residue. Local building

and

65.)

For a definition of solid and hazardous


rules,

and planning agencies should be consulted


fore

be-

and exceptions, see Waste Management, pages 47 and 63. For more information on specific wastes or
waste and information on the law,
facilities,

any construction begins. These

facilities

are

required to
cal,

comply with

all

building, mechani-

and

electrical codes. (See Building,

Mechani-

contact

SHWB.

cal, Electrical,

and Plumbing Permits, page 57.)

Construction and Land Use Permits


Densification facilities or pellet plants are usually located in industrial areas or

Special Issues

near sources of

Timber and slash removal permits are required from the appropriate state or federal agency for

23

commercial harvesting of trees or forest residue

Pellet
tricity

manufacturing plants that produce

elec-

from

state or federal lands. (See Forest

Qearing

may be

required to pay an electrical entax.

and Burning, page 59 and Forested Areas, page


73.)

ergy producer's license

Montana law states


engaged
in the

that each person or organization

generation, manufacture, or production of elec-

Wood
wood
let

pellets are considered a

manufactured

tricity for barter, sale,

or exchange must pay an

product.

If pellets

are to be transported

electrical

energy producer's tax of $.0002 per

intra-state, the

hauling must be done by the pelIn-

kilowatt-hour. For information, contact EXDR,

producer or by a carrier approved by the

Natural Resource and Corporation Tax Divisioa

terstate

Commerce Commission QCC).

TABLE 6

DENSmCATION PERMITS, LICENSES, AND SPECIAL ISSUES


Construction and Land Use
Boiler

Operating Certificate

Boiler Operator's License

(DOU) (DOLD

Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Permit (DHES)


National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

Building Permit (EXDC or local building

System (NPDES) Permit (DHES)


Nonattainment Permitting Requirements

department)
Electrical

Permit

(DOC

or local building

(DHES)

def)artment)

Hoodplain Etevelopment Permit O^NRC)


Lakeshore Development Permit
(

Odor Control (DHES) PM-10 Air Quality Standarxls (DHES)


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

local

government)

(PSD) Review (DHES)

Mechanical Permit
department)

(DOC or local building

Solid

Waste Management System License

(DHES)
Stream Protection Act Permit (DFWP)

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Standards (OSHA)

Streambed and Land Preservation Permit


(310 Permit) (normally, local conservation
district)

Plumbing Permit (DOC or local building


department)

Environmental Considerations

Special Concerns
Business Licensing

Air Quality Construction and/or Operat-

Requirements

(DOC

(DHES) Beneficial Water Use Permit (DNRC) Hazardous Waste Management Facility
ing Permit

and local government)


Electrical Fu-e

Energy Producer's License (DOR)

Hazard Reduction/Certificate of Qear(DOJ, state


fire

Permit (DHES)

ance (DSL)
Fire Safety Inspections

Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements

(DHES) Montana Groundwater Pollution Control


System

marshall, municipal fire chief, or county


sheriff)

(MGWPCS) Permit (DHES)

Timber Removal Permit (DSL or Board of

County Commissioners)

24

DIRECT COMBUSTION: BOILERS

issues covered in this


rect

guidebook that relate to di-

AND FURNACES
Biomass such as wood, garbage, manure, straw,

combustion of biomass.

Environmental Pennits
Biomass-fired furnaces

and biogas can be burned without processing


pnxhice hot gases for heat or steam, as shown
figure
7.

to
in

and boileis must meet state

emission and air quality regulations.

A permit is re-

This process ranges from burning

wood

quired from DHES, Air (Quality Bureau for furnaces


aixi boilers that
pier

in fireplaces to

burning garbage in a fluidized bed


to generate electric

have a heat input of 10,000,000 Btus


liquid or gaseous fuels

boiler to

produce heat or steam


is

hour if they are burning

power. Direct combustion


technology

the simplest bionrass

or 5/X)OX'0O Btus per hour for solid fuel burners.

and may be very economical if the bio-

The

rule concerning particulate emissions

from

mass source is nearby.


Direct combustion
is

new fuel-burning installations, shown in Figure 13, may be applied, but BACT standards are most applicable to bioenergy projects Because

the most common techrvDlogy

BACT may

used for bioenergy in Montana. Approximately


664^)00 oven-dry tons of

be more
all

stringent than values

shown

in Figure 13,

wood waste are burned


sites in

point sources

must use

BACT first to be sure of

annually at 32 industrial and institutional

meeting particulate emission requirements. (See Air


(Quality,

Montana

for process steam, drying, air condition-

page 41.)

ing (cidsorption cooling),

and space heat Another

380poo oven-dry tons of


for heating in

wood

are lised annually

Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) stan-

about 51 percent of all Montana resi-

dards and National Ambient Air (Quality Standarcis

dences (1986-1989).
in

Wood is a primary heat source


derived from forest
in
resi-

(NAA(3S) apply
tion.

38 percent of Montana residences. Almost all of

A facility

new sources of air polluthat bums solid fuel may need to


to

major

this residential supjply is

comply with PM-IO ambient air quality standards


established

dues produced each year


fires,

Montana by

forest

by EPA. These standards are

for par-

insects

and

disease,

and timber harvest lum15).

ticulate matter

with an aerodynamic diameter of 10


(See Air Quality, pages 44 aivd 46.)

ber activities (See Appendix C, Figure

Ex-

microns or

less.

panded use of wood residues for industrial and institutional applications is possible in

Some

municipalities have also adopted their owti

Montana.

Baric

air pollution control

programs. (See Urban Areas/

and sawdust from sawmills amount


Bioenergy
Facilities,

to 242,000

Municipalities,

page 76.) Special consideration may


to

oven-dry tons (12-year average) per year (Montam

need

to

be given

odor conbol. (See Air (Quality,

DNRC forthcoming).

Over

pages 40 and 42)

5JX0 pounds-per-acre of straw are produced in Montana grain fields and could be removed for
fuel {Energy from Crops

Disposing of ash and

fly

ash that nught include


is

and Agricultural Residues

in

solid or hazarclous wastes

complex, aiui disposal

Montana, Haines 1987) (see Appendbc C, Table

16).

may create unexpected costs. Waste generators are


legally liable for tiie

The straw production areas are shown


dix C, Figure 16.

in

Appen-

proper disposal of waste Solid


if

w^aste disposal permits are not required

wastes
fecility

are disposed of at licensed

facilities.

Any

Selected information on

projects is in Apjpendix A. Detailed infonnation

Montana bioenergy on

storing solid waste, such as refuse-derived fuel or

hog

fuel,

may

require a solid waste mcinagement

bioenergy projects

is

in the

DNRC publication,
forthcoming).

system

license.

Discharges of p)ollutants into state

Montana Bioenergy

Facilities
list

(DNRC

waters from a point source are regulated by the

Table 7 contains a

of jjermits, licenses,

and

Montana Water Quality Act and require an

25

FIGURE 7

DIRECT COMBUSTION

Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

emissions/effluents

Wood,

straw, pellets,

Particulates,

municipal solid waste,


clean mixed waste paper,

Storage and

odors, liquid
effluents

pretreatment

refuse-derived fuel, sawmill

and

forest residues
:ik_

Water, chemicals

Combustion and boiler

Liquid effluents, gaseous emissions, particulates, ash

Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

emissions/effluents

Wood,

straw, pellets,

municipal solid waste,


clean mixed waste paper,

Storage and

Particulates,

pretreatment

odors, liquid
effluents

refuse-derived fuel, sau-mill

and

forest residues
JiL:

Gaseous emissions,
Furnace
particulates, ash

26

MGWPCS
65.)

Waste Management, page 47 and 63 and Water Quality, pages 50 and


Permit. (See

Spedallssues

Timber and slash removal permits are required


from the appropriate
from
state or federal

Wastes classified as hazardoiis require detailed

agency

for

rep>orting for disposal.

For a definition of solid


excep)63.

commercial harvesting of
state

trees or forest residue

waste and information on the law, rules, and


tions,

and

federal forests. (See Forest

Qearing

see Waste

Management, pages 47 and


specific

For

and Burning, page 59 and Forested Areas, page 73.)


Direct combustion pnxesses that produce electric-

more information on
contact

wastes or

facilities,

SHWB.

Construction and Land Use Pennits


All furnaces arxl boilers

pay an electrical energy pjToducer's license tax Montana law states that each
ity

may

be required

to

p)rson or organization

engaged

in the generation,

must have

local building

manufacture, or production of
tric

electricity

and

elec-

permits.

The type and

location of the project will

energy for barter, sale, or exchange must pay an

determine spjedfic permit and zoning needs. Boilers


electrical

energy producer's tax of $.0002 per

kilo-

and

boiler operators

must be licensed by DOLI,

watt-hour. For information, contact

DOR,

Natural

Safety Bureau. (See Occupational Safety


Health, pages 62 and 75.)

and

Resource and Corporation Tax Division.

TABLE 7
DIRECT COMBUSTION PERMFTS, LICENSES, AND SPECIAL ISSUES
Constructicm and Land Use
Boiler Boiler

Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination


System (MPDES) Pennit (DHES)
National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

Operating Certificate (DOLI)


Operator's License (EXDLI)

Building Permit
dep)artment)

(DOC or local building (DOC or local building


(DNRC)

Electrical

Permit department)

System (NPDES) Permit (DHES) Nonattainment Permitting Requirement (DHES)

Floodplain Development Permit

Odor Control (DHES) PM-10 Air Quality Standards (DHES)


Prevention of Significant Deterioration

Lakeshore Development Permit Oocal government) Mechanical Permit (DOC or local building
department)
Occupational Safety and Health Admiiustration

(PSD) Review (DHES)


Solid

Waste Mar\agement System License (DHES)

Standards (OSHA)

Stream Protection Act Permit (DFWP) Streambed and Land Preservation Permit
(310 Permit) (normally, local conservation
district)

Plumbing Permit (DOC or local building


def)artment)

Enviromnental Considerations Air Quality Construction and/or Operating


Permit (DHES)
Beneficial

Special Concerns

Business Licensing Requirements

(DOC

Water Use Pennit (DNRC) Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit (DHES) Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements (DHES) Montana Groundwater Pollution Control System (MGWPCS) Permit (DHES)

Electrical

government) Energy Producer's License (DOR) Reduction/Certificate of QearHazard Fire ance (DSL) Fire Safety Inspections (DOJ, state fire marshall, municipal fire chief, or county sherifO Timber Removal Permit (DSL or Board of

and

local

County Commissioners)
27

GASinCATION
Gasification
is

on bioenergy
tion,

projects

is

in the

DNRC publica(DNRC
forth-

Montana Bioenergy

Facilities

the conversion of solid biomass to


illustrated

coming).

an intermediate gaseous product, as


in Figure
8.

The process involves controlled


monDepending on
low Btu gas

Environmental Permits
Gasification technology involves

combustion of the biomass under operating conditions that yield gas consisting of carbon

many

process
solid

oxide (CO) ai>d hydrogen (H2).

steps, each of

which could discharge

vraste, liquid waste,

the conditions of gasification, either


(200 Btus per cubic foot) or

and gaseous emissions. The

medium Btu gas (600

process equipment should be designed v^th the


best available control technology

Btus per cubic foot)

is

produced. Both low and

(BACT)

to

medium Btu gas can be used directly to produce


electricity,

minimize potential air pollution. Contact


for the appropriate air mits. If a facility

DHES
re-

mechimiccil energy, or process heat.

and water disdvirge persolid fuel,


it

Medium Btu

gas can also be converted to either

bums

may be

methane by the gas shift process or liquid methanol by the methanol synthesis process.
While gasification technology has been used since World War n, it is considered a developing
technology because few reliable and efficient

quired to comply with PM-10 ambient air quality standards established by EPA. These standards are for particulate matter with an

aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less. (See Air Cijuality, pages 44 and 46.) Some municipalities

have also adopted

their

own air polAreas/Mu-

commercial
tion is a

gasifiers are in operation. Gasifica-

lution control programs. (See Urban


nidpalities,

developing technology in Montana.

page 76.) Special consideration

may

need

to

be given to odor

control. (See Air (Qual-

A new pilot-scale gasification process, called the


Skygas
where
process, is being tested in Montana. In
this process,

ity,

pages 40 and 4Z)

biomass enters a primary reactor


thermal,

Gasifiers can
terials that

produce toxic and hazardous malandfills.

electric,

and chemical

reactions

carmot be disposed of in

are initiated
resulting

and maintained by electric arcs. The

Materials listed as hazardous have detailed re-

medium Btu gas consists largely of hy-

porting requirements for hazanious waste disposal.

drogen and carbon monoxide. It is passed through a secondary reactor where it reacts vdth
j)etroleum coke and an electric arc at high temperature. This produces a gas largely of meth-

Waste generators are legally

liable for the

proper disposal of waste. Solid w^aste disposal


permits are not required
of at licensed
facilities.
if

wastes are disposed

ane, hydrogen,

and carbon monoxide. The gas is


filter

waste, such as

Any facility storing solid hog fuel, may require a solid


license.

run through a charcoal


gines.

before use in en-

v^ste management system

Discharges

The

pOot-scale system can process 2 to 3

tons of biomass wastes per hour that have in-

from a point source are regulated by the Montana Water


of pollutants into state waters

cluded
wastes,

wood

chips,

shredded

tiles,

medical

Quality Act and require an


(See

MGWPCS Permit.

and garbage The first commercial appliis

Waste Management, pages 47 and 63 and

cation of this process

a 350 ton-per-day

facility

south of Milan,

Italy.

Selected information on
projects
is in

Montana bioenergy

Water Quality, pages 50 and 65.) For a definition of solid waste and information on the law, rules, and exceptions, see Waste Management, pages 47 and 63. For more information on specific

Appendix A. Detailed information

wastes or

facilities,

contact

SHWB.

28

FIGURE

GASIFICATION
Potential environmental

Feedstocks
Forest, mill,

Process steps

emissions/effluents
Particulates,

and
Storage and

agricultural

dust, odors,
liquid effluents

residues; municipal
solid

pretreatment

waste

:J^
Air or oxygen,

Gaseous emissions,

steam or heat

Gasification

char, solid waste (ash),


liquid effluents (tars)

Catalysts

Gas

shift

Liquid waste,

\/

i^
Gas cleaning

_^

tars, solid
(fly ash),

waste

gaseous

emissions (H^S, SOj,

NO^, COj, POM,


\1/

\/
Gas
turbine

VOC, and

others)

Close-coupled
boiler, internal

Gaseous
emissions

combustion engine
generator
Catalysts,

Methanol
synthesis

heat

"

Liquid
effluents

Gaseous
emissions,
particulates

29

Construction and Land Use Pennits


Gasifiers are required to

for commercial harvesting of trees or forest resi-

due from
comply with
all

state

and

federal forests. (See Forest

build-

Gearing and Burning, page 59 and Forested Areas,

ing, mechanical, electrical,

and plumbing codes.

(See Building, Mechanical, Electrical,

and

page

73.)

Plumbing Permits, page 57.) Fmding an acceptable location for a facility def>ends

on how well

Gasification processes that produce electricity

potential environmental impacts can be miti-

may be

required to pay an electrical energy


tax.

producer's license

Montana law

states that

and boiler operators must be licensed by DOLI, Safety Bureau. (See Occupational Safety and Health, j>ages 62 and 75.)
gated. Boilers

each person or organization engaged in the


generation, manufacture, or production of electricity

and

electric

energy for barter,


electrical

sale,

or ex-

change must pay an


Special Issues

energy pro-

ducer's tax of $.0002 per kilowatt-hour. For


information, contact EXDR, Natural Resource

Timber and slash removal permits are required


from the appropriate state and federal agencies

and Corporation Tax Divisioa

30

LANDRLLGAS
Ltindiill

all landfills.

process

Anyone who wants to capture or landfill gas would have to obtain prior

gas

is

generated by the decay (anaero-

approval from

SHWB.
to

Special consideration

bic digestion) of buried trash


landfills, as

and garbage
9.

in

may need

to

be given

odor control (See Air

shown

in Figure
it

When

the or-

Quality, pages 40

and

42.)

ganic waste decomposes,

generates gas con-

sisting of approximately 50 percent methane,

Construction and Land Use Pennits

the major

component

of natural gas.

Only the
amounts
Bill-

large municipal landfills in

Montana have

Biogas processing and handling equipment

enough waste
ings, Helena,

to generate significant
is

must meet building, mechanical,


Plumbing Permits, page
rosive, explosive,
57.)

aivl electrical

of landfill gas. Landfill gas

monitored in
its

codes. (See Building, Mechanical, Electrical,

and

and Poison

Equipment must

for

potential to

cause
rules

fire

or explosion. In the future, federal

be designed and maintained to haiKile the cor-

may require that all landfills be monitored


For more information, contact
Biogas would not be economical to de-

and flammable gases.

for landfill gas.

SHWB.
no

Special Issues
Landfill taps to collect gas are considered natural
all

velop in Montana at this time because there are


efficient

methods for capturing and using the


a developing tech-

gas wells and


the lav^

come under the jurisdiction

of

gas at a cost comparable to available natviral


gas.

and

rules that pertain to gas wells.

The use of landfill gas

is

nology in Montana.

Montana law (MCA 82-11-101 et seq.) requires a permit before any drilling commences. Administrative rules

(ARM

36.22.601 et seq.) cover

Environmental Permits
Landfill gas technology involves the capture

drilling, well spacing, safety,

production, aban-

donment, and
tained from
Division.

pricing. Information

can be ob-

and processing of biogas

that

is

already being

DNRC,
1

Oil

and Gas Conservation

generated. Environmental permits

would be re-

producer must pay a license tax of


percent of the market value of
feet of natural

quired for any solid, liquid, or gaseous effluents


that

two-tenths of

would

each 10,000 cubic


leave the landfill as part of the pro-

gas produced.

cess of gas collection

and

use.

DHES regulates

An exemption
project
is

to this tax

may be possible if the

cospxjnsored

by a government entity.

31

FIGURE

LANDFILL GAS

Fppdstncks

Prnrpfis steps

Potential environmental pmiasinns/pffluents

Garbage,
other organic
material (biomass)

Gas wells and


collection

system

j^kLandfill gas
(biogas)

\i/

Separator

Liquid waste

J^
Gas blower,
compressor

\/
Dryer

j^ki
Filter,

SOj
Solid waste

absorption

_ikl

Carbon dioxide
scrubber

CO,

32

UQUEFACnON
Liqueiaction
to organic
is

the process that adds hydrogen


(usually solids) to obtain
ratio,

Montana Water Quality Act and require an MGWPCS Permit. (See Waste Management, pages 47 and 63 and Water Quality, pages 50
and
65.) Solid
if

compounds

waste disposal permits are not

refa-

an

oil

with a high hydrogen-to-carbon

as

quired
cilities.

wastes are disposed of at licensed


classified as

shown in Figure 10. The bionuss feedstocks that


can be converted with
this

Wastes

hazardous have de-

technology are

resi-

tailed reporting

requirements for disposal. For a

dues from

forests, mills,

and agriculture and

definition of solid

and hazardous waste and

in-

mimicipal solid waste. Most liquefication processes take place


perature. Several

under high pressure and temschemes are being developed

formation on Waste Maiwgement, pages 47 and 63. For more information on specific wastes or facilities, conthe laws, rules, aivd exceptions, see
tact

for different feedstocks, reactor designs, catalysts,

SHWB.

and operating conditions. The Hyacles


is

process

an example of a liquefaction process


at laboratory scale to

Construction and Land Use Permits

developed in Libby
vert

con-

wood waste and municipal trash to a liquid


energy content to diesel
fuel.

New technologies,
tial

especially ones with poten-

environmental impacts, will be carefully

fuel similar in

This

ambient temperature and pressure process passes the biomass through a cathode that de-

scrutinized

composes the biomass


gases,

to

condensable liquids,
is

by state and local officials and the public. Allow plenty of time in the planning process for public hearings and comment periods,

and activated carbon. Liquefaction

and

for working closely with local planning

developing technology in Montana.

and zoning departments to get land use permits.


Boilers

and boiler operators must be licensed by


(See Occupational Safety
75.)

Environmental Permits
Environmental emissions from a biomass liquefaction facility depend
cific

DOU, Safety Bureau.

and Health, pages 62 and

on the feedstock and spe-

liquefaction process used. Air

and water

Special Issues

discharge pemuts will be required for gaseous

Bioenergy

facilities

usually

do not

fall

under

emissions and liquid waste streams. (See Air


Quality, pages 39 aixl 54;

Montana's Major Facility Siting Act.


the liquefaction plant produces
25flO0 barrels per

However, if

Water Quality, pages

more than

50 and

65.) Special

consideration

may need to be

given to odor control. (See Air (Quality, pages 40

and 42.)
Solid

day of liquid hydrocarbons, a Certificate of Public Need and Environmental Compatibility may be required from the Board
of Natural Resources

and Conservation.

(See

and hazcirdous waste regulations are becoming a greater concern, and improper disposal may result in unforeseen costs. Waste generators are legally liable for the proper disposal

Major Facility Siting, page 61.)

Timber and slash removal permits are required from the appropriate state or federal agency for
commercial harvesting of
trees or forest residue

Any facility storing solid waste, such as hog fuel, wood waste, or refuse-derived fuel, may require a solid waste management system
of waste.
license.

from

sfate

and

federal forests. (See Forest

Gear-

ing and Burning, page 59 and

Forested Areas,

EHscharges of pollutants into sfate wa-

page 73.)

ters

from a point source are regulated by the

33

HGURE 10
LIQUEFACTION*
Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

emissions/effluents

Forest, mill,

and
Storage and
Particulates
(dust),

agricultural residue;
solid

and municipal waste

pretreatment
JikL

odor

(garbage), sawmill waste

Water

Slurry

preparation

^kL
Catalysts,
heat, electricity

Liquefaction

Gaseous
emissions

'^
Gas and
liquid

Gaseous
emissions

separation

JsL_

Condensate
recovery

Liquid effluents, gaseous emissions, solid waste

::Jz_

Vacuum
distiUation

_ Liquid effluents,

gaseous emissions

Hydrogen,
catalysts

:iJz-

Gaseous emissions,
[
liquid effluents,
solid

Refining

waste

Yet to be proven commercially

34

OILSEED EXTRACTION
Oilseeds can be pressed

Environmental Permits
Emissions from an oilseed extraction process

and

the extract treated


oil that

should be minimal. Solid coproducts normally

with a solvent to produce a vegetable

can

would be recovered and marketed as animal


Wastewater will have a high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and will require water discharge permits. (See Water (Quality, pages 50
feed.

be refined for use as a food product or a diesel


fuel substitute, as

shown

in Figure 11.

Of

the

bioenergy technologies reviewed in

this report,

only oilseed extraction has the potential to provide a diesel fuel substitute that does not require
significant engine modification.

and

65.) If

facility
it

discharges particulates from


to

raw

materials,

may need

comply with PM46.)

However, the

10 ambient air quality standards established by

present price of jjetroleum-based fuel


oil

makes the
for use as

EPA. (See Air (Quality, pages 44 and


Solid

from seed extraction uneconomical

diesel fuel. Extraction of seed oil for energy


is

use

a developing technology in Montana.

and hazardous waste regulations are becoming a greater consideration, and improper disposal may result in unforeseen costs. Waste
generators are legally liable for proper disposal
of waste.

Oilseed plant varieties

grown

in

Montana
to

in-

clude safflower, sunflower, rapeseed (canola),


flax,

Any facility storing solid waste may remanagement system license.


that

and mustard. Safflower appears

be the

best of these for Montana.

DNRC sponsored re-

quire a solid waste

Benzene or mixtures of benzene

might be

search at the Eastern Agricultural Research


Center (EARC) in Sidney, Montana, to develop
20

used as an extraction solvent and other waste

new high oleic safflower varieties for use as a


oil

may be subject to hazardous waste management


regulations. Solid waste disposal permits are not

petroleum substitute. Vegetable


oleic fatty

with a high
required
if

wastes are disposed of at licensed

fa-

more compatible with diesel engines than ordinary safflower and sunflower oils, which are high in linoleic fatty add (i.e., have more than one double bond chain). Companies are negotiating to have EARC de-

add

content

is

cilities.

Wastes dassified as ha2ardous may have

detailed reporting requirements for disposal. For

and hazardous waste and information on the laws, rules, and exceptions, see Waste Management, pages 47 and 63. For
a definition of solid

velop an exdusive line of high oleic safflower oil


for their

use in

jjaints, solvents,

and

inks.

Mon-

more information on specific wastes or facilities,


contact

SHWB.

tana has 8.5 million acres suitable for safflower.


(See

Appendix C, Figure

17.)

This aaeage could


oil if
it

produce 171.2 million gallons of


Canola

were

Construction and Land Use Permits


Oilseed extraction fadlities probably will be
lo-

planted on a 3-year rotation with wheat or barley.

(or winter rapeseed) is also gaining

cated in rural or small urban areas near where


the seeds are grown. Industrial development

interest in

Montana; a Canadian firm is building

a canola plant near Butte. Canola will

grow on

zones are not

likely in

such areas, so developers


local plan-

only about 4 million acres in Montana (see Ap-

should plan on working closely with

pendix C, Figure

18),

because

it

needs a cooler
For

ning departments or county commissioners to


get permits that allow access to required utilities

and wetter growing season than safflower (Montana's Fuel Safflower Activities,

Haines

1989).

and water.

(See Local Areas,

page

74.)

The plant

more information on
tvinities,

oilseed production opporat the

will also require building, mechanical, dectrical,

contact

EARC

address listed in

Appendix B.

and plumbing permits. (See Building, Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Permits, page 57.)

35

Special Issues

with labeling format and other requirements as


stated in

For coproducts that are sold as commercial feed in Montana, a feed dealer's permit is required

DOA rules. Further, anyone marketing

from

DOA,

Plant Industry Division.

The com-

mercial feed must be registered and comply

may have an agricultural commodity dealer's license or a warehouseman's license. (See Agrito obtain

or housing grain, including oilseeds,

culture,

page 51)

HGURE 11
OILSEED EXTRACTION

Feedstofkfi

Prof pw Btpp^

Potential environmental

emissions/pffhiPnfg

Agricultural crops (sunflower, safflower, canola, etc.)

Storage and

pretreatment

Particulates

x/
Heat

Pre-pressing

Solid waste,

gaseous emissions

-^
Solvent

Oilseed
extraction Solid waste

Jikl

Refining

_Liquid effluent,
solid

waste

Diesel fuel or

petroleum
substitute

36

PYROLYSIS
Pyrolysis
is

posal

may

create unexpected costs.

Waste gen-

erators are legally liable for proper disposal of

the thermal degradation of biomass

waste. Solid waste disp>osal permits are not re-

by heat
Figure

in the

absence of oxygen, as shown in

quired
cilities.

if

wastes are disposed of at licensed

fa-

12.

Biomass feedstocks, such as wood or


heated to a temperature between
(F),

Any

facility storing solid waste, such as

garbage,

cire

refuse-derived fuel or
solid

800 and 1,400 degrees Fahrenheit

but no

hog fuel, may require a waste management system license. Wastes


hazardous require detailed report-

oxygen

is

introduced to support combustion.

classified as

Pyrolysis results in three products:


gas, fuel
oil,

and

charcoal.

medium Btu The amount and


the biomass

ing for disposal Discharges of pollutants into


state waters

from a point source are regulated


(See

quality of each product

depend on

by the Montana Water (Quality Act and require an

used and process operating conditions. Pyrolysis is

MGWPCS Permit

Waste Management,

a developing technology with potential for

pages 47 and 63 and Water Quality, pages 50

economical production of liquid transpwrtation


fuel

from solid biomass.

and 65.) For a definition of solid and hazardous waste and information on the law, rules, and exceptions, see Waste Management, pages 47 and
63.

Environmental Permits

For more information on specific wastes or


contact

facilities,

SHWB.

The amount and type of environmental emissions depend on the feedstock and the size, configuration, and operating conditions of the pyrolysis reactor. Air and water disdvirge permits will be required from DHES. (See Air Quality, pages 39 and 54; Water Quality, pages 50 and 65.) If a facility discharges pjarticulates, it may need to comply with PM-10 ambient air quality standards established by EPA. These standards are for particulate matter vdth an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less. (See Air Quality, pages 44 and 46.) Spjecial consideration

Construction and Land Use Permits

The

local

all siting

chanical,

planning department must approve and land use permits. Building, meelectrical, and plumbing permits also

are necessary before construction begins. (See


Building, Mechanical, Electrical,
Permits, page 57.)

and Plumbing

Special Issues

Timber and slash removal permits are required


from the appropriate
for
state

may need to be given to odor control.


and
42.)

and

federal agencies

(See Air Quality, pages 40

Disposal of solid or hazardous wastes, such as

commercial harvesting of trees or forest residue from state and federal forests. (See Forest Gearing and Burning, page 59 and Forested
Areas, page 73.)

ash and

fly ash, is

complex, and improper dis-

37

FIGURE

12

PYROLYSIS*

Potential environmental

Feedstocks

Process steps

emissions/effluents

Agricultural, mill,

Storage and

Particulates (dust),

and

forest residue;

pretreatment

odors, other

municipal solid waste


(garbage)

emissions

:^
Heat
Pyrolysis

Gaseous emissions,
solid waste,

liquid effluents
(tars)

Yet to be proven commercially

38

SECTION 3 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS

INTRODUCTION
This section addresses the potential environ-

nomic evaluation because they may

result in

unique economic or financing demands. Noise


caused by construction, equipment operation,
mental impacts of bioenergy technologies, em-

phasizing air and water quality and waste

and trucks may require mitigation. The bioenergy facility may require community services or

management.
tain to

It

also includes state

and

federal

may present health or safety hazards.

environmental laws and regulations that perbioenergy projects in Montana.

A bioenergy facility may be a cost-effective way


to

The Montana Environmental Policy Act (MEPA) (MCA 75-1-101 et seq.) applies to any major state agency action that might significantly affect the quality of the

meet your energy needs. The

facility

could

human

environ-

provide energy as steam, heat, or

electricity; re-

ment. All the state agencies have adopted rules

duce reliance on fossil fuels; provide jobs; or improve air quality. However, bioenergy facilities also

implementing

this act

and defining the circum-

stances that require an environmental assess-

may have some


and water

adverse

effects.

Bioenergy technologies have the potential to

produce

air

pollutants,

and the pro-

cesses involved in these technologies

may

pro-

ment (EA) or an environmental impact statement (EK). They also establish fees, comment periods, public hearings, and time requirements. For information, contact the Montana
Environmental Quality Council (EQC).

duce solid,
lists

liquid, or

hazardous wastes. Table 8

the various bioenergy technologies

and

their potential

environmental emissions.

AIR QUALITY
Overview

Each project

is

unique and

may

require a de-

tailed analysis of air quality,

water quality, ge-

ology, location of the

facility,

and other

factors.

A permit from DHES, Air Quality Bureau is required for the construction, installation, and
ofjeration of

Bioenergy project developers should contact the


appropriate

DHES bureaus and


proposed

other agencies

equipment or
city or

facilities that

may
stan-

to find out the possible


straints

environmental conproject.

directly or indirectly caiise or contribute to air

on

their

pollution.

county

may impose

dards that are equal Other environmental cmd


ations
site-specific consider-

to or stricter than

DHES
permit

standards through

its

own air pollution

must be included

in the project's eco-

39

TABLE 8

BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES

AND POTENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL EMISSIONS

program
(See

in lieu of the

DHES

permit progrjun.

the national ambient air quality standards

Urban Areas /Munidpialities, page 76.) EPA

(NAA(3S). (See Air Quality Laws and Regulations,

generally has jurisdiction over air quality on In-

page 43.) These ambient air standards apply

dian reservations. (See Indian Reservations,

indirectly to a bioenergy facility.

The emissions

of

page

74.)

any new
permit to construct or operate a
air pollution

facility wall

have to be analyzed

to deter-

mine how those emissions wall ciffect the air quality

An

air quality

of the surrounding area

new or altered

source cannot be

is-

sued vmless the source is able to comply with the


timbient air quality standards, emission limitations,

Emissions are substances discharged into the envirorunent as waste material, such as flue gas

and other

rules

adopted under the Mon-

and

{particulates

from smokestacks. For permit-

tana Clean Air Act and the applicable require-

ting jxuposes, potential emissions of air pollut-

ments of the Federal Clean Air Act. Some


exceptions are listed in the rules.

ants from a bioenergy facility should be calculated at

maximum design capacity of fuel


BACT. The
from

input

after application of

rule concerning

Ambient air quality refers


air in the

to the condition of the


Title
I

surrounding environment.

of the

new fuel-burning instalbtions, showoi in Figure 13, may be applied,


particulate emissions

Federal Clean Air Act

Amendment

of 1990 in-

but

BACT

standards are most applicable to

cludes provisions for attaining

and maintaining

bioenergy projects. Because

BACT may be more

HGURE 13

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE EMISSION OF PARTICULATE MATTER FROM NEW FUEL-BURNING INSTALLATIONS

i!|

III

1,000

10,000

Total fuel input in millions of Btus per hour


Source:

ARM 16.8.1403
41

stringent than values

shown

in Figure 13, all

source

is

point sources must use

BACT first to be sure of


by Montana are listed in

field or

performed by a trained observer in the by an in-stack monitor.

meeting particulate emission requirements. The


air pollutants regulated

Special rules apply to


tion of wood
tical, all

wood-waste burners.
the complete utilizarestricts,

Table

9,

but are subject to change as

new

rules

DHES policy encourages


waste and

are developed.

wherever prac-

burning of

wood

wastes for disposal

TABLE 9
AIR POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE STATE OF MONTANA
Asbestos

(incineration). State air quality rules relating to

wood-waste burners place


tial

restrictions

on

burner construction, reconstruction, or substanalteration; specify

temperature measure-

Benzene Carbon Monoxide (CO)


Fluorides

ment devices for combustion and stack temand establish minimum operating temf>eratures and maximum stack gas opacity. For the complete rules related to wood-waste
peratures;
burners, see

Hydrogen

ARM 16.8.1407.
forest fire season

Sulfide (HjS)

Nitrogen Oxides

(NOJ

During the

(May

through

Ozone
PM-10

(O3)

September 30 or as extended), open burning


permits are required from the appropriate
fire

Particulate Matter

Sulfur Dioxide (SO^)

protection agency to perform prescribed forest

Sulfur-reduced Sulfur

burning to

bum slash, set a land<learing or defire,

Compounds
Sulfur-total

(including H^S)

bris-burning

or light any open

fire.

The

rec-

reduced Sulfur

ognized

fire

protection agency

may be

the

(including H^S)
Sulfuric Acid Mist

county sheriff or board of commissioners; DSL,


Forestry Division; or USPS. In addition, air quality

Trace Metals Beryllium

permits are required from

ity

Bureau

for

DHES, Air (Qualanyone qualifying as a major

Lead Mercury Phosphorus


Vinyl Chloride
Source:

open burner. (See Air Quality, page 54.)

DHES also is also


using any device,

responsible for enforcement

of odor control rules.

Any

business or person
or process that dis-

ARM 16.8.921 (30); 40 CFR Parts 60 and 61

facility,

charges odorous matter, vapors, gases, dusts, or

combination of these that creates odors


State
ible

is

sub-

and

federal air quality rules regulate vis-

ject to regulation.

That person must provide,

emissions from a point source, such as a teeboiler,

properly

install,

maintain, and operate odor

pee burner,

power

plant, or

any other

control devices or procedures as specified

by

enussion source that exhausts through a stack or a vent that might exhibit a plume. Opacity
limitations are Usted in the air quality rules

DHES.
Air Quality Laws and Regulations

and

have standards ranging from 10 to 40 percent, depending on the type and age of the source.
Testing for visible emissions from a pollution

The Federal Clean Air Act of 1970 governs federal and state air pollution control programs. The most recent amendment, signed
into

law in

42

November

1990, direct

EPA to implement strict


Americans.

protect public health, plants, animals, materials,


visibility,

environmental policies and regulations to ensure cleaner air for


all

EPA

is

cur-

NAAQS
(SOj),

and other aspects of public welfare. have been set for: carbon monoxide
(particulate matter less

rently writing rules to

implement all areas of the

(CO), nitrogen dioxide (NOj), sulfur dioxide

new dean
ten, state

air

program. As those rules are writwill

ozone (O3), PM-10

programs

need

to

comply with

than 10 microns in diameter), and lead (Pb).

the

new jX)licies and rules.


States can set more, but not less, stringent ambi-

Sections of the Clean Air Act

most likely

to

have

ent

eiir

standards. For carbon monoxide, ozone,

on bioenergy facilities are in Titles I and n. The areas under Title I, Air Pollution Prean
effect

and nitrogen dioxide,


that

DHES has classified


(1
)

the

state into three categories:

attainment areas

may affect bioenergy projects include sections on NAAQS, emissions,


vention and Control, that

meet the standards,

(2)

nonattainment areas

that exceed the allowable limits for pollutants,

prevention of sigruficant deterioration OPSD), air


toxics,

and

(3)

undassified areas where information

is

and nonattainment areas.

insuffident to determine the statvis. For lead and

PM-10, areas are


Title

classified as

complying with

n of the Qean Air Act relates to the control


and
trucks.

the standards or exceeding them.

of mobile source emissions such as those from


cars
1,

EPA

plans to begin

November

Bioenergy projects locating in nonattainment areas or other areas exceeding the standards

1992, to lessen carbon

monoxide emissions in

may

nonattainment areas during the winter months.


This program will require fuel with a 2.7 percent oxygen content.
to

be required

to

meet more stringent air pollution


information on classifica-

emission standards, depending on local existing


air quality. Detailed

The oxygenated

fuels are

be soW for a

year unless

minimum of four months of the EPA reduces the time frame in re-

tion

requirements

and
is

attainment

and

nonattainment areas
Air Quality Bureau.

available

from DHES,

sponse to a state request.

Two

clean fuels pro-

grams are
"dean

identified in the Clean Air Act

Amendment

of 1990. For these programs,

Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD)

fuels" are defined as

compressed natural
petroleum gas,

gas, ethanol, methanol, liquefied

electridty, reformulated gasoline,

other fuels.
is

required

As a part of this to devdop a program

and possibly program, Montana


to

make sure that areas with dean air remain clean. PSD
The purpose
of the

PSD program
two

is to

rules divide the state into


fications (see

air quality dassiI

use oxygenthe only

ARM 16.8.921 et seq.). Class

areas

ated fuels in Missoula, because

it is

allow small increases in pollution and include


national parks,

Montana
this time.

city that violates the

CO standard at

some vdldemess areas, and some


Montana's Class
I

Indian reservations.

areas are
is

shown in Rgure

14.

The

rest of

Montana

desig-

EPA

administers the Clean Air Act by delegat-

nated Qass II for PSD air quality purposes. (See Air


(Quality,

ing major authority to the states. Each state de-

page 55.)
major

velops and manages


tion Plan (SIP)

its

own State ImplementaPSD standards apply when a


of air pollution
is

on approval by EPA. Areas of the


according to whether they

new source
air air

state are classified

proposed where ambient

meet or exceed the


ondary

NAAQS.

Primary and

sec-

quality

is

better than the national

ambient

NAAQS, shown in Table 10, set limits to

quality standards. These standards generally

43

TABLE 10

MONTANA AND NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS


Federal
Pollutant
Total suspended
particulates

Federal

Montana Standard
50 |i.g/m' annual average

Primary Standard
50 pig/m' annual average

Secondary Standard

Same as primary standard

10 microns or less (PM-10)


Sulfur dioxide

150 (J.g/m' 24-hr. average*

150 Jig/m' 24-hr. average*

Same

as primary standard

ppm annual average ppm 24-hr. average* 0.50 ppm 1-hr. average**
0.02

0.03 0.14

0.10

ppm annual average ppm 24-hr. average*

05 ppm 3-hr. average*

Cartx)n monoxide

ppm 8-hr. average* 23 ppm hourly average*


9
0.05

ppm 8-hr. average* 35 ppm 1-hr. average*


9
0.05

ppm 8-hr. average*

Nitrogen dioxide

0.30

ppm annual average ppm hourly average

ppm annual average

Same as primary standard

Photochemical oxidants (ozone)

0.10 hourly average*

0.12

ppm

1-hour average*

Same as primary standard*

Lead

1.5

|ig/m' 90-day average

15 |ig/m' calendar
quarter average

None

Foliar fluoride

35 |ig/g grazing season

None

None

50 ^g/g monthly average

Hydrogen sulfide
Settled particulate
(dustfall)

0.05

ppm hourly average*


30-day average

None None

None
None

10

gm/m^

Visibility

Particle scattering

None

None

coefficient of 3 x 10*

per meter annual average*

gm/m' - grams pollutant per


Hg/g - micrograms
jig/m'
-

square meter at sample

site

Not to be exceeded more than once per year


Not
air

pollutant per

gram

of sample

to

be exceeded more than 18 times per year

micrograms pollutant per cubic meter of sampled


per million parts of sampled air

Applies to

PSD mandatory Class

areas

ppm - parts pollutant

44

RGURE 14

MONTANA PSD CLASS AREAS


I

1.

Anaconda-Pintler Wilderness

9.

Mission Mountain Wilderness

2.

Bob Marshall Wilderness


Cabinet Mountain Wilderness

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation

3.
4.
5. 6.

Red Rock Lakes Wilderness Area


Scapegoat Wilderness
Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness

Rathead Indian Reservation


Fort Peck Indian Reservation

Gates of the Mountains Wilderness


Glacier National Park

UL Bend Wilderness Area


Yellowstone National Park

7.

8.

Medidne Lake Wilderness Area

45

apply

to large sources emitting

over 100-250

will

develop regulations

to restrict emissions for


facilities.

tons per year of any pollutant. In these cases, a

various categories of air toxic emitting

more

stringent

and lengthy review procedure

The new law applies


facility that

to a

"major source," or any

may apply to minimize air quality degradation within the state. The review may include one
year of preapplication baseline data, control
technology review, and
eling.
air quality

emits 10 tons per year of any single

air toxic or

25 tons per year of any combination

of air toxics. Other restrictions


cilities

may apply

to fa-

impact mod-

v^th lower levels of emissions under the

These requirements should be considered

"area source" requirements.

when the project's permit calendar is developed


because they may extend the permit application
time requirements more than a year.

Bioenergy

facilities that

exceed emission

re-

quirements for any of the 189


lated

air toxics reguto install

by EPA may be required

Maxi-

Nonattaiiunent

mum Available Control Technology (MACT) to


comply with the regulatior\s.
to designate nonattain-

The Qean Air Act Amendment of 1990 set standards and procedures

ment areas and their boundaries. A nonattainment area is a geographic area where the
quality of the air
is

PM-10 Standards

On July
dards

31, 1987,

EPA

wrote

air quality stan-

worse than that allowed by

for particulate matter

known

as PM-10.
larger

federal air pollution standards. P*revention of


significant deterioration requirements

The standards changed the focus from


particles, or total

do not

suspended particulates (TSP),


with an aerody-

apply in nonattainment areas.

Title

includes

to smaller, inhalable particles

provisions for attaining and maintaining the

namic diameter of 10 microns or less. The size of


10 microns

NAAQS.
any

These provisions generally apply


proposed

to

would be similar to one-tenth

the di-

large sources emitting over 100 tons per year of


pollutant. For a
facility,

ameter of one strand of

human

hair.

These are
to

these re-

invisible particulates that are


hecilth

proven

cause

quirements include applying the Lowest


Achievable Emission Rate (LAER) and arranging for emission reductions (offsets) from other
existing sources in the nonattainment area that

problems.

are greater than the proposed facility's emissions.

The NAAQS,

set to protect public health

and welfare, have been established


pollutants: ozone, carbon
late matter, lead, sulfur dioxide,

for six

Montana have analyzed each Montana community to determine if it meets or exceeds PM-10 ambient air standards. Butte, Columbia Falls, Kalispell, Lame Deer, Libby, Missoula, Poison, Ronan, and Thompson
the State of
Falls

EPA and

monoxide, particu-

exceed the PM-10 ambient air standards

and nitrogen

and are designated as nonattainment areas. (See


Table
11
.)

dioxide.

All other

communities are designated

as meeting the standards.

Air Toxics

DHES
The Qean Air Act of 1970 authorized EPA to establish special standards for
lutants.
list

is

responsible for development of the


air

PM-10 ambient

standards compliance plans,

hazardous

air pol-

except for Missoula where the Missoula County

The 1990 Amendment establishes a long of hazardous air pollutants, commonly

Health Department has authority, and except


for the following

communities located on

called air toxics.

Over

the next 10 years,

EPA

46

TABLE 11

WASTE MANAGEMENT

AREAS EXCEEDING NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS

not within a subdivision.


tions, that

Under

certain condi-

person

may dispxise of his own solid

The Montana Hazardous Waste Act (MCA 7510-401 et seq.) and the corresponding rules

waste that is generated in reasonable association

(ARM

16.44.101 et seq.)

were adopted

to ad-

with his household or agricultural operations

minister and enforce a hazardous waste pro-

on his own land as long as the disposal does not


create a nuisance or public health hazard.

Discharges of pollutants into state waters from a

Montana Water Quality Act and require either a Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Permit or a Montai^ Groundwater PoUution Control System (MGWPCS) Permit. (See Water Quality, pages 50 and 65.) Problems
point source are regulated by the

gram pursuant to the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. DHES regulates the permitting and siting of hazardous waste management facilities. These facilities are required to comply with detailed reporting and
monitoring requirements.

Any

operation generating hazardous wastes

is

required to register

with DHES, Solid and Haz-

ardous Waste Bureau, obtain an identification

may

occur

if

leachate or contaminated water

is

number, pay a

sliding-scale fee based

on the

produced when

rain or other water passes

amount

of waste generated annually,

and

re-

through solid waste. The leachate can include


various minerals, organic matter, or other con-

new

the registration annually.

facility that

produces 100 kilograms (approximately 220


pounds) or more of hazardous waste or
1

taminants and can contaminate surface v^ter or

kilo-

groundwater.

gram (approximately
that

2.2

pounds) or more of

acute hazardous waste within any calendar

owners and operators of certain municipal solid v^^aste landfills and other
disposal sites that accept household waste

DHES specifies

month
with

will

all

and comply reporting and transporting rules. Anybe required


to register

must

one

who

purchases or uses 20 gallons or more


is

monitor groundwater. This regulation applies


to facilities that

of halogenous solvents in a year


to register

also required

were

in operation

on October

1,

with DHES.

1989,

and serve a geographic area with 5X>00 or


people. See

more

MCA 75-10-207 for details of

Transporters of hazardous waste must obtain

the monitoring requirements.

an

identification

number from DHES. TransMontana


refated to
activities

porters

who maintain offices, terminals, depots,


facilities v^athin

Hazardous Waste Disposal


Hazardous waste
is

or transfer
their

hazardous waste transportation


Solid

a waste that

may cause or
Further,
it

must register with DHES,


Waste Bureau.

and Hazardous

contribute to death or serious

illness.

may pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated,
stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise

Detailed reporting rules require hazardous

waste producers
of the wrastes.

to

fill

out manifest forms

managed.
if it is

A waste is categorized as hazardous


EPA rules
listing specific

specifying the source, amount,

and destination
the receiving

included in the

The transporter and

hazardous wastes or if standard


ardous waste
or semi-solid.

tests

show it

to

be ignitable, corrosive, reactive, or

toxic.

Haz-

hazardous waste management facility must sign and date the manifest to acknowledge receipt of the waste shipment. This process helps

may occur as a solid,

liquid, gas,

the v^ste producer ensure that the waste has

48

reached

its

destination at a properly licensed

Bioenergy
ate

facilities

have the potential

to gener-

hazardous waste disposal site.

hazardous wastes or waste streams that


they are not operating under ideal condi-

contain hazardous constituents, especially

DHES

has established procedures for dealing

when
tions.

with problems that occur in the hazardous

For instance, a municipal solid waste


that
is

waste transportation and reporting process.

combustor

not performing well can pro-

DHES may, by rule, prescribe conditions under


which specified hazardous wastes or specified
quantities of hazardous wastes

duce
sult

toxic substances

such as hydrocarbons,
that re-

creosote,

and other organic compounds

may

be

dis-

from incomplete combustion. These

toxic

posed of at disposal

sites licensed

by DHES.

substances should be captured by pollution


control equipment

and may need

to

be handled

The hazardous waste rules also include regulations related to leaking underground storage tanks. Facilities covered under these rules include, but are not limited to, (1) tanks

and disposed of as hazardous wastes.

Under certain operating conditions, developing


bioenergy technologies such as gasification,
uefaction,
liq-

used

to

contain a regubted substance of which 10 percent or

and pyrolysis have the

potential to

more

of the

face of the ground,

pipes connected to

volume is beneath the surand (2) any underground a storage tank and used to
is

produce wood

tar containing creosote,

benzo-

pyrene, and phenol that are listed as hazardous


wastes. Plants that produce regulated quantities

contain or transport a regulated substance,

of hazardous wastes should be designed

and

whether the storage tank


derground.

entirely

above

operated to produce the least possible hazard-

ground, partially above ground, or entirely un-

An owner or operator of an underground storage tank who discovers or is provided evidence that the tank may have leaked
must immediately notify DHES.

ous waste. Plants that produce hazardous wastes under either normal operating conditions or less than ideal operating conditions

must be

registered with

waste generators.

DHES as hazardous DHES must be presented

with a plan for properly collecting, handling,

Any

person

who

violates sections of the

Mon-

storing,
to

tana Hazardous Waste Act, the related rules, or


the terms of a

and transporting the hazardous waste a licensed disposal site, or a pennit must be
facility

Hazardous Waste Permit may be


which may

obtained to operate the

as a hazardous

subject to dvil or criminal penalties,

waste management

facility.

include a fine or imprisonment.

Commercial products used


Bioenergy producers are responsible for deter-

in bioenergy pro-

duction, such as adds, bases, aixi solvents, can

mining

if

any of their waste products or streams

be classified as hazardous waste. Bioenergy


products such as methanol, butanol, hydrocar-

are hazardous wastes.

They are also responsible

for properly collecting, storing, recovering, or

transporting the hazardous waste to a licensed

disposal

site.

EPA

has identified a number of

and diesel fuel substitutes are combustible and can be classified as hazardous wastes if they are spilled. Acid and base effluent streams
bons,
vaII not

hazaixlous wastes (40


that

CFR Sec. 261.10 to 261.33)


their ori-

be subject

to

hazardous waste control if

must be kept under control from

they are properly handled and neutralized im-

gin to their point of disposal.

der carefully controlled conditions.

49

Bioenergy producers that use or produce commercial products that can be classified as haz-

projected discharges. Applications for a short-

term exemption from water quality standards

ardous wastes
with

when

discarded must register

must be made on forms provided by DHES.


All discharges of pollutants authorized

DHES as

producers of hazardous waste.

These producers also must arrange for proper


disposal of their wastes at a licensed disposal
site.

by

MPDES or MGWPCS

Permit into state waters

The registration and planning required

will

decrease the possibility of spilling or improper

must be consistent with the conditions of the permit. The discharge of pollutants in excess of
the permit's restrictions into state waters constitutes a violation of the permit. State waters

handling of hazardous waste.

WATER QUAUTY
A permit from DHES, Water Quality Bureau is
required to construct, modify, or operate a

be free of discharges that


sludge deposits;
(2)

(1

settle to

must form

create floating debris; (3)

produce odors;

(4) create toxic concentrations


life;

hamnful to human, animal, or plant


able aquatic

or

(5)

create conditions capable of producing undesirlife.

waste disposal system, or

to construct or

use

(See

Water Quality, page

65.)

any

outlet for discharge of sewage, industrial

wastes, or other wastes into state surface water

All bioenergy projects that discharge liquid or

or groundwater. Plans and specifications for


tailings
cilities

solid effluents into state surface water or

ponds, leaching pads, and holding


to

fa-

groundwater must get a permit from DHES.


exceptions are

No
fa-

must be submitted
least

DHES

for

review

made on

the basis of the

amount

and approval at

180 days before the begin-

or concentration of the discharge. Bioenergy


cilities

ning of construction.
filed

An

application for a

are treated as point sources

and are sub-

MPDES Permit or a MGWPCS Permit must be


no
less

ject to state effluent

standards applicable to such

than 1 80 days prior to the operation

sources.

EPA

standards applicable to point

of a point source. Application information

must

sources are the least stringent standards for


these sources.

include plans

and

specifications, site plans, de-

DHES, through

the

MPDES Perstricter

scriptions of adjacent state waters, soil conditions,

mit process, can require application of

groundwater

characteristics, process

and

effluent standards to protect the state's water


quality.

waste flow diagrams, and volume and nature of

50

SECTION 4 PERMITS BY CATEGORY

INTRODUCTION
This section explains each permit in each permit
category. Table 12 identifies the permit categories that
is

residues for combustion, cogeneration, densification, or alcohol production

may

require perforest. If

mits from the agency

managing the

might apply

to

each technology.

plant needs a well for water, a beneficial water


If

there

a question about whether a permit applies,

use permit

may be

needed. The following de-

contact the appropriate agency for

more

scriptions of permits include procedures, costs,


infor-

matioa For example, collection and use of forest

and some exceptions.

TABLE 12
PERMITS THAT MIGHT BE REQUIRED FOR BIOENERGY TECHNOLOGIES
n)

bo

lll ol ill
<
Alcohol fermentation

s
60
a

-si c c
gb

<

.b

.01

CQ .y a.

Anaerobic
digestion

Cogeneration
Densification
Direct

combustion
Gasification
Landfill

gas
Liquefaction

Oilseed
extraction

Pyrolysis

51

AGRICULTURE
COMMODITY DEALER'S LICENSE

paid to store, ship, or handle agricultural commodities; (2) a person

who buys

agricultural

commodities from a licensed commodity dealer


Pennifc

or

who

does not purchase more than $30,000


a person

worth of agricultural commodities from


Cost
producers during a license year;
(3)

ume

Annual license fees per facility are based on volof grain handled in the previous year or estimated yearly volume by hundredweight
(cwt). Fees are:
1
-

who

is

the producer of agricultural

ties that

he actually plants,

commodinurtures, and har-

vests; or (4)

a person whose trading in agriculis

tural

commodities
futures

limited to trading in
ex-

25,000 cwt 50,000

$35.00 $60.00
$85.00

commodity
changes.

on recognized futures

25,001
SOJOOI

-125/)00 -250,000
-375XKX)

Procedures

125X)01

$110.00 $135.00

Any

person

who wants

to

engage

in the busi-

250J00\

over

375m)

$160.00

ness of commodity dealer must apply to


for a license

DOA

An additional fee is required for each truck operated as a part of the business of being a
ity dealer.

on forms provided by that departapplication must include the name of The ment.
the applicant, the location of the principal places

commod-

A bond or equivalent is required that


purchased by the commod-

of business, a sufficient

and

valid bond, the

needs to be equal to 2 percent of the value of the agricultural commodities


ity

number and
statement,

description of trucks to be used to

transport agricultural commodities, a financial

dealer from the producer with a

minimum

and any other information requested

bond or equivalent security of $20/XX).


Law:

by the department.

A license is issued annually

and may be renewed by submitting all required

MCA 80-4-601 et seq.


/y?M 4.12.1012 et seq.

licensing documents.

Rules:

Contact

DOA, Plant Industry Division


who
engages in a business involv-

Permit
Cost

FEED DEALER'S PERMIT

Description

Any

person

The cost
cility,

is

$25.00 per calendar year for each fa-

ing or, as a part of his business, participates in

distribution point, or point of invoicing.

buying, exchanging, negotiating, or soliciting

Additional fees include a registration fee for


each product other than a pet food.

any agcommodity in the state of Montana is a commodity dealer and must obtain a license
the sale, resale, exchange, or transfer of
ricultural

Law:

MCA 80-9-201
/U?M
:

et seq.

from
tana.

DOA before engaging in business in Mon-

Rules:

4.12.201 et seq.

Contact
Exceptions

DOA, Plant Industry Division

The term, commodity dealer, does not apply to: (1) a person engaged in storing, shipping, or
handling agricultural commodities

Description

Coproducts, such as

distillers'

grains or oilseed

who is being

meal manufactured

for distribution or distrib-

52

uted as commercial feed in Montana, require a


permit and registration with

house

to supervise correction of a deficiency.

DOA.

bond or equivalent based on


ity

the licensed capac-

of the warehouse

is

required for each wareor ecjuivalent se-

Exceptions
house, with a

minimum bond

A distributor who distributes only pet


exempt from
Procedures
this

foods

is

curity of $20,000.

provisioa

Law:

MCA 80-4-501

et seq.

A permit may be obtained by filing an application that includes the recjuestor's

Rules:

ARM 4.12.1012 et seq.


DOA, Plant Industry Division

name, place of
facility,

business, Icxation of manufacturing

and

Contact:

distribution point or point of invoicing.

Com-

Description

Montana must be registered with EXDA and must comply


mercial feed that will be distributed in

Any person acting as a warehouseman emd of)erating a public

warehouse must obtain a


elevator,
mill,

li-

with labeling format recjuirements, brand and

cense from

DOA. A warehouse or public ware


an
warehouse,

product

name

specifications, expression of

house

is

guarantee requirements, ingredient and directions for use statements,

subterminal, grain warehouse, public warehouse, or other structure or facility in which, for

and other recjuirements


rules. Inspection fees

as defined

by the laws and

compensation, agricultural commodities are

re-

and annual statements are required.

ceived for storage, handling, processing, or


shipment.

Exceptions:
Permit:

None

WAREHOUSEMAN'S LICENSE
Procedures

Cost

Any person who wants to operate a warehouse


is

An

annual license fee per warehouse


in

based

must apply

to

DOA

on the volume of grain handled


weight
(cwt). Fees are:

hundred-

DOA. Upon

application, a

on forms provided by warehouseman must

submit evidence of an effective insurance policy, a license fee, a current cirawing showing
$35.00
$60.00

25j0O0cwt
50,000
125,000

25m
50,001

$85.00

and capacity of the warehouse, a current financial statement, a sufficient and valid bond as determined by DOA, and a
storage
facilities

125,001

250^)0
375JOO0 375XXX)

$110.00 $135.00
$160.00

sample warehouse

receipt. In addition,

DOA

250J001

must

find each

warehouse suitable

for the

over

proper storage of the agricultural commodities


stored therein.

DOA

has detailed reporting


specified in

Additional fees are required for each


censing inspection,

initial li-

and record-keeping requirements


the law.

amendment of a license, and

maintaining an employee of

DOA at a ware-

53

AIR QUALITY

contribute to air pollution

and not

later

than 120

days before installation, alteration, or use begins.

The department requires permit


Permit AIR
Cost Although it currently does not do so, DHES may
assess a fee

applications to

QUALITY PERMIT

be accompanied by plans, specifications, and any


other information necessary.

DHES has 180 days


to

from the

receipt of the

completed application

decide whether an application for a permit requires the compilation of an environmental im-

from the applicant

to cover the rea-

sonable costs of reviewing and acting


application

upon

the

pact statement (EIS).

If

an agency other than

and

to

implement and enforce the


jjermit.

terms and conditions of the air quality

Law: Montana Clean Air Act,


212
Rules:

MCA 75-2-211,

DHES is the lead agency in the EIS preparation, DHES must make a decision within 30 days after the issuance of the final EIS. When the department approves or denies the application for a permit, any person who is adversely affected may request a hearing under the provisions of the Montana Administrative Procedures Act.

ARM 16.8.1101 et seq.

Contacb DHES, Air Quality Bureau


Description

A permit is required for the construction, installation,

Permit:

OPEN BURNING PERMIT

and operation

of

equipment or

facilities

that

may directly

Cost:

None

or indirectly cause or contrib-

ute to air pollution.

Law:

MCA 7-33-2205 and 76-13-121

Exceptions
Exceptions listed in the rules include, but are not
limited
to: (1)

Rules:
residential heating units; (2) food

ARM 26.6.301-304, 501-503 and


DHES, Air Quality Bureau

16.8.1301 etseq.

service establishments; (3)

any activity or equip-

Contact:

ment associated with the use of agricultural land


Description
or the planting, production, harvesting, or stor-

age of agricultural crops

(this

exclusion does not

Any

person, institution, business, or industry

apply to the processing of agricultural products

conducting any open burning and qualifying as


a major

by commercial businesses);
(5)

(4) ventilating

open burner

is

required to have an air

systems used in buildings that house animals;


road construction (except stationary sources);
(6)

and
fied

other sotirces that emit less than speci-

open burning permit. Open burning means combustion of any material directly in the open air without a receptacle or in a receptacle
quality
other than a furnace, multiple-chambered incinerator, or

A complete list of exceptions is provided in ARM 16.8.1102.


amounts.
Procedxires

wood-waste burner Any major open


is

burning source
Appropriate permit application forms must be
filed

one

that will emit

500 tons per calendar year of

more than carbon monoxide

or 50 tons per calendar year of any other pollutant regulated by

not later than 180 days before construction

DHES except hydrocarbons. A


refers to

begins on any machine, equipment, device, or


facility that

minor open burning source


burning that
is

any open

may

directly or indirectly cause or

not a major open burning source.

54

A minor open burning source need not obtain a


permit, but
tions,

threat to public health

must comply with

all rules,

regula-

animal

life,

and

that

and safety, or plant and no alternative method of

and

special burning periods as stated in

disposal

is available.

DHES requires use of BACT for all open burning. BACT for open burning may inthe rules.
clude, but
is iK)t

limited

to: (1)

scheduling burn-

Permit

ing during periods aiKi seasons of good ventilation, (2)

PREVENTION OF SIGNMCANT DETERIORATION (PSD) REVIEW

applying dispersion forecasts,

(3)

limiting

the amount of burning during any one


(4)

Cost

time period, and

promoting alternative treatof

ments and uses of materials to be burned. Materials that

The applicant may be assessed a fee to implement and enforce the terms and conditions of
the air quality permit.

may not be disposed

by open burnfire

ing are specified in the rules. The recognized

Law: Montana Clean Air Act,


Rules:

protection agency for the area (county, state, or

MCA 75-5-211

U5.

Forest Service)

may also

require a burning

ARM 16.8.921

etseq.

permit or

may have sp>ecial requirements or esContact DHES, Air Quality Bureau


Description
fires,

tablished time periods for burning.

Exceptions
Exceptions are small recreational
tion site heating devices

construc-

When a major stationary source or major modification of a stationary source of air pollution is

used

to

warm workers,
and

and
oil

safety flares

used to dispose of dangerous

proposed
is

in

an area where ambient

air quality

gases at refineries, gas sweetening plants,


or gas wells.

better than the applicable standards, a

more

stringent review procedure

may

apply.

PSD

standards apply to

all

areas that meet ambient

Procedures

air quality standards.


is:

A nnajor stationary source


more than 250
(2) certain

open burning, an application must be submitted on forms provided by DHES. The application must contain a legal dePrior to major
scription or a detailed

(1)

any

source that udll emit

tons per year of any pollutant, or

named source
than
1(X)

categories that vnW. emit

more

map of each planned site


and the

tons per year of any pollutant.

of

open burning, the elevation of each planned


the

site,

method

of burning to be used,

Exceptions

average fuel loading or total fuel loading at each


site to

PSD standards do

not apply in areas not curvsrith

be burned. Permits are issued for one

rently in compliance

national ambient air

year. Conditional air quality

open burning per-

standards (nonattainment areas).

mits

may be

issued on a temporary basis for

Procedures

open burning of wood, wood by-product trade waste, and untreated


special categories of

DHES conducts a PSD review during


cessing of
all

the pro-

waste

wood

applications for air pollution per-

at licensed landfill sites that


rules.

meet
mits
if

air quality in the affected area is better


If

specific

requirements stated in the

Emer-

gency open burning permits

may be

than required by applicable standards.


issued to
tions are such that

condi-

allow burning of a substance not otherwise ap-

PSD standards apply, DHES

proved for burning

if

the applicant

demon-

may
all

require one year of pre-application base-

line data.

strates that the substance

poses an immediate

BACT compliance will be required for

sources that require a permit.

55

ALCOHOL PRODUCTION
Pennit
Pennit

ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTOR'S
LICENSE

ALCOHOL FUEL PRODUCER'S


PERMIT
Cost:

None

Cost

Law:
related to

MCA 15-70-501

et seq.

Bonds are required; the amounts are


plant size.

Rules:

ARM 47-27-601

et seq.

Law: 26

use 5181
CFR 19.901
et seq.

Contact:

DOT, Motor Fuels Tax

Division,

Rules: 27

Accounting Services Bureau, Gasoline Unit


Description
Prior to doing business in Montana, every alco-

Contact: U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,

and Firearms (BATF), San Francisco Office


Description

hol

distributor

must obtain an Alcohol

Distributor's License.

BATF

of the U.S. Department of the Treasury

administers federal laws and regulations concerning taxation, production, and distribution of
alcohol. Federal laws require that every pro-

Exceptions:

None

Procedures
Request application forms from DOT.

Upon apissues a

ducer of ethyl alcohol properly qualify the plant

proval of the application,

DOT

and obtain a permit before beginning operation.


Exceptions
Plants producing fewer than 10,000 gallons per

nonassignable license that continues in force vintil

surrendered or canceled. After obtaining a


is

li-

cense, a distributor

required to

file

monthly
dis-

year do not require a bond.

statements that include the number

of gallons of

alcohol manufactured or imported

by the

Procedures
Request an information packet and application

tributor, the

name

of the gasohol dealer to

whom the alcohol is sold and number of gallons


and any other information required by DOT. The information on these
sold to each dealer,

forms from the San Francisco

office of

BATF.

The application may need


not be limited
to: (1)

to include, but

may

information on the size of


lists

forms qualifies the distributor for a tax incentive

the plant, (2) site diagrams, (3)


(4) description of stills

of feedstocks,
(5) state-

on each gallon of

ethyl alcohol produced, pro-

and security, and

vided the alcohol was produced in Montana

ments regarding environmental impacts. Submit


the completed application
cable, to

from Montana products, including Montana

and bond,

if

appli-

wood or wood products, and provided the alcowas blended with gasoline for sale as gasohol or was exported from Montana and was
hol

BATF, which has 60 days to approve or respond to the application. The bonding fee must be submitted and approved before a permit can be issued.

blended with gasoline for sale as gasohol.

DOT

BATF has detailed


lise,

reporting
distribu-

has detailed record-keeping requirements and

requirements on production,

and

may request examination of any records within


three years after they are recorded.

tion of alcohol. These requirements vary depending on the size of the plant Permits remain
in effect as long as the permit holder complies

with laws and regulations.

56

BUILDING, MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL, AND PLUMBING

tion in

your area. Either agency

may require deproject

tailed plans

and information on a

and em

PERMITS
Permit
Cost

on-site inspection prior to issuing a permit.

With

some exceptions, the state and


Uniform Building Code, 1988.

local building de-

partments have adopted the standards from the

BUILDING PERMIT
fee is

The permit

based on the valuation of


for

all

construction

which the permit is issued, using the cost-p>er-sc[uare-foot method of valuation and cost-f)er-square-foot figures for the type and quality of construction.
Law:

work

Permit
Cost

MECHANICAL PERMIT

A fee schedule is listed in the rules.


Law:

MCA 50-60-101

et seq.

MCA 50-60-101

et seq.

Rules:

ARM 8.70.101

et seq.

Rules:

ARM 8.70.105 et seq.


department

Contact:

DOC, Building Codes Bureau or


department

Contact DOC, Building Codes Bureau or


local building

local building

Description

Description

must comply with the state building codes and permit regulations. If towns and counties have adopted
All construction throughout the state
local building codes,

A mechanical permit is required for the design,


construction, installation, operation,

and mainterefrig-

nance of heating, ventilating, cooling, or


eration systems; incinerators;

then enforcement

is

by

lo-

and other miscella-

cal rather than state authorities. Local authorities

neous heating appliances. The mechanical


permit also specifies the quality of materials and
site considerations.

must adopt the same standards enforced by


state,

the

may extend their jurisdiction up to 4 V^ miles outside the dty limits, and may establish their own fee schedule. All areas not regulated
but

The
its

local building depart-

ment may
of the state

administer

own program
certified to

instead

program if it

is

do so.

by the

local authority will

be under the jurisdic-

Exceptions

tion of the state.

Changes and additions


Exceptions
Detailed
rules,
lists

to the Uniform Mechani-

cal Code,

1988 are listed in the rules.

of exceptions are outlined in the

but they

may not be applicable if the town

Procediues
Contact either the local building department or
the state
tion in

or county has adopted local building codes. Exceptions to state rules include residential buildings containing fewer than five dwelling units,
private garages or storage structures used only

DOC to determine which has jurisdicarea. Either

your

agency

may
it

require

both detailed plans and information on a project


as well as an on-site inspection before
will is-

by the owner, farm and ranch buildings, and mining buildings on mine property.
Procedures
Contact either the local building department or
the state

sue a permit. With some exceptions, the state

and

local building

departments have adopted

the standards from the Uniform Mechanical


Code, 1988.

DOC to determine which has jurisdic-

57

Permit
Cost

ELECTRICAL PERMIT

Permit:

PLUMBING PERMIT

Cost

A fee schedule is listed in the rules.


Law:

A fee schedule is listed in the rules.


Uw: MCA 50-60-501
Rules:
et seq.

MCA 50-60-601

et seq.

Rules:

ARM 8.70.401

et seq.

ARM 8.70.301

et seq.

Contact DOC, Building Codes Bureau or


local building

department

Contact DOC, Building Codes Bureau or local building department


Description

Description

An electrical permit is required for any electrical installation in any new construction or remodeling. The local building department may administer

A plumbing permit is required


tion,

for the installa-

removal, alteration, or repair of plumbing

an enforcement program in
if it is

lieu of the state

program

certified to

do so.

and drainage systems and parts of systems for all commercial and public facilities. The local building department may administer an enforcement program instead of the state program,
certified to

Exceptions
Electrical

if it is

do so.

permits are not required for

installa-

tion, alteration,

or repair of electrical signal or

Exceptions

communications equipment owned or operated

by a public utility or a city. Inspection provisions

do not apply

to

work done by

regularly em-

ployed maintenance electricians on the business


premises of their employers. These provisions

The following exceptions apply. (1) Plumbing permits do not affect or apply to plumbing installations in any mines, mills, smelters, refineries, public utilities, or railroads, or plumbing installations

on farms.
work.
(3)

(2)

Permits are not required

do not apply to line work on the business premises of the employer or to ordinary and
also

customary in-plant or on-site installations, modifications,

The owner of a residential property can install the plumbing without a permit if he does the work himself. (4) Plumbfor repair

or repairs.

ing permits are not required for regularly em-

ployed maintenance personnel doing mainte-

Procedures
Contact either the local building department or

nance work on the business premises of


employer.

their

DOC
your

to

determine which has jurisdiction in


agency

area. Either

may

require detailed

Procedures
Contact either the local building department or

plans and information on a project as well as an


on-site inspection prior to issuing a permit.

With

DOC
your

to

determine which has jurisdiction


agency

in

some exceptions, the state and local building departments have adopted the standards from the

area. Either

may

require both dea project

tailed plans

and information on
state

and

NaHoml

Electrical Code, 1990.

an

on-site inspection before issuing a f>ermit.

With some exceptions the

and

local build-

ing departments have adopted the standards

from the Uniform Plumbing Code, 1988.

58

FOREST CLEARING AND

BURNING
Pennit

Permit:

TIMBER REMOVAL PERMIT

Cost

RRE HAZARD REDUCTION/


CERTinCATE OF CLEARANCE

Fees are set by the Board of


ers.
fees.

Land CommissionCheck with DSL regarding the required

Cost

Law:
is

MCA 7-8-2608-2609, 77-5-211-213

The

application fee

$25.00 plus an additional


of board feet cut.

fee based

on the number

Rules:

ARM 26.6.401

et seq.

bond

nnust be posted.

Law: MC/l
Rules:

76-13-401-414

Contact: DSL, Forestry E>ivision or Board of County Commissioners

ARM 26.6.501-503

Description
Permits for the removal of dead or inferior tim-

Contact: DSL, Forestry Division

ber from state forests are required by

DSL or by

Description

the board of county commissioners for county


forests.

A permit is required for slash disposal, timber


cutting, or timber stand

Permits

may be

issued on state or

improvements on

pri-

county forests to use dead or inferior timber for


fuel or

vate lands or right-of-w^y clearing


private
utilities.

by

public or

domestic purposes. Permits also

may be
Mon-

issued without advertising to citizens of


tana for commercial timber harvest at

commer-

Exceptions:

None

cial rates

on

state forests in quantities of less


feet,

than 100,000 board

or in cases of emer-

Procedures
gency. Farmers, ranchers,

and prospectors may


feet

DSL must be
right-of-way

notified at least 10
cleared.

days before

obtain permits to purchase timber in state forests in quantities

is

DSL

requires executing

not to exceed 25,000 board

fire

hazard reduction agreement and posting a


certificate of clearance

for repair and

development on a farm, ranch, or

bond before a
sued.

may be is-

mine.

Exceptions
In the case of a timber salvage emergency, per-

mits also

may be issued

to citizens of

Montana

without advertising for


feet of

less

than 200/X)0 board


forests.

timber in state or county

Procedures
Contact

DSL

for f)ermit application

forms and

details regtirding fees.

59

LAND USE
Pennit

LAKESHORE DEVELOPMENT
PERMIT

Permit

FLOODPLAIN DEVELOPMENT PERMIT

Cost
Law:

$10.00

Cost

MCA 75-7-201 et seq.


As adopted by
local

The fee charged by local government varies.


Law: MC>i 76-5-101-405
Rules:

Rules:

governments

Contact Local government


Description

>U?M 36.15.101-903

Contact:

DNRC, Water Resources Division,

If

a local government has adopted lakeshore


is

Engineering Bureau or local government


Description

protection regulations, a permit

required for

any work

that will alter the course, current, or


its

cross-sectional area of a navigable lake or


artificial

A permit is necessary for any improvement, alteration, or

shore. Such activities include construction of

placement of an

obstruction
If

channels and ditches; dredging of lake bottom


areas to
filling;

in a designated floodplain or floodway.

local

remove muck, sUt, or weeds; lagooning;

governments do not adopt floodplain

manage

or constructing breakwaters, wharves, or

ment

regulations,

DNRC is required to enforce


by the Board
of Natural

docks.

the standards adopted

Upon petition from adjacent landowners, DNRC may adopt and enforce regulations.
Exceptions

Resources and Conservation.

Exceptions

A permit is not required in areas


adopted

that

have not

Open space uses that do not require structures,


fill,

local regulations, unless adjacent laixi-

or storage are allowable without permits.

owners petition
regulations.

DNRC

to

adopt and enforce

Examples include grazing, growing crops, parking

and loading areas, and forestry.


Procedures
Contact the local government to see if local regulations have been adopted regarding
lakeshore protection. Specific regulations and

Procedures
Local government or

DNRC can be contacted to

determine which has jurisdiction over the prospective location.

A permit application is autohas been notified

requirements

may

vary. Unless the applicant

matically granted 60 days after receipt of the application, unless the applicant

agrees to an extension of time, the governing

body must grant or deny permission


tion.

for the

that the permit has


will

been denied or that there


is

permit within 90 days of receiving an applicaVariances

be a delay.
to

If

the proposed project

deter-

may

be granted, but require a

mined

have a

significant impact

on the envi-

ronment,

DNRC may require the applicant to

public hearing and prep)aration of an environ-

mental impact statement (EIS) at the expense


of the applicant.
in a lake

provide information and funding necessary for


the preparation of an environmental impact

person

without the

who performs work necessary permit may


its

statement

(EIS).

After the EIS process, the time

be required to restore the lake to


conditioa

previous

required for review of a permit application will

be from 60

to 120 days.

60

MAJOR FAaUTY SITING


Pennit

watts or more of electricity;


facility

(2)

any addition to a

having an estimated cost in excess of $10

million; (3) a facility

producing 25 million cubic

CERTIHCATE OF PUBLIC NEED

feet or

more per day of gas derived from coal, or


(4)

AND ENVIRONMENTAL
COMPATIBILITY
Cost

any addition having an estimated cost of over


$10 million; or
rels of liquid

a plant producing 25,000 bar-

hydrocarbon products or more per

day, or any addition to such a plant having an

fee schedule

based on the cost of the prothe law.

estimated cost of over $10 million. Federally

posed project

is in

owned

or controlled

facilities

must

satisfy the

Law: Major
101 et seq.

Facility Siting Act,

MCA 75-20own set of

substantive criteria of the Major Facility Siting


Act. Certification is also required

from DHES to

ensure that the


its

facility will

not violate air or wa-

Rules: Each agency adopts


rules.

ter quality

standards or other laws administered

by DHES.

Contact:

DNRC, Facility Siting Bureau and

Exceptions

DHES, Air Quality Bureau and Water Quality

Excluded are crude


ies; facilities for

oil

and

i\atural

gas refiner-

Bureau

producing, gathering, transport-

Description

A Certificate of Public Need cind Environmental


Compatibility

may be required from the Board


and Conservation
for

and rwtural gas; Montana Strip and Underground Mine Reclamation Act; and federal facilities under the jurisdiction of the federal
ing,

and

distributing crude oil

facilities subject to

the

of Natural Resources
jor facilities that

ma-

government.

generate or transmit

electricity,

Procedures

produce gas from coal or liquid hydrocarbon


products or transmit them by pipeline, enrich

An

applicant for a certificate under the Major

uranium minerals, use or convert

Facility Siting
coal, or

Act must

file

a joint application

use
with

geothermal resources. Transportation

DNRC and DHES. The application will infacility,

links, aq-

ueducts, dams, transmission substations, and


other
facilities

clude information on need for the

the

associated with the production or


facilities

proposed location, alternative


dafa,

sites,

baseline

delivery of energy from covered

are inif

cluded.

The

certificate will

be required

the
fa-

proposed development constitutes a "major


cility"
is:

and other information defined in the law. The applicant must submit an original and 19 copies of the application to DNRC and send
copies to other state agencies listed in the law.

as defined imder the act

A major facility
mega-

(1)

any facility designed

to generate 50

Time requirements
are listed in the law.

for the application process

61

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


Pennit BOILER OPERATING

Procedures

Within 10 days

after

purchase of any

boiler,

either traction or stationary, not specifically

exempted by law, the purchaser must report the

CERTIFICATE
Cost:

DOLI. DOLI must also be told and operated. Regular inspections are required by DOLI.
purchase
to

where the

boiler will be installed

No charge

Within 90 days of the


ers
et seq.

installation, all

Law:

MCA 50-74-101

must be stamped with the given by DOLI. Boiler operating certificates


boiler.

new boilserial number


are

Rules:

ARM 24.30.701

et seq.

issued annually after an on-site inspection of the

Used

boilers

must

also be inspected

and

Contact: DOLI, Safety Bureau

assigned a serial number.

Description
All boilers
installed

must be licensed by DOLI. All boilers and operated in Montana must follow

Permit BOILER OPERATOR'S LICENSE

the rules for safe construction, installation, op-

and repair of equipment as stated by CXDLl. The definitions and rules follow
eration, inspection,

nationwide engineering standards as published

by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME).

Exceptions
Exceptions listed in the rules are:
(1) boilers

un-

der federal control,


erated at 15

(2)

steam heating boilers op(psi)

pounds per square inch


(3)

or less
six or

in private residences or

apartments of

fewer families, and

water heating or supply

boilers operated at not over 50 psi

gauge pres-

sure and temperatures not over 250 degrees F in


private residences or apartments of sue or fewer
families.

Hot water supply

boilers are

exempt

from inspections if they do not exceed any of the


follovdng: heat input of 400,000 Btus per hour,

water temperatures of 210 degrees

F,

or nominal

water-containing capacity of 120 gallons.


ever, such hot water supply boilers
still

How-

must be

equipped with safety devices.

Procedures

WASTE MANAGEMENT
written examination
in the

An applicant must pass a


law. Licenses

and meet other requirements as stated


must be renewed annually.

Permit

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FAQLITY PERMIT


on a sliding scale based on the

Cost

Permit FIRE
Cost

SAFETY INSPECTIONS

The

fee is set

complexity of the proposed op)eration.

The

state

does not have a

fee,

but local

fire

au-

Law: Montana Hazardous Waste Act, MCi4


75-10-401 et seq.

thorities

with their

own enforcement programs

may require a fee.


Rules:

ARM 16.14.101 et seq.

Law:

MCA 50-61-101

et seq.

Contact DHES, Solid and Hazardous Waste


Rules:

ARM 23.7.101

et seq.

Bureau
Description

Contact: Department of Justice (DOJ), State


Fire Marshall;

Municipal Fire Chief; or

County Sheriff
Description
Buildings designed for assembly, business, edu-

A permit is necessary to construct or operate a haztirdous waste management facility. A hazardous waste
wastes
that,
is

a waste or combination of

because of quantity, concentration,

or physical, chemical, or infectious characteriscation, or industrial, institutional, or residential

occupancy (other than single-family private


homes) must meet
fire

fire

escape, fire alarm,

and

may kill people or make them seriously or pose a substantial hazard to human health or the environment when improperly treated,
tics,
ill,

extinguisher requirements. Industrial occuis

pancy includes, but

stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise

not limited

to, mills,

power

plants,

and processing

managed. Hazardous wastes include, but are


not limited to those that are toxic, radioactive,
corrosive, or flammable; contain irritants or

plants. Local fire

authorities

may have their own enforcement program, may require a permit, or may have
None

strong sensitizers; or generate pressure through

adopted a fee schedule.


Exceptions:

decomposition, heat, or other means.

A hazardall

ous waste management

facility

means

con-

tiguous land, structures, and improvements on

Procedures
Contact the local
fire

the land used for treating, storing, or disposing

authority or

DOJ

to see

of hazardous waste.

facility

may

consist of

who

has jurisdiction in your area. Both require

several treatment, storage, or disposal operational units. Special requirements for

compliance with the Uniform Fire Code, 1985 and

hazardous

may require inspections. Local fire authorities may require permits or a fee. Fire extinguishers
must be checked emd maintained
tervals.

waste generated by small quantity generators


can be found in the rules in ARM 16.44.402.

at regular in-

63

Exceptions
Large- and small-scale producers of hazardous
waste, as defined in

Permit

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

ARM 16.44.401, who store ARM


Cost:

SYSTEM UCENSE
None

hazanlous waste on-site in compliance with ac-

cumulation time

linuts, as specified in

16.44.415, are not required to obtain a hazard-

Law: Montana Solid Waste Management


Act,

ous waste management permit. Other exclusions are listed in

MCA 75-10-201

et seq.

ARM 16.44.103. A producer or


Rules:

owner or operator of a hazardous waste management facility may apply to the Board of Health and Environmental Sciences (BHES) for a variance from any requirement in the laws or rules. The law states various conditions under which
transporter of hazardous wastes or an

ARM 16.14.501 et seq.

Contact DHES, Solid and Hazardous Waste Bureau


Description

BHES may grant a variance.


Procedures

DHES requires a license for the disposal of solid


waste and for the operation of a solid waste

management facility.
to construct or operate a
facility

Any

person wanting

Exceptions

hazardous waste management


ply to

must ap-

DHES for a permit on forms provided by DHES. An application must contain, at a minimum, the name and business address of the applicant,

A possible exception may


who owns
that
is

apply for a person


5 acres of land

or leases

more than

not within a subdivision.

Under

certain

conditions, that person


solid waste that
is

may disfxjse of his own

up

to four

Standard Industrial

Classifi-

generated in reasonable asso-

cation (SIC) codes that best reflect the principal

ciation with his

household or agricultural

products or services provided by the facility, the


location of the
tion

operations on his

own

land as long as the dis-

proposed facility, a plan of operalist

posal does not create a nuisance or public health

and mainterunce, a
for,

of permits received

hazard.

or applied

and a description of pertinent site

characteristics.

permit

is

effective for a fixed


is

Procedures

term not

to

exceed 10 years and

subject to ei-

Any person who wants to establish and operate


management system facility must apply to DHES for a permit on forms provided by DHES. An application must contain, at a nninimum, the name and business address of
a solid waste
the applicant, the location of the proposed
ity,

ther renewal or revocation,

depending on com-

pliance with the permit's provisions. Permit


conditions are established by-case basis.

by

DHES on a case-

DHES may require detailed moni-

and reporting as conditions of the permit. An environmental


toring, record-keeping,

facil-

a plan of operation and maintenance, and a


If

assessment (EA)

may be part of the application


iixiicated

description of pertinent site characteristics.


additional information
is

review process.

If

by

the

EA, an envirequired

needed,

DHES will in-

roiunental impact statement

may be

form the applicant and postpone processing the


application.
If

before a permit can be issued. Decisions

may be

the requested additional informa-

appealed under the conditions of the Montaiia


Admiiustrative Procedures Act.

tion is not received within 90

days

after the ap-

plicant has been notified, a

new

application

64

must be submitted. Witlun 15 days


of the completed application,

after receipt

Exceptions
Exclusions listed in the rules include, but are not

DHES must notify


where the

the local health officer in the county

limited to, solid waste

management systems
li-

proposed system would be located. After DHES


issues a

and hazardous waste management systems


censed by DHES, discharges or
lated

proposed

decision,

it

must comply with


assess-

activities regu-

public notice regulations as stated in the rules.

under the

federal

imderground

injection

DHES
ment
to

also conducts

an environmental

control (UIC) program, persons disposing of


their
erty,

(EA). After a 3(kiay period for the public

own household

waste on their

own

prof>-

comment on

the EA,

DHES must

decide

and agricultural irrigation projects.

whether

to issue the license or require

an enviProcedures

ronmental impact statement.


is

An appeals process

described in the rules.

An application for an MGWPCS permit must be


filed at least

180 days prior to beginning opera-

tion. All applications

must be submitted on

forms that are obtained from

DHES and

must

WATER QUALITY
Peimit:

contain a site plan, location of treatment works

and disposal system,

list

of people

who own or

lease adjacent land, location of adjacent state

MONTANA GROUNDWATER
POLLUTION CONTROL SYSTEM (MGWPCS) PERMIT

surface waters, location of water supply wells

and springs within


groundwater

mile, description of w^aste

or process solutions, information on existing


quality,

and any additional

infor-

Cost None
Law: Montana Water Quality Act,
5-101 et seq.

mation

DHES may

require.
is

DHES

will deter-

MCA 75-

nune
days.

if

the application

complete within 30

Rules:

ARM 16.20.1001 et seq.

Upon receipt of a completed application, DHES must make a preliminary determination of


whether a permit should be issued.
the proposed discharge

Contact DHES, Water Quality Bureau


Description

DHES

is

then required to issue a public notice regarding

Any
into

person
state

who wants

to discharge pollutants

termination.
for a public

At

least

and the preliminary de30 days must be provided

groundwater must obtain an


Groundwater
classifications

comment period. The applicant, any

MGWPCS permit.
uses.

affected agency, the regional administrator of

are established to protect water for beneficial

EPA, or any interested person may submit a


written request for a hearing.

DHES has a

policy of not allowing degra-

A hearing will be

dation of groundwater. High quality groundwater

must be maintained

at that quality unless

it

DHES determines there is good cause or sufficient interest to hold a hearing. DHES will
held
if

has been positively demonstrated that a change


is

provide a 30-day public notice of the hearing.


a hearing
is

If

justifiable for

necessary economic or social dewill not preclude present or an-

not held,

DHES

must make a

fii\al If

velopment and

decision on permit issuance within 30 days.

ticipated uses of such waters.

public hearing

is

held,

DHES must make a

deci-

sion within 60 days following the hearing.

65

The conditions of the permit may include proposed discharge limitations and conditions;
monitoring and reporting requirements,
if

ants into state waters authorized

by an

MPDES

permit must be consistent with the conditions of


the permit.
If

any;

there

is

a violation of the jjermit,

necessary schedules of compliance, including


interim dates and requirements for meeting

mit.

DHES may modify, suspend, or revoke the perDHES has a noruiegradation policy that rethan the established water quality standards be

proposed discharge
conditions.

limitations; or other special

quires that any state water of a quality higher

A permittee must request reissuance


its

of the permit at least 90 days prior to

date of

maintained at that high quality. Permits may

re-

expiratioa Operators

who have submitted per-

quire effluent limitations or other conditions on


industrial, public, or private projects or devel-

mit applications for groundwater discharge


sources under the

MPDES permit program will

opments

that constitute a

new

or an increased

be deemed to have complied with the application requirements for this permit.

source of pollution to high quality waters.

Exceptions
Federal jiermitting authority
tivities
is

involved for ac-

on Indian

reservations. For

more

infor-

Permit

MONTANA POLLUTANT
DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (MPDES) PERMIT

mation, see the discussion on the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination

System flMPDES)

permit later in

this sectioa

Cost None
Law: Montana Water Quality Act,
5-101 et seq.

Procedures

MCA 75-

The application for an MPDES permit must be filed no less than 180 days prior to the operation
of a point source. Application information re-

Rules:

ARM 16.20.1301

et seq.

quired by

DHES includes, but

is

not limited

to,

plans and specifications,

site descriptions,

pro-

ConUct: DHES, Water Quality Bureau


Description

cess

and waste flow diagrams, and volume and

nature of projected discharges.


a completed application,

Upon

receipt of

DHES must make a

A permit from DHES is


struct or use

required to construct,

preliminary determination with respect to issu-

modify, or operate a disposal system or to con-

ance or denial of a permit.


for public

DHES

is

then re-

any outiet for the discharge of sew-

quired to issue public notice and allow 30 days

age, industrial wastes, or other wastes into state

comment.

If

DHES
may

denies the dis-

surface waters.

The

MPDES

permit regulates

charge permit, a hearing

be requested. All

the discharges of pollutants from point sources


into state waters.

permits are issued for a fixed term not to exceed


five years.

A point source can be any disdis-

cernible conveyance, such as a pipe, a ditch, or

a floating
charged.

craft,

from which pollutants are


facility

An

animal confinement

may

also be a point sovirce. All discharges of pollut-

66

Permit

NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE ELIMINATION SYSTEM (NPDES) PERMIT

Permit

STREAM PROTECTION ACT


PERMIT

Cost None
Cost None
Law:
Law: Water Pollution Control Act, 33
1251 et seq.

MCA 87-5-501
None

et seq.

USC
Rules:

Rules: 40
Contact:

CfR

122 et seq.

Contact Department of Fish, Wildlife and


Parks (DFWP), Fisheries Division

EPA
Description

Description

A state or local government agency must obtain


a permit before engaging in a project that

Anyone who wants to discharge wastewater on


Indian reservations must obtain an

may

NPDES per-

change the existing shape or form of any


stream.

mit and comply with minimum discharge limits

by EPA. A permit also is required to modify or expand a project.


established

Exceptions
This law does not apply to any irrigation
district

Exceptions
Activities in incorporated muiucipalities

project or

any other

irrigation system. In addi-

on

In-

tion,

it

does not apply during an emergency. For

dian reservations are excluded.

a determination of

what

constitutes an emer-

gency, contact

DFWP, Fisheries Divisioa

Procedures

Any
ter

person

who wants

to discharge

wastewato

Procedures

on an Indian reservation must apply

EPA

Within 30 days after receipt of project plans,

on forms provided by that agency. After a completed application has been received,
drafts either the permit or the denial

DFWP must notify


project

the applicant whether the


affect fish or wildlife

EPA
There

would adversely

and pub-

habitat or issue a permit.

DFWP may require


If

lishes the notice of intent to issue or deny.


is

modifications to the proposed project plans.

a 30-day

comment

period,

and then the

an agreement cannot be reached, an


panel

arbitration

agency must issue a denial or approval.

EPA may include effluent limitations and morutoring

may be appointed by

the district court.

and reporting requirements as conditions of the


permit.

A permit is issued for a fixed term up to


The applicant must apply
its

five years.

for reexpira-

newal of the permit 180 days before


tion date.

67

WATER USE
Pennit

STREAMBED AND LAND PRESERVATION PERMIT (310 PERMIT)


Permit
Cost

Cost None
Law: Natural Streambed and Land Preservation Act,

BENEHCLAL WATER USE PERMIT

MCA 75-7-101 et seq.

A sliding-scale fee schedule based on volume of


v^ter is
listed in the rules.
fees.

Refer to the rules for

Rules:

ARM 36-2-401 et seq.

required

Contact: Conservation district supervisors


or

Law: Montana Water Use Act,


301 et seq. Rules:

MCA 85-2-

DNRC, Conservation Districts Bureau

Description

AKM 36.12.101

et seq.

Any

private,

nongovernmental individual or

Contact:

DNRC, Water Rights Bureau

work in or near a stream on private or public land must apply for


corp)oration that proposes to

Description

a 310 permit.
Exceptions:

A Beneficial Water Use Permit is required to apNone


propriate either surface v^ter or

more than 35

gallons per minute or 10 acre-feet per year of

Procedures

groundwater. This permit

is

required for uses

The person conducting the work should submit


a completed application to the conservation district office.

that benefit the appropriator, other persons, or

the public. Examples of beneficial uses are agriculture, including stockwater; domestic; fish

At

their next

monthly meeting,

dis-

trict

supervisors will determine whether the

and

wildlife; industrial; irrigation;

planned activity requires a 310 permit. Following


a team inspection, the district supervisors will
approve, modify, or deny the permit application.

nicipal;

power; and recreation.

muWith some exmining;

ceptions, a person

who

intends to appropriate

water for a reservoir also needs a permit. In or-

The permit process takes approximately 60 days


or more. The supervisors
limits

der to protect

all

water

rights,

any proposed
include

up

to

one year

may extend the time when necessary. If an

changes in an existing water pennit must be ap-

proved by
change

DNRC. Such changes might

agreement cannot be reached, an arbitration panel may be appointed by the district court. E>etailed procedures for times of emergency are
listed in the

in kind of

use or location of use, diver-

sion, or storage.

conservation district rules and in the

law

(MCA 75-7-113).

68

Exceptions

been put to beneficial use, the well owner must


G)

The following exceptions apply.

A permit is
if

file

a Notice of Completion of Groundwater De-

not required prior to construction of a reservoir


or pit to be used for watering livestock
or reservoir meets certain conditions.
the pit

velopment vA\h
Procedures

DNRC.

If

the pit

Any person who

wrants to appropriate ground-

or reservoir will be

filled

with water from a non-

water or surface v^ter by building a diversion,

perennial stream, hold less than 15 acre-feet of

and be located on a piece of land larger than 40 acres, construction can begin immediately. Within 60 days of completion, an application for a Stockwater Provisional Permit must
v^ter,

impoundment, or vdthdrawal or distribution works must apply for a permit on forms provided by DNRC. Upon receipt of a completed
application,

be submitted

to

DNRC. A

notices

DNRC is required to pniblish public pertinent to that application. DNRC


an application
whole or in part within 120 days
objections
if

provisional permit

must

grant, deny, or condition

subject to prior w^ter rights v^tU be issued. If the

for a permit in

reservoir has adverse effects

on prior

rights,
after the last date of publication of notice of ap-

DNRC can require modifications to


trolled

the reserplication
if

no

have been received, or


is

voir or revoke the jsermit. (2) Outside of a con-

within 180 days

a hearing

hekl or objections

groundwater

area, a permit is not re-

quired to appropriate water by means of a well


or developed spring with a
priation of 35 gallons per

have been received.


subject to

DNRC may issue a permit


restrictions,

maximum approless,

any terms, conditions,

minute or

not to
af-

and limitations it considers necessary to protect the rights of other appropriators. For more information, consult any of DN^RC's field offices
in Billings,
Kalispell,

exceed 10 acre-feet per year. Within 60 days


ter a well is

completed, the driller must

file

with

DNRC a log report on a form provided by the


department. Within 60 days after the water has

Bozeman, Glasgow, Havre, Helena,


offices are

Lewistown, Miles Qty, and Missoula.


included in Ap-

Addresses for these


pendix
B.

69

70

SECTION 5 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS

BUSINESS UCENSING

REQUIREMENTS
A bioenergy project must comply with a wide
and must obtain a number of permits and licenses to do business in Montana. A business owner must file with the
variety of laws

COGENERATION AND SMALL POWER PRODUCTION


A cogeneration or small power production facilmust be certified as a qualifying fiadlity (QF) to operate in Montana and receive a rate based on the provided cost of power. A QF must meet
ity

and

rules

Secretary of State for

any of the following

that

certain requirements as stated in

Montana law,
pri-

are applicable to the business: a certificate of


partnership, articles of incorporation, registration of

MCA 69-3-601. Those requirements state that


the facility must:
(1)

produce electricity as a

an assumed business name, or

registra-

mary energy source from biomass, waste,


water, wind, or other renewable resource or any

tion of a trademark.
ties

Other business responsibili-

may

include obtaining a local business

combination of those resources; or


electricity

(2)

produce

license, obtaining a federal tax identification

number, registering with the state DOR as an employer for income tax purposes, filing a state
withholding tax registration, registering for un-

and useful forms of thermal energy, such as heat or steam, used for industrial or commercial heating or cooling purposes
through the sequential use of energy
cogeneration;

known as
facilities

employment

iiASurance, or obtaining worker's

and

(3)

have a power production

compensation insurance.

capacity that, together with any other located at the

The Business Licensing Center of DOC, Business

same site, is not greater than 80 megawatts; and 4) be owned by a person not
primarily engaged in the generation or sale of
electricity

Development Division has a toll-free number and produces the Montana Business Licensing
Handbook, which offers a brief summary of many
of the business licenses

other than electric


facility.

power from a small

power production

and permits required by


Devel-

the state,

and Guide to Montana's Economic


for the toll-free

FERC controls the certification process for a QF.


There are two ways
first

opment and Business Development Programs. See

to obtain certification.

The

Appendix B

number and

the se-

option

is self-qualification,

which

is

accom-

lected bibliography for a complete citation for

plished by notifying
the facility

FERC

of the existence of

the publications.

and supplying other information

71

required
less

by the agency. While


the disadvantage
is

this

method has

Utilities

owned or controlled by a municipality,


excluded from PSC jurisdiction.

paperwork, takes less time, and does not refee,

town, county, or city-county water or sewer


district are

quire a
tion

that the certifica-

may be challenged.

Later delays and eco-

Rates and services for such systems are deter-

nomic problems can


apply to
ing fee

result.

The alternative is

to

mined by the local govenung body or district.


Facilities located in

FERC for certificatioa

Detailed facility

information as listed in 1 8 CFR 292207 and a fil-

district

served by a private

must accompany the application. For more information on the certification processes, call or vmte FERC in Washington, D.C., at the address listed in Appendix B.
Facilities that are

company

or an electric cooperative negotiate

rates and contracts directly with that cooperative. More information on electric cooperatives in Montana is available from the Montana Electric Coof>erative Association. See Appendix B

connecting to a

utility

can get

for

its

address and the addresses of

all electric

guidelines from that

utility. Facilities

also

must
state

cooperatives in

Montana.

comply with state electrical standards, apply for


an
electrical permit,

and be inspected by

Cogeneration

facilities that

produce

electricity

inspectors prior to initiating service.

may be
of

liable to

producer's license

pay an electrical energy tax. Montana law states that


production of
electric-

The PSC determines

rates

and conditiorw

each person or organization engaged in the generation, manufacture, or


ity

those rates for contracts between cogenerators

and small power producers and the following


Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, Montaiw Power Company, and Pacific Power and Light Company. Various types of contract
utilities:

and

electric

energy for barter,

sale, or ex-

change must pay an electrical energy producer's


tax of $.0002 per kilowatt-hour. For information,

contact EXDR, Natural Resource


tion

and Corpora-

agreements can be negotiated


ties.

v^dth these utili-

Tax Division.

For more information, contact the appropri-

ate utility:

Gary Paulsen, System Operations


Montana-Dakota Utilities Company
400 North Fourth Street
Bismarck,

DAM SAFETY
The

Dam Safety

Act

(MCA 85-15-101-502) re

ND

58501

701-222-7649

quires construction and operating permits for

high-hazard dams.

A high-hazard dam is a dam

Robert Stuart, Director of Power Contracts

that

impounds 50 acre-feet or more of w^ter and


this pro-

Montana Power Company


40 East Broadway
Butte,

would Ukely cause a loss of life if it fails. DNRC,


Water Resources Division administers
723-5421

MT

59701

gram; issues permits; establishes safety standards for the design, cor\struction, operation,

Dennis Wedam, Area Engineer

Power and Light Company 448 Main Street


Pacific

KalispeU,

MT

59901

752-7461

and maintenance of high-hazard dams; conducts periodic inspections; establishes fees commensurate with recovering inspection costs; and provides copies of the law and administrative rules (ARM 36.14.101 et seq.) on request.

72

FORESTED AREAS
Requirements regarding harvesting of timber

HIGHWAYS/TRANSPORTATION
DOT regulates various asp)ects of transportation
and activities adjacent
loads;
to

and removal of slash and wood waste for commercial uses vary depending on land ownership.

highways. Permits are

required for special fuels; restricted routes or

Boards of county commissioners; DSL,

temporary

trips;

oversized vehicles; out-

Forestry Division; USPS;


ter forest

and

BLM all adminis-

door advertising; highway right-of-way, encroachments, and approaches; and


mains.
utility

lands in Montana.

permit

is

required from

DSL

for slash dis-

posal

on private or state

laivis.

A permit is also

DOT, Gross Vehicle Weight


regulates travel

Division generally

required from

DSL for timber cutting or timber


by public or
to

by

trucks, truck-tractors, buses,

stand improvement on state lands, and for


right-of-way clearing
ties.

and equipment. Permits handled by


clude, but are not limited
mit;
to:

DOT in-

private

utili-

temporary trip perlicense;

Permits

may be issued

county residents

temporary special fuel

overwidth,

to
tic

use dead or inferior timber for fuel or domespurposes. Farmers, ranchers, and prosjjec-

overheight, and overlength permit; gross vehicle

weight fees

receipt; liquefied

petroleum

tors

may also obtain permits for timber removal


forest

gas license; restricted route-load jjermit; and


proportional license (apportionment).
is

from state
repair

land in quantities not to exceed

A permit
from

25J0O0 board feet for domestic purjX)ses in the

required for outdoor

advertising visible

and development of a farm, ranch, or mine. Permits may be issued to Montana citizens for commercial purposes at commercial
rates without advertising for timber in state forests in quantities of less than 100,000

and primary highways. Applications for permits may be obtained at any DOT district
interstate
office.

(See

Appendix B.)

board

feet

Permits are required from

DOT, Maintenance
inter-

or in emergency cases due to

fire, insects,

or

Bureau for approaches, which include construction of

blowdown.
any of

(See Forest Clearing

and Burning,

driveways and other approaches

page 59.) For more information, contact DSL or


its field

secting public streets

and highways, and eninclude


facilities

offices at the

addresses listed in

croachments,

which
and

all

private

Appendix
Timber

B.

structures, devices,

placed upon,

over, or under the right-of-w^y. Encroachments


sales

on

federal lands administered

by

also include ditches, dikes, flumes, canals,


bridges,

BLM and USPS are advertised for competitive bids. BLM may negotiate iixiividually with purchasers for small amounts of timber in special
instances. For

and water, sewer,

electric,

natural gas,

and communications Unes. Permits to construct utility mains and lines along state highway
rights-of-way are granted by

more information,

contact each

DOT, Mainte-

national forest office or each office of

BLM at the

nance Bureau. City councils and county commissioners grant similar approval along city
sfreets

addresses listed in Appendbc B.

and county

roads.

Transporters of hazardous waste must obtain

an

identification

number from SHWB.

Trans-

73

p>orters

who maintain offices, terminals, depots,


facilities

page 67 and Water Quality, pages 50 and

65.)

or transfer
their

within Montana related to


activities

Minimimi discharge

limits are established

by

hazardous waste transportation


also register with

EPA and

apply

to all discharges except

where

must

DHES,

Solid

and Hazfill

more intensive treatment is needed to meet water quality

ardous Waste Bureau. Detailed reporting rules


require hazardous waste generators to

stream standards.

EPA administers a

out

continuing monitoring program to ensure that


drinking water systems are free from pollutants.

manifest forms with the source, amount, and


destination of the wastes.

The

the receiving hazardous waste


cility

transporter and management fato ac-

EPA has the statutory authority to regulate hazardous wastes on Indian reservations and
quires hazardous waste producers to
re-

must sign and date the manifest

knowledge receipt of the waste shipment.

comply
re-

with detailed record-keeping and reporting

quirements. (See Waste Management, pages 47

INDIAN RESERVATIONS
The seven Indian
erally fall

and

63.)

reservations in

Montana gen-

under the

jurisdiction of

EPA

The seven Indian agencies in Montana and their corresponding tribes are listed in Appendix B.

in re-

gard to

air quality,

water quality, and hazard-

ous w^aste management. Information on these

programs can be obtained from the Helena


fice of

of-

LOCAL AREAS
Local agencies, the board of county commissioners, or the city or local

EPA. (See Appendix B

for the address

and telephone number.)

government may
affect a bioenju-

The Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the Flathead Indian Reservation, and the Fort Peck Indian Reservation are designated as Qass
I

have laws or regiilations that can

ergy project. Local governments often have


risdiction

over building and construction, land


roads,

for air quality purposes. All other reserva-

use,

utilities,

and some environmental


jurisdiction over the

tions are designated Class H. Because

some

off-

concerns such as air quality. Local building de-

reservation projects affect areas in or adjacent to

partments

may assume

reservation lands,

EPA

is

sometimes asked

to

building, mechanical, plumbing, or electrical

enter into cooperative pollution

management
and/or the
In-

permits required for construction projects.


local building

If

programs v^th the


U.S.

state, the tribes,

department administers
but

its

own

Department of the

Interior,

Bureau of

program, the standards must be equal


enforced by

to those to 4 Vi

dian Affairs (BIA). (See Air Quality, pages 39

DOC,

may

extend up

and 54.)

miles outside the city limits,


to a locally

and may be subject

imposed

fee schedule. (See Building,

EPA also administers programs to control water


pollution

Mechanical, Electrical, and Plumbing Permits,

and provide safe drinking

water.

The

page 57.)
Local
fire authorities also

NPDES

permit protects surface water and


enforcement

groundwater from pollution and controls the


treatment and discharge of municipal and
industrial wastewater. (See

may have their own require a permit, may program,


a fee schedule. Fire safety

NPDES

Permit,

and may adopt

74

inspections

may be conducted
page 63.)

locally

by the

On
air

county lands, a burning permit

may be rethe open

municipal

fire chief

or the county sheriff. (See

quired to ignite an op)en

fire directly in

Fire Safety Inspections,

without a receptacle or in a receptacle other

than a furnace, multiple-chambered incinerator,

Local authorities often administer land use


regulations

or waste-wood burner. (See


mit,

Open Burning Per-

tion of a bioenergy project.

cmd restrictions that may affect locaChoosing a site for a


limited by zoning regulations,

page 54.)

plant

may be

floodplain or wetland restrictions, or lakeshore

preservation requirements.

The

local

planning

NAVIGABLE WATERS
DSL, Lands Division, has
ers, lakes,

board or board of county commissioners can


provide more information on land use regulations.

jurisdiction over riv-

waters in

and streams designated as navigable Montana and maintains a current list

Supplying

electric

power, natural gas, and wa-

of navigable waters in the state.

When there will

ter to a site is usually regulated

The

city

on a local level. or town council or board of county and other mains

be activity on a
the low-water

river, lake,

or stream between

mark and

the high-water mark,

commissioners must grant permission for construction of gas, water, sewer,

consult

DSL

for permitting

and other

require-

ments.

within the city limits and for construction of


utility

mains and

lines along city streets

and

county roads.

Qty or town councils may permit

extension of utility lines outside dty limits.

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH


All bioenergy projects

Written permission

is

required from the board


pational safety

any excavation, construction, or other encroachment across cotmty roads. Highway encroachments include all private structures, devices, and facilities
of county commissioners for

must comply with occuand health laws and rules. The

administering agency will be either the U.S. Oc-

cupational Safety and Health Admiiustration

placed upon, over, or under the right-of-way.

(OSHA)

or DOLI, Safety Bureau, depending on


is

These include ditches, dikes, flumes, canals,


bridges,

whether the project


private project.

considered a public or a

and water, sewer,

public project involves serstate,

electric,

natural gas,
vices

and connmunications lines.


If it is

performed by public employees for

dty, or county governments.

Whenever

public

necessary to connect to the local sewage


facility,

employees or employers are involved in a


project,

treatment

the facility operator

must be

enforcement will be by DOLI, Safety

informed of the quantity and type of sewage

Bureau. All other employees and employers are

an applicant plans
it

to discharge to

make certain

under the jurisdiction of (DSHA.


All public bioenergy projects are required to

does not overload the current treatment

capacity.

comply with the Montana Safety


50-71-101 et seq.

Act,

MCA

A municipality or county may establish a local


eiir

No

licenses or permits are

pollution control program. (See

Urban Ar-

involved, but a variety of rules require compliance.

eas/Municif)alities,

page

76.)

75

For all private bioenergy projects under the


risdiction of

ju-

ARM
posed

16.42.101,

DHES

establishes

maximum

OSHA that have one or more em-

noise exposure levels that represent conditions


that nearly all

ployees and for all federal employees, Montana

workers

may be

repeatedly exto

laws and rules are superseded by federal laws

to without adverse effect

on the ability

and rules.
project,

In the

CFR, the construction industry

hear and understand normal speech. In

ARM,
all

standards apply to the building phase of a

DHES

also establishes

maximum
to

threshold

and

the general industry standards ap-

limit values for air

contaminants that nearly

ply to the operational phase of a project

OSHA

workers

may be exposed
effects.

day

after

day with-

does not require a license or permit, but does require compliance with
all

out adverse

the federal rules.

OSHA
and

has general, scheduled on-site health during an inspection, prob-

For information on the Boiler Operating Certificate, Boiler Operator's License,

safety inspections for businesses classified


If,

and

fire safety

as high hazard.

inspections, see Section 4, Occupational Safety

lems are fovmd, the owner or contractor can be


issued a citation or fined.
gates

and Health, page 62.

OSHA also investior accidents.

any complaints,
11

fatalities,

more employees must comply with record-keeping and posting reBusinesses with

or

quirements, which include posting an informa-

URBAN AREAS/ MUNiaPAUTIES


A municipality or coimty may establish and administer a local air pollution control
its

and filing an OSHA form with a log and simmiary of all occupational illnesses and accidents. More information on OSHA
tional poster

program

in

standards can be obtained from the


fice in Billings,

OSHA oftelephone

jurisdiction
is

if it is

consistent with the state


state

which has a

toll-free

program and
law,

approved by the

Board of

number. (See Appendix B.)


EXDLI's Safety Bureau has a volvmtary Safety

Health and Environmental Sciences. Montana

MCA 75-2-301, explains the requirements

Consultation Program for businesses. The pro-

gram provides

free occupational safety

and

restrictions involving local programs. The law allows a local program to establish more stringent or more extensive requirements than

and

health consultations on request. DOLI requires an agreement prior to participating that requires

the state requires. For instance. Great Falls has


stricter

permit requirements for open burning.

any serious occupational safety and health violations noted. There are no fines or citations for violations.

correction within a reasonable time of

Butte, Helena,

that regulate

and Missoula have adopted rules and control the emissions from
burning devices, which
insert,

For more information, contact DOLI,

residential solid fuel

in-

Safety

Bureaa

(See

Appendix B.)

clude any fireplace, fireplace

wood stove,

wood-burning

heater,

wood

stick boiler, coal-

DHES, Occupational Health Bureau, has the authority to regulate occupational noise

fired furnace, or coal stove.

The

rules cover de-

and

in-

vices that

produce

less

than 1/XX),000 Btus per


estab-

door emissions in workplaces that are under the


jurisdiction of state

hour in a private residence or commercial


lishment.

and

local

governments.

The

rules regulate

new

installations,

DHES does not require or issue permits, but has


established standards in these

visible emissions
fuels,

during

air pollution alerts,

two

areas. In

and

special permits.

76

WATER USE
Montana are classified according to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas exCities

and towns

in

Any

person

who wants

to appropriate surface

water or groundwater must apply to

DNRC,

ceed allowable limits for certain air pollutants.


Bioenergy projects locating in nonattainment areas

Water Rights Bureau


mestic, fish

for a Beneficial

Water Use

Permit. Beneficial uses include agricultural, do-

may need

to

meet

stricter

requirements re-

and

wildlife, industrial, irrigation,

garding emission
ticular

rates,

depending on the par-

mining, municipal, power generation, and recreation. (See

problem pollutants and the known


and 54.)

Water Use, page

68.)

concentrations of those pollutants. (See Air


Quality, pages 39

Water rights in Montana are in the process of being reviewed by the courts.

Any entity asserting


file

EPA
or

has established ambient air standards for

a claim for an existing use of water must a certificate of water


right.

for

airborne particles with a diameter of 10 microns

Such

entities

may in-

Each Montana community has been placed into one of three groups based on the
less.

clude individuals, partnerships, associations,


public or private corporations, dties or municipalities, counties, state

probability of exceeding these standards. (See

agencies or the State of

Air Quality, pages 44 and

46.)

Montana, and federal agencies of the United States of America, acting on their own behalf or
as trustee for an Indian or Indian
tribe.

For more

information on water rights, contact any

DNRC

Water Resources Regional


dix B.)

Office. (See

Appen-

11

78

APPENDIX A MONTANA BIOENERGY FACILITIES

The following are


ties in

lists, first

by technology and
facili-

Helena Wastewater Treatment Plant


316 North Park
Helena, Montana 59623
447-8455

then by location, of operating bioenergy

Montana. For details see the forthcoming

DNRC publication, Montana Bioenergy Facilities.

Kalispell

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Box 1997

PROJECTS LISTED BY

KalispeU,

Montana 59903

TECHNOLOGY
ALCOHOL PRODUCTION FACILITIES
AlcoTech

752-6600 Ext. 207

Missoula Wastewater Treatment Plant


435

Ryman
Montana 59802

Missoula,
721-0111

PO Box 154
Ringling,

Montana 59645

547-2116

COMBUSTION FACILITIES
American Timber Company

BIOGAS FACILITIES
Billings

PO Box 128
Olney, Montana 59927
881-2311

Wastewater Treatment Plant

PO Box 30958
Billings,

Montana 59111

657-8352

Champion International Corporation Drawer 7 Bonner, Montana 59823


258-2100
Plant

Bozeman Wastewater Treatment

K) Box 640
Bozeman, Montana 59715
586-9159

Champion

International Corporation

PO Box
Libby,

1590

Montana 59923

293-4141

79

Darby Lumber,

Inc.

Montana Southern

Agricultural Research Center

PO Box 390
Darby, Montana 59829
821-3261

748 Railroad Highway


Huntley, Montana 59037

348-3400

F.H. Stolze

Land and Lumber Company

Northern Cheyenne Pine Company

PO Box

1429
Falls,

PO Box 627
Montana 59912
Ashland, Montana 59003
784-2367

Columbia
892-3252

Rathead Post and Pole


Star Route,

Pack River Lumber Company


58719 Highway 93
Poison,

Box 13

Dixon, Montana 59831


246-3591

Montana 59860

883-5908

Glacier

Log Homes,

Inc.

Park County Solid Waste Recovery System


328 North

5560 Highway 93 South


VVhitefish,

M Street
Montana 59047

Montana 59937

Livingston,

862-3562

222-6232

Louisiana Pacific Corporation

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership

Kentucky Avenue
Deer Lodge, Montana 59722
846-1600

PO Box 149
Belgrade,

Montana 59714

388^221
Louisiana Pacific Corporation

PO Box 4007
Missoula,

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership
)

Montana 59806

728-3910

PO Box 160
Columbia
Falls,

Montana 59912

Mineral County Public Library

892-2141

PO Box 430
301 Second Superior,

Avenue East Montana 59872-0430

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership

822-4562

PO Box 28
Fortine,

Montana 59918

Missoula White Pine Sash

Company

882-4436

PO Box 7009
Missoula,

Montana 59807

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership

728-4010

PO Box 188
Pablo,

Montana 59855

675-2610

80

Pyramid Mountain Lumber,

Inc.

WOOD PELLET PLANTS


Belgrade
251

PO Box 549
Seeley Lake, 677-2201

Montana 59868

Wood Products

Belgrade,
St.

Arden Drive Montana 59714

Ignatius Elementary School

388-8866

PO Box 400
St.

Ignatius,

Montana 59865

Bitterroot

Timber Products

745-2971

PO Box 53
Darby, Montana 59829
821-4428

St.

Labre Indian School

PO Box 216
Ashland, Montana 59003
784-2746
Blackfoot Forest Products

PO Box 188
Lincoln,

Montana 59639

Stolze

Conner Lumber Company

362-4868

PO Box 410
Darby, Montana 59829
821-3241

Eureka

Pellet Mills

PO Box 667
Eureka, Montana 59917
296-3109

Stone Container Corporation

PO Box 4707
Missoula,
626^1451

Montana 59806

HooDoo Mountain Pellets


1870 South
Libby,

Highway 2 Montana 59923

Thompson River Lumber, Inc.

293-5019

PO Box 279
Thompson
Falls,

Montana 59873

Rocky Mountain Mills

755-9166 or 827-4311

Box 46
Ravalli,

Montana 59863

W-I Forest Products, LP

745-2492

PO Box 369
Thompson
827-3511
Falls,

Montana 59873

81

PROJECTS LISTED BY LOCATION


Ashland Northern Cheyenne Pine Company
St.

Kalispell
Kalispell

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Libby

Labre Indian School

Champion

International Corporation
Pellets

HooDoo Mountain
Lincoln

Belgrade Belgrade

Wood Products

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership
Billings

Blackfoot Forest Products

Livingston

Park County Solid Waste Recovery System

Billings

Wastewater Treatment Plant

Bonner

Champion

International Corporation

Bozeman Bozeman Wastewater Treatment Plant


Columbia
F.

Missoula Louisiana Pacific Corporation Missoula Wastewater Treatment Plant Missoula White Pine Sash Company Stone Container Corporation

Falls

Olney American Timber Company


Pablo

H. Stolze Land and Lumber Company Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited Partnership

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership

Darby
Bitterroot

Timber Products

Poison

Darby Lumber Company, Inc. Stolze Conner Lumber Company

Pack River Lumber Company


Ravalli

Deer Lodge
Louisiana Pacific Corporation

Rocky Mountain
Ringling

Mills

Dixon Rathead Post and Pole


Eureka Eureka
Fortine

AlcoTech
Seeley Lake

Pyramid Mountain Lumber,


Pellet Mills
St.

Inc.

Ignatius
St.

Ignatius Elementary School

Plum Creek Manufacturing Limited


Partnership

Superior
Mineral County Public Library

Helena Helena Wastewater Treatment Plant

Huntley

Thompson Falls Thompson River Lumber, W-I Forest Products, LP


Whitefish
Glacier

Inc.

Montana Southern Agricultural


Research Center

Log Homes,

Inc.

82

APPENDIX B AGENCIES/ORGANIZATIONS

BUREAU OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMIC RESEARCH


University of

Big

Horn County

Electric Cooperative, Inc.

PO Box AE
Lodge Grass, Montana 59050
639-2341

Montana Missoula, Montana 59812

243-5113

Central Montana Electric

G & T Cooperative

705 Lincoln Lane

EASTERN AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER


PO Box 1350
Sidney,

Billings,

Montana 59101

248-7936

Montana 59270

Fergus Electric Cooperative, 313 West janeaux Street

Inc.

482-2208

Box 58

ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES
Montana
Electric

LewTStoum, Montana 59457


538-3465

Cooperative Association
Flathead Electric Cooperative, Inc.

PO Box
Great

1306

Falls,

Montana 59403

510 LaSalle Road


KalispeU,

761-8333

Montana 59901

755-5483
Beartooth Electric Cooperative,
Inc.

PO Box

1119

Glacier Electric Cooperative, Inc.

Red Lodge, Montana 59068


446-2310

PO Box 358
410 East Main Street

Cut Bank, Montana 59427


Big Flat Electric Cooperative, Inc.

873-5566

POBoxH
Malta,

Montana 59538

Goidenwest

Electric Cooperative, Inc.

654-2040

PO Box 245
Wibaux, Montana 59353
795-2423

83

Hill

County

Electric Cooperative, Inc.

Park

Electric CoojDerative, Inc.

Highway 2 West

PO Box 908
Livingston,

PO Box 430
Havre, Montana 59501
265-2511

Montana 59047

222-3100

Ravalli

County

Electric

Co-Op, Inc

Lincoln Electric Cooperative,

Inc.

PO Box 109
Corvallis,

PO Box 628
Eureka, Montana 59917
296-2511

Montana 59828

961-3211

Sheridan Electric Cooperative,

Inc.

Lower Yellowstone Electric Association 310 Second Avenue Northeast Sidney, Montana 59270
482-1602

PO Box 227
Medicine Lake, Montana 59247
789-2231

Southeast Electric Cooperative,

Inc.

Marias River Electric Cooperative,


910 Roosevelt
Shelby,

Inc.

PO Box 368
Ekalaka,

Highway Montana 59474

Montana 59324

775-8762

434-5575

Sun River Electric Cooperative, Inc.

McCone Electric Co-op, Inc.

PO Box 21
Fairfield,

PO Box 386
Circle,

Montana 59436

Montana 59215

467-2526

485-3430

Tongue River Electric Cooperative,


Mid-Yellowstone
Electric Cooperative, Inc.

Inc.

PO Box 138
Ashland, Montana 59003
784-2341

PO Box 386
Hysham, Montana 59038
342-5521

Missoula Electric Cooperative,


1950 Sherwood Street
Missoula,

Inc.

Upper Missouri G & T Electric Co-Op, PO Box 1069 Sidney, Montana 59270
482-4100

Inc.

Montana 59801

549-6115
Valley Electric Cooperative, Inc.

Northern

Electric Cooperative, Inc.

PO Box 392
Glasgow, Montana 59230
367-5315

PO Box 287
Opheim, Montana 59250
762-3352

84

Vigilante Electric Ccx)p)erative, Inc.

Fort Belknap

Agency

225 East Bannack Street

PO Box 98
Harlem, Montana 59526
353-2901

PO Box 71
Dillon,

Montana 59725

683-2327

(Gros Ventre and Assiniboine Tribes)

Yellowstone Valley Electric Co-Op,


Huntley, Montana 59037
348-3411

Inc.

Fort Peck

Agency

PO Box 637
Poplar,

Montana 59255

768-5312

Federal System

(Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes)

Bureau of Reclamation
Great Plains Regional Office
U.S.

Northern Cheyenne Agency

POBox40
Lame Deer, Montana 59043
477-8242

Department of the

Interior

PO Box 36900
Billings,

Montana 59107

(Northern Cheyenne Tribe)

657-6535

Rocky Boy Agency

ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY COUNCIL


See

Box

Elder,

Montana 59521

MONTANA ENVIRONMENTAL QUAL-

395-4476

ITY COUNCIL

(Chippewa Cree Tribe)

INDIAN AGENCIES
Agency Browning, Montana 59417
Blackfeet

INTERMOUNTAIN RESEARCH
STATION

338-7544
(Blackfeet Tribe)

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, FOREST SERVICE, INTERMOUNTAIN RESEARCH STATION


See U.S.

Crow Agency Crow Agency, Montana


638-2672

INTERSTATE COMMERCE
59022

COMMISSION
See U.S.

INTERSTATE

COMMERCE COM-

(Crow

Tribe)

MISSION
Agency

Flathead Indian

PO Box 278
Pablo,

MONTANA AGRICULTURAL
STATISTICS SERVICE
See U.S.

Montana 59855

675-2700

(Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes)

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, MONTANA AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS

SERVICE

85

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE
Growth Through Agriculture Council
Agriculture Development Division
Agricultvire

Regional Offices

(direct

correspondence to Fish

Manager)
Region

and Livestock Building

PO Box 67
490 North Meridan Road
Kalispell,

Sixth

and Roberts

Helena, Montana 59620


752-5501

Montana 59903

444-2402

Region 2
Plant Industry Division

3201 Spurgin

Agriculture and Livestock Building


Sixth

Road Missoula, Montana 59801

and Roberts Helena, Montana 59620

542-5500

444-3730

Region 3
1400 South Nineteenth

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF
COMMERCE
Building Codes Bureau

Bozeman, Montana 59715


994-4042

Region 4

1218 East Sixth Avenue


Helena, Montana 59620
444-3933

PO Box 6609
4600 Giant Springs Road
Great
Falls,

Montana 59406

454-3441

Business Licensing Center Business Development Division

Region 5
2300 Lake Elmo Drive
Billings,

Avenue Helena, Montana 59620


1424 Ninth
800-221-8015 or 444-4109

Montana 59105

252-4654

Science and Technology Alliance

Region 6
Rural Route!, Box 4210

46 North Last Chance Gulch, Suite 2B


Helena, Montana 59620

Glasgow, Montana 59230


228-9347

449-2778

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF FISH, WILDLIFE AND PARKS


Fisheries Division
Fish, Wildlife

Region 7
Rural Route
1,

Box 2004

Miles City, Montana 59301

232-4365

and Parks Building


Region 8

Avenue Helena, Montana 59620


1420 East Sixth
444-2449

Avenue Helena, Montana 59620


1404 Eighth
444-4720

86

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES


Cogswell Building
Helena, Montana 59620

Energy Division
Conservation and Renewable Energy Bureau
444-6750
Facility Siting

444-2544

Bureau

444-6791

Air Quality Bureau


444-3454

Oil and
2535
St.

Gas Conservation Division


Johns Avenue

Occupational Health Bureau


444-3671
Solid

Billings,

Montana 59102

656-0040

and Hazardous Waste Bureau

444-1430 or 444-2821

Water Resources Division


Engineering Bureau
444-6646

Water Quality Bureau


444-2406

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE


Fire Marshall

Water Rights Bureau


444-6610

Bureau

Scott Hart Building,

Room 371

Montana Water Resources Regional Offices


Billings Field Office

303 North Roberts


Helena, Montana 59620
444-2050

1537 Avenue D, Suite 105


Billings,

Montana 59102

657-2105

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF LABOR AND INDUSTRY


Safety Bureau

Serving: Big Horn, Carbon, Stillwater, Sweet

Grass, Treasure,

and Yellowstone Counties

PO Box 1728
Helena, Montana 59624
444-6401

Bozeman

Field Office

111 North Tracy

Bozeman, Montana 59715


586-3136
Serving: Gallatin, Madison,

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND CONSERVATION


Avenue Helena, Montana 59620
1520 East Sixth

and Park Counties

Glasgow
839
First

Field Office

Avenue South

PO Box 1269
Glasgow, Montana 59230
228-2561

444-6873

Conservation and Resource Development


Division
Conservation Districts Bureau
444-6667

Serving: Daniels,
Phillips,

McCone, Richland, Roosevelt, Sheridan, and


Dawson,
Garfield,

Valley Counties

87

Havre Field Office 1708 West Second Street

Missoula Field Office

Holiday Village Professional Plaza, Suite 105

PO Box 1828
Havre, Montana 59501
265-5516
Serving: Blaine, Chouteau, Glacier, Hill, Liberty,

PO Box 5004
Missoula,

Montana 59806
Granite, Mineral, Missoula,

72M284
Serving:

and

Pondera, Teton, and Toole Counties

Ravalli Counties

Helena Field Office

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC


SERVICE REGULATION
2701 Prospect Avenue, Building

Avenue Helena, Montana 59620


1520 East Sixth
444-6695
Serving: Beaverhead, Broadwater, Deer Lodge,
Jefferson,

Helena, Montana 59620

Lewos and Clark, Powell, and Silver


Public Service

Bow Counties
Kalispell Field Office

Commission

444-6199

3220

Highway 93 South
Montana 59903

Utility Division

PO Box 860
Kalispell,

444-6180

752-2288
Serving: Flathead, Lake, Lincoln,

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF
and Sanders

REVENUE
Natural Resource and Corporation Tax Division
Mitchell Building

Counties

Levdstown
311

Field Office

Helena, Montana 59620


444-2441

West Janeaux PO Box 438 Lewistown, Montana 59457


538-7459

Property Assessment Division

Steamboat Block Building


Serving:

Cascade, Fergus, Golden Valley,

Helena Avenue
Helena, Montana 59620
444-0811

Judith Basin, Meagher, Musselshell, Petroleum,

and Wheatland Counties


Miles City Field Office
5

North

Prairie

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF STATE


LANDS
Capitol Station
1625 Eleventh

PO Box 276
Miles City, Montana 59301
232-6359
Serving: Carter, Custer, Fallon,
Prairie,

Avenue

Powder River,

Helena, Montana 59620


444-2074

Rosebud, and Wibaux Counties

88

Field Operations

Southwestern Land Office


1401 Twenty-Seventh

Avenue

Central Land Office


8001

Missoula,

Montana 59801

North Montana Avenue

542^200

Helena, Montana 59601


444-3633

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF
TRANSPORTATION
Highway Building 2701 Prospect Avenue
Helena, Montana 59601
444-6201

Forestry Division

2705 Spurgin Road


Missoula,

Montana 59801

542-4300

Land Administration Division

Avenue Helena, Montana 59620


1625 Eleventh

Engineering Division
Right of

Way Bureau

444-2074

444-6057

Eastern

Land Office

Gross Vehicle Weight Division


444-6130

PO Box 1794
321

Main Street Miles City, Montana 59301


232-2034

Motor Fuels Tax Division Accounting Services Bureau


Gasoline Unit
444-7275

Northeastern Land Office

PO Box 1021 USDA Building


613 Northeast Main Street
LewistowTi,

District Offices

Montana 59457

Billings District

538-5989

424 Morey

PO Box 20437
Northwestern Land Office
Billings,

Montana 59104

PO Box 490
2250 Highway 93 North
KalispeU,

252-4138

Montana

59901

Butte District

752-7994

PO Box 3068
Butte,

Montana 59702

Southern Land Office


528 South Moore Lane
Billings,

494-3224

Montana 59101

Glendive

District

259-3264

503 North River

Avenue

PO Box 890
Glendive, Montana 59330

365-5296

89

Great Falls District


104 Eighteenth

U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
and Conservation

Avenue Northeast
Agricultural Stabilization

PO Box 1359
Great
Falls,

Montana 59403

Service

727-4350

PO Box 670
Bozeman, Montana 59771-0670
587-6872

Missoula District
2100 West Broadway

PO Box 7039
Missoula,

Forest Service

Montana 59807

Intermountain Research Station

549-6491

324 Tv^enty-Fifth Street

Ogden,Utah 84401

MONTANA ELECTRIC COOPERATIVE


ASSOCIATION
See

801-625-5434

ELECTRIC COOPERATIVES

Montana Agricultural Statistics Service PO Box 4369 Helena, Montana 59604


449-5303

MONTANA ENVIRONMENTAL
QUALITY COUNCIL
Room 106, State Capitol
Helena, Montana 59620
444-3742

National Forest Offices

Beaverhead National Forest

PO Box 1258
610 North Montana Street
Dillon,

PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION


See

Montana 59725

MONTANA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC

683-5900

SERVICE REGULATION
Bitterroot National Forest

U.S.

ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS

316 North Third Street

Hamilton, Montana 59840


363-3131

Omaha District POBoxS


Omaha, Nebraska 68101-0005
402-221-4133

Custer National Forest

PO Box 2556
2602
First

U.S.

BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO,

Billings,

Avenue North Montana 59103

AND FIREARMS
Regional Director (Compliance)
221

657-6361

Deerlodge National Forest

Main Street, Eleventh Floor

PO Box 400
Federal Building

San Francisco, California 94105


415-744-7011

400 North Main Street


Butte,

Montana 59703

496-3400

90

Flathead National Forest

Bureau of Land Management*

PO Box 147
1935 Third
Kalispoll,

Montana State Office


222 North Thirty-Second Street

Avenue East Montana 59901

PO Box 36800
BUlings,

755-5401

Montana 59107-6800

255-2885
Gallatin National Forest

PO Box 130
Federal Building

*Headquarters for three-state area: Montana,

North Dakota, and South Dakota

Bozeman, Montana 59715


587-6702
District Offices

Butte Distinct Office

Helena National Forest


Federal Building
301 South Park Street

PO Box 3388
106 North Parkmont
Butte,

Montana 59702

Drawer 10014, Room 334 Helena, Montana 59626


449-5201

494-5059

Lewistown
Airport

District Office

PO Box 1160
Kootenai National Forest
Rural Route
3,

Road

Box 700

Lewistown, Montana 59457


538-7461

506

Highway 2 West Libby, Montana 59923


293-6211

Miles City District Office

PO Box 940
Lewis and Clark National Forest

PO Box 871
1101 Fifteenth Sh-eet North

West of Miles City Miles City, Montana 59301


232-4331

Great

Falls,

Montana 59403

721-7720
Lolo National Forest
Fort Missoula, Building 24

U.S.

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY


Avenue

Missoula,

Montana 59801

Drawer 10096
301 South Park

329-3797

Helena, Montana 59626-0096

U.S.

DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

449-5432

Bureau of Indian Affairs


316 North Twenty-Sixth Street
Billings,

Montana 59101

657-6315

91

U.S.

FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY


.

Western Regional Office


21
1

COMMISSION
,, , . ,. r^ jf, Division of Interconnection and System ^
.

Main Street,

Suite 500

... Analysis
Branch

San Francisco, California 94105 ^....


415-744-6520
,

Qualifying Facilities and Interconnection


U.S.

825 North Capitol Street Northeast

OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION


Montana 59101

Washington,
202-208-0200

DC

20426

9 ^orth Twenty-Fifth Street

BUlings,

800448-7087
U.S.

INTERSTATE COMMERCE

COMMISSION
Public Information Office

Twelfth Street and Constitution Avenue

Northwest
Washington,
202-275-7252

DC

20423

92

APPENDIX C BIOMASS RESOURCES


INTRODUCTION
Montana's

sbcty-seven of those firms are listed in the 1991

edition of the Directory of Montana's Forest

wood products, agricultural, and muproduce a wide variety of biomass


in

Products Industry

by DSL, which
that

is

referenced in
lists

nicipal sectors

the bibliography. This directory

sawTnills

resources.

These resources have been detailed

and other operations


ply timber or residues.

might market wood

publications such as Energy from Crops and Agricultural Residues in

wastes and logging contractors

who might sup-

Montana (Haines

1987), Mill

Residue Availability in
1987),

Montana (Keegan and Fong Montana


plans to
Mill residues are the least expensive residue
available. Table 13 lists the

and

Forest Residue Availability in

(Keegan and Hearst 1988).

DNRC

publish a collection of these energy resource inventories in the forthcoming Montana Bioenergy
Resources.

sawdust available
the

amounts of bark and from 1977 to 1988. Details on


mill residues can

amounts

of

all

be found in

Mill Residue Availability in Montana,

by Charles

Keegan and Tat Fong.


DSL, Forestry Division in Missoula has surveyed
timber resources in Montana and published the
results in five publications that cover all land in

Montana, regardless of ownership. More current


information about

would be available in the wooded areas of Montana shown in Figure 15. The map shows forested areas of Montana
Forest residues

bnd under federal ovsoiership


district offices

excluding the alpine regions. Wilderness areas,


national parks,

can be obtained from BLM

or from

any of the ten national


Montana.

forest headquarters in

able as
the

and other areas may be unavaila source of biomass, but are included on
For more details on forest residue,

BBER of the University

of

Montana

in

map because areas occasionally are available

Missoula and the Intermountain Research Station in

for salvage.

Ogden, Utah, have informative publica-

see Forest Residue Availability in Montana, by


Charles Keegan and A. Lorin Hearst.
Several commercial and institutional
facilities

tions pertaining to timber resources, mill resi-

dues, and forest residues.

WOOD RESOURCES
Montana has approximately 800 commercial logging firms, and many of them can be considered commercial biomass suppliers. One hundred

use

wood

pellets to fuel

wood

furnaces or boil-

Montana. The state's six pellet plants, listed in Appendix A, Montana Bioenergy Facilities, supply dealers around the state and also sell
ers in
directly to larger customers.

93

Addresses for
cies that

all

of the state

and

federal agenre-

8.

These crop and residue resources were deter-

compile information on biomass

mined from information published by MASS.

sources in Montana are listed in Appendix B.

Table

14,

Information Sources for Biomass

MASS

is

a joint federal

and

state

agency su|>

Availability, lists agencies

and others who could

ported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture

help identify and locate biomass materials.

(USDA) and DOA.


statistical

It is

the primary source for

information on farming and ranching

operations in Montana. Another source for data

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES
Biomass feedstocks for energy can include wheat, barley, oats, and com for ethanol production (see Table 15), rect

on agricultural residues
Stabilization
in
is

is

USDA,

Agricultural

and Conservation Service (ASCS)

Bozeman.

A secondary source of information


some
of these sources

DOA.

Publications by

straw from grain crops for di-

are listed in the bibliography.

combustion

(see Table 16), safflower

and

canola oilseed for conversion to diesel fuel extenders or substitutes, and

manure

for biogas

SOUD WASTE RESOURCES


At the time of
this writing the solid

production or direct combustion. Grains or


other agricultural crops can be purchased from a

waste

dis-

grower or a grain
try

elevator. Agricultural indus-

posal regulations are being rewritten by EPA.

wastes are often available directly from the

industry involved.

Crop residues such

as straw

are available from farmers or ranchers

and

are

generally located in areas illustrated in Figure


16.

The new regulations favor recycling, waste reduction, and combustion over landfilling, which is listed as a last resort. DHES, Solid and Hazardous Waste Bureau can identify municipal
solid

Safflower and canola oilseed are available in


Figures
1

waste sources (see Table

7)

and new regu-

some areas of Montana shown in

7 and

lations.

TABLE 13
AVAILABLE BARK AND SAWDUST
(Thousands of Dry Tons)

COUNTY GROUPS

O c^ u
D
IT) 11

H
Q

UJ ~

5 u
[I!

H w

O
H
en <:
tu

<

95

TABLE 14

INFORMATION SOURCES FOR BIOMASS AVAILABILITY

Resources

TABLE 15
POTENTIAL ETHANOL PRODUCTION (IN GALLONS) FROM DISTRESSED GRAINS BASED ON A PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL HARVEST*

Table 15 (continued)

TABLE 16

TOTAL STRAW AVAILABLE (IN DRY TONS) AFTER CONSERVATION*

Table 16 (continued)

COUNTY

1985

1986

1987

< H CD
CD

D .J

o
<

tD tu

CO

<

101

O
Z O
Q O
J3

tL,

O
U3 ac

102

H O

(4

o
00

D o o <
i-i

o z
JS

CO

103

REFERENCES AND SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams,

T. C.

September 1983. Operational

Bishop, Daniel M., Steven C. Jacoby, Richard

Costs of Harvesting Logging Residues for Use


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Amermon, and Frank Holman,


ronaid.

of Envi-

BPA PNWA-1

Portland,

OR:

May

7,

1985.

Recovery and Use of


in the

Pacific

Northwest Forest and Range Ex-

Wood Waste Generated

City Boroughs of

periment Station.

Juneau and Sitka. BPAPNWA-38. Anchorage, AK: Alaska Department of Com-

O
f

Administrative Rules of Montana. 1991. Helena,

merce.

MT:

Secretary of State.

Boucher, Robert J.
Alsager, Melvin D. January 1985. Manure
Collection
tion Feasibility

November 1983.
Adapted To

Cogenera-

Study Comparison of Rankine

BPA
neers.

and Digestion Research Project. PNWA-48. Walnut Creek, CA:


Engi-

vs Stirling Engines

Solid-Fuel

Combustor. #RJB-661. Helena,

MT: Mon-

Brown and Caldwell, Consulting

tana Department of Natural Resources and

Conservation.

X Bergman, Jerald. December 1987. Germplasm


Evaluation and Selection ofSafflower Oils and

and Howard

E.

Haines,

Jr.

June

1990. Adiabatic Bicoannular Reactor Develop-

Co-Products for Alternative Fuel Production.


#85-1065. Helena,

ment. #83-1032. Helena,

MT: Montana Depart-

partment of
servation.

MT: Montana DeNatural Resources and Con-

ment of Natural Resources and Conservation.

Breckenridge, Leon, of Bio-Energy Enterprises, Inc.


tion

Bio-Energy Enterprises,

Inc.

August

1984.

August

1984.

Methane Produc-

Methane Production from Anaerobic Digestion: Testing

from Anaerobic Digestion: Testing ProFeasibility Study.

Program and

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BPA PNWA-76.
State

BPAPNWA-69.

Salem, OR: Oregon De-

Olympia,
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WA: Washington

Energy

partment of Energy.

KEY

Densification

and

pellets

O +
f

General introductory and regulatory


Alcohol fermentation

Direct combustion

X
it

Gasification, liquefaction,

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Anaerobic digestion and biogas


Cogeneration

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Recovery, resources, and economics

105

Bronec, Larry, and Charles Bronec. June


1983. Demonstration of an Alcohol Fuel Plant

May

1983.

A Feasibility Study for


Company on
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Fort Vancouver Plywood

and Straw

Boiler.

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MT:

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Montana Department

of Natural Re-

BPAPNWA-74.

Salem, OR: Oregon De-

sources and Conservation.

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Brooks, C. M., T. R. Duranti, D. R. Wilson, C.


R. Roberts,

August

7,

1985.

Report to

and

R.

W. Urmstron. August
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BPA PNWA-40.

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AK: Alaska Department

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_,

BPA

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L. S. Craig, of

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State

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* Cozby Enterprises and


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_,

L. S. Craig,

and

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P. Buscaglia.

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Crane, Charles, and


tral

MERDI.
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Forest Residue Recovery in Southwest Oregon.

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Biomass Combustion Facility Feasibility


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OMNI
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Cuett,

Jeff.

September

1984. Feasibility Study

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Combustion Efficiency and Environmental Impacts

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BPA PNWA-72.

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1987.

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and Environmental

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Dolan,

L. S., P.

Schroeder, M. Gillham, K.

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Pacific Northwest.

BPA PNWA-03.

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WA:

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F.

Dratz, William,
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and Dan

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of

An

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From
and

Gent,

M., of General Electric

Straight Alcohol Fuels Prepared


stock Including Barley, Wheat,

Feed-

and

Brice Miller of

Company, Rodin Lumber ComThree Megawatt Bio-

Potatoes.

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ment
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of

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mass-Fired Cogeneration Plant Feasibility


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partment of
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Eagle Energy Systems,


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Inc.

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GeoProducts. August 1986.

Feasibility of a 15-

Wood

Refining Densification Facility With 2.0

MW
tion.

Wood-fired and Geothermal Power Plant.

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#GP-624. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conserva-

partment of Natural Resources and Conservation.

<t Goetz,
ft

Hank, of Montana Forest and Range

ECO

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it

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Densification

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O +

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,

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tt

Idaho. June 1984. Evaluating Double-Entry

Howard, J. O., and C.

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As-

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Intermountain Region.
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in the

sessment of Logging Residue BPA PNWA-15. Portland,

Montana.
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OR:

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!

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a
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C. Fiedler. July 1984.

Esti-

ber

1981.

Fuel

Ethanol

Plant

and

Characteristics of Logging Residue

Amsterdam, Montana. #457-811. Helena,

in

Montana.
Pacific

BPA PNWA-15.

Portland,

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

of Natural

Re

OR:

Northwest Forest and Range


it

Experiment Station.
Keegan, Charles
E., III.

October 1987. Mon-

Hunter, Robert, of Brown and Caldwell Consulting Engineers.

tana Mill Residue Assessment


tion

And

Simula-

November

1984.

Mon-

tana Farms:

Biogas/Cogeneralion Feasibility

MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and


Study.

#83-1028. Helena,

System User's Guide. #BBER-997A. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

Conservation.

KEY

Densification

and

pellets

O +

-k

General introductory and regulatory


Alcohol fermentation

Direct combustion

X
it

Gasification, liquefaction,

and pyrolysis

Anaerobic digestion and biogas


Cogeneration

Oilseed extraction

Recovery, resources, and economics

109

Keegan, Charles

E., IH, and Tat Fong, of the Bureau of Business and Economic Re-

Kinzey, Bruce, and


1986.

W.

E.

Larsen. August

Performance Optimization of a Farm-

search. October 1987.


ability in

Mill Residue Avail-

Scale Direct-Fired Biomass Furnace. #84-

Montana. #BBER-997. Helena,


of Natural Re-

104Z Helena, MT: Montana Department


of Natural Resources

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

and Conservation.
P. Scarrah.

+
<^
,

Law, James, and Warren


1983.

January

and A. Lorin

Hearst.

November

Lew Energy

Ethanol Dehydration Via

1988. Forest Residue Avaibbilih/ in Montana.

Barley Alysorption.

#441-811. Helena,

MT:

#BBER-021. Helena, MT: Montana Depart-

Montana Department

of Natural Re-

ment of Natural Resources and Conservation.

sources and Conservation.

*
Kelley, Patricia, Vicki Rieffenberger,

Leibrock, Frank

November

1983. Cogen-

and Dan

eration Feasibility
Cattle

Study for the Snake River


.

Vichorek. June 1987.

Saving Energy on

Company.

BPA PNWA-41

Boise, ID:

Montana Farms and Ranches. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.
tl

Idaho Department of Water Resources.

Limaye, Dilip

R.,

Shahzad Qasim, and

Howard
Kemmis,
Daniel, of Bitterroot Resource Con-

E.

Haines.

May

1983.

Montana
Workshop

Biomass Cogeneration Manual:

servation

and Development,
and

Inc.

February
Pellet

Handbook. #SRC-653. Helena,

MT: Mon-

1988. Aissessment of Expanding

Wood

tana Department of Natural Resources

Use
ties.

in Mineral, Missoula,

Ravalli

Coun-

and Conservation.

#86-1069. Helena,

partment of
servation.

MT: Montana DeNatural Resources and Con-

Little,

Mark
to

A.,

Lee Erickson, and Gilbert

F.

Stallkneckt. October 1984.

Utilization of

Kent, Gary, Stuart Kilgore,

Don

Brelsford,

and Daniel Parks. May


and

1981. Fuel Ethanol

Dry W/hole Com. #83-1025. HelMontana Department of Natural ena, MT: Resources and Conservation.
Biomass

Tomb
-

Yeast

From
Falls,

Coniferous

Wood

Bio-

mass

Thompson

Montana. #411-801.

Marenco,

Inc.

March

1982.

Wood

Gasifica-

Helena, MT: Montana Department of


Natural Resources and Conservation.

tion/Power Generation Development Project.

BPA PNWA-02.
co, Inc.

Anchorage, AK: Maren-

Kerr, Calvin

L.,

of Valley Sawmill.

December

31, 1985. Final Report: Small Saivmill Residue


Utilization Demonstration.

* Matney
ena,

Frantz Engineering.

July 1984.

BPA PNWA-39.

Dillon Incineration Project.

#468-811. Hel-

Anchorage, AK: Alaska Department of Commerce.


Kerstetter,

MT: Montana Deprartment of Natural

Resources and Conservation.

James D. August 1987. Washing-

May

1985.

Municipal Solid

ton Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities.

Waste Recovery Station

Feasibility Report (for

WAOENG-87-19. Olympia, WA: Washington State Energy Office.

Western Montana College).

Helena, MT:

#WMC-740. Montana Department of

Natural Resources and Conservation.

110

McBride, John, and Lauren McKinsey. De-

Molde,
for

Clint,

and William Larsen, of MonBiomass Gasification


in

cember
Project.

1979.

Biogas Conversion Assessment

tana State University. June 1987. Potential

#412-781.

Helena, MT: Montana

Department of Natural Resources and


Conservation.

Montana. #84-1056. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Con-

On Farm

servation.

McCahon, Dennis, Peggy Todd, Jeff Birkby, Howard E. Haines, Jr., and Carole Massman. June 1988. Woixi Heal. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

Montana Agricultural
1989.

Statistics Service.
Statistics, 2989.

Montana Agricultural

Helena, MT.

O
*
McGuckin, Michael, of Idaho Hardw^oods.

Montana Code Annotated. 1991. Helena, MT:

Montana

Legislative Council.

May
ID:

1983. Cogeneration Feasibility Study:

Idaho Hardwoods.

BPA PNWA-43.

Boise,

Montana Department
Guide
to

of

Commerce,

Busi-

Idaho Department of Water Resources.


1981.

ness Development Division. January 1990.

Montana's Economic Development

MERDI. June

Fuel Ethanol Production

and Business Development Programs. Helena,

By Fermentation

In Intermediate-Sized Plants.

MT.
January 1990. Montana Business

#430-800. Helena,

MT: Montana Departand Conserva<>


.

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

Licensing Handbook. Helena,

MT.
and Envi-

Miles, T. R.,

Jr.,

T. R. Miles, Sr., L. S. Craig,

Montana Department

of Health

and W.
Energy

T. Greene.

October 1984. Guide

to

ronmental Sciences. 1990. Montana Water

Oregon's Eninronmental Permits for Biomass


Projects.

Qufl% 2990.
.

Helena,

MT.

BPA PNWA-68.

Salem,
1991.

OR: Oregon Department of Energy.


Miles,

Montana Air Quality Data

and Information Summary for 1989. Helena,

Thomas R. May

1980. Report of Shelton

MT.
Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. April 1981. Proceedings A Public Forum - Biofuels and Other Alternative Energy. #711-811. Helena, MT.

Wood/Coal Firing
Beaverton, OR:

Tests.

BPA PNWA-05.
Miles.

Thomas R.

Miles,

Thomas

R., Jr.

October 1988. Straw

Combustion Energy Systems. Helena, MT:

Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

KEY

Densification

and

pellets

O +
*

General introductory and regulatory


Alcohol fermentation

Direct combustion
Gasification, liquefaction,

and pyrolysis

Anaerobic digestion and biogas


Cogeneration

Oilseed extraction

Recovery, resources, and economics

11

Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. March 1982. Proceedings


-

tt

and Intermountain Range and


Working
Circles

Experiment Station. July 1984. Timber Resources of Eastern Montana:


4, 5, 6, 7,

Methane/Biogas Conference. #712-821.

Helena, MT.
1989.

and

8.

Missoula,

MT.

Straw Combustion Energy

<>

Montana

Stale University

Systems.. Helena,

MT.

partment of
servation.

and Montana DeNatural Resources and Con#86-1069A. Helena,


of Natural Re-

May 1986. Wood Pellet Study for

December 1989. Montana HistoriStatistics.

the Residential Market.

cal

Energy

Sixth Edition. Helena,

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

MT.
.

Forthcoming. Montana Bioenergy

MultiTech. June 1982. Fuel Ethanol Production at

Facilities.

Helena,

MT.
of Natural Resources

From Wood Waste:

Feasibility of a Plant

^ Montana

Anaconda, Montana. #451-811 A. Helena,


of Natural Re-

Department

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

and Conservation, Forestry Division and Intermountain Range and Experiment Station. December 1979. Timber Resources of
Gallatin, Park

4*

June 1985. Fuel Grade Ethanol

and Meagher Counties. Mis-

Production Using
Selected Sites in

Wood Waste

(Residues)

At

soula,

MT.
Forestry

Montana. #451-811. Helof Natural

ena,

Montana Department of State Lands,


Industry Contractors. Missoula,

MT: Montana Department

Resources and Conservation.

Division. 1987. Directory of Montana's Forest

MT.

Mycotech Bioproducts,

Inc.

November

1989.

1991. Directory of Montana's For-

Biological Delignification of

Wood and Straw

est

Products Industry. Missoula,

MT.

for Ethanol Fuel Production via Solid State

_,

and Intermountain Range and

MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and


Culture.

#86-1066. Helena,

Experiment Station. December 1982. Timber


Resources of Lincoln, Sanders, Flathead and
Lake Counties:

Conservation.

Working

Circle

J.

Missoula,

tt Nuxoll,

Tom, and Dan


of a
at

Poling.

August
to

1984.

MT.
,

Study

Portable

Chipper

Chip

Wasteu'ood

Sawmills For Use as Fuel at a


.

and Intermountain Range and


Station. April 1983.

Pulp Mill

Experiment

Timber Re-

in Missoula. #NPCC-621 Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Re-

sources of Mineral, Missoula


ties:

and

Ravalli

Coun-

sources and Conservation.

Working Circle 2. Missoula, MT.

O OMNI Environmental Services, Inc.


,

Septem-

and Intermountain Range and


Station.

ber 1986. Compendium of Environmental and


Safety Regulations
Residential

Experiment

January 1984. Timber

and Programs Affecting


Appliances.

Resources of the Headioater Counties: Working


Circle 3. Missoula,

Wood Heating

BPA

MT.

PNWA-30b.

Portland, OR: Bonneville

Power Administration.
112

* ON4NI

Environmental Services,

Inc.

January

4-

Robbins, John

E.

July 1982. Research Into The

1988. Environmental Impact of Adwnced Bio-

Factors Affecting The Bioconversion of Cattle

mass Combustion Systems.


Portland,
tration.

BPA PNWA-34.

Manure And
Bio-Gas.
801,

Cellulosic Material Mixtures

To

OR: Bonneville Pov^er Adminis-

#486-761, 401-772, 403-782, 404-

and 458-811. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and

Peppersack, Jeff, and Gerry Galinato. January


1987. Idaho Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities.

Conservation.

Boise, E): Idaho

Department of Wa-

Runnion, Ken, Raelen Williard, Howard


Haines,
Birkby.
Jr.,

E.

ter Resources.

Georgia Brensdal, and

Jeff

July 1986.

Montana Bioenergy
Helena, MT:
of Natural Re-

Perlmutter, Steven

J.

\4ay 1988. Montana Helena,

In-

Project Permitting Guidebook.

dex of Environmental Permits.

MT:

Montana Department

Environmental Quabty Council.

sources and Conservation.

Polette,
Boiler

Doug. July

1978.

Fire

Tube Wood

# Sampson, G., A. P. Richmond, G. A.


and A.
Firing
F.

Breuster,

For Domestic Use. #374-761. Helena,


of Natural Re-

Gasbarro. July 1987. Potential For

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

Rafferty, K., of
stitute of

Geo-Heat Center, Oregon

In-

Wood Chips With Coal in Internal Alaska. BPA PNWA-23. Portland, OR; Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station.
F.

Technology. April 1984.

Retrofit

Considerations for Biomass Fuel Use at Seven


Selected Correction Facilities in Washington
State.

Sampson, G. R, and

A. Ruppert. Decem-

ber 1982. Evaluation of Interior Alaska Bio-

BPA PNWA-73. Olympia, WA:


State

mass for Compressed Residential Firelogs.

Washington

Energy

Office.

BPA PNWA-10.
Station.

Portland, OR:

Pacific

Northwest Forest and Range Experiment

Renev^able Technologies,

Inc.

October 1983.

Ambient Temperature Starch Hydrolysis For


Barley.

#417-821. Helena,

MT: Montana

Scarrah,
sity.

Warren P., of Montana State UniverAugust


1986.

Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

Chemical Processing of

Vegetable Oil Fuels to Prevent Polymerization.

#84-1041. Helena,

June 1987. Commercial Develop-

ment of
ation.

MT: Montana DepartNatural Resources and Conserv-

ment Ambient Temperature Starch Hydrolysis.


#84-1044. Helena,

MT: Montana Departand Conserva-

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

KEY

Densification

and

pellets

O +
*

General introductory and regulatory


Alcohol fermentation

Direct combustion
Gasification, liquefaction,

and pyrolysis

Anaerobic digestion and biogas


Cogeneration

Oilseed extraction

Recovery, resources, and economics

113

Scarrah,
sity.

Warren p., of Montana

State Univerof Safflcacer

Simons, Carl
E.

A.,

Paul D. Christianson, James


Pritchett, of
Inc.

February 1989. Conversion

Houck, and Lyle C.

OMNI

Oil to Diesel via the Soap- Pyroly sis Process.

Environmental Services,

June 1988.

#86-1065. Helena,

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

MT: Montana Departand Conserva-

Woodstorv Emission Sampling Methods Comparability Analysis

and In-Situ Evaluation

of

New

Technology Woodstoves.

BPA PNWA-

30g. Portland,

OR: Bonneville Power Ad-

Schnitzer Steel Products

Company and
1984. Biomass

ministration.

Ebasco Services,

Inc.

August

Energy Production
Products Company.
lem, OR;

at the Schnitzer Steel

Simpson, Stuart
Projects.

J.

June 1988.

Guide

to

BPA PNWA-71.

Sa-

Washington's Permits for Biomass Energy

Oregon Department

of Energy.

Olympia, WA: Washington State


Office.

Energy
-k

Seton, Johnson,

&

Odell,

Inc.,

and Port

of
it Smith,

Morrow County. August


Cogeneration
Feasibility

1983.

Biomass

Sherwin

K.,

and Hank Goetz. March


Utiliza-

Study.

BPA

1982.
tion

Timber Thinning Project For

PNWA-64. Salem, OR: Oregon Department of Energy.

Of Wood Residue. #317-811. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

Shaffer, Daniel L., of the

Chemical EngineerState Univer-

ing Department,

Montana

Smith, T.G.

November 1985.

Alaska Charcoal

sity. March 1985. Liquid Fuel and Chemicals From Reneumble Cellulosic Biomass. #831031. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.
-*

Production Feasibility Study.


37.

BPA PN^WA-

Anchorage, AK: Alaska Department

of

Commerce.
September 1983.
Electric

Stoeckley, Robert.
Generation

October 1986. Contamination

of

Home

Wood-Fired Steam Engine.

Diesel Engine Lubrication Oil by Plant Oil

#301-821. Helena,

MT: Montana Departand Conserva-

Derivative Fuels.

#84-1040. Helena,

MT:

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

Montana Department

of Natural Re-

sources and Conservation.

+
.

Stookey, Lawrence L. June 1984. Construction

November

1988. Plant Oil Diesel

and Operation

of a Portable Still to Pro-

Fuel: Lubrication System Contamination.

cess Agricultural Culls for Fuel nol.

Grade Etha-

#86-1067. Helena,

MT: Montana Departand Conserva-

#439-811.
of

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

Department
Conservation.

Montana Natural Resources and


Helena, MT:

Sif ford, Alex.

July 1987. Directory of Oregon


Facilities.

Stout,

B.

B.,

J.

A.

Parker,

and Steve
of

Biomass Energy

Salem, OR: Or-

Ottenbreit. October

1985. The Feasibility of

egon Department of Energy.

Using Biomass For Fuel At the University

Montana. #BS-733. Helena, MT: Montana

Department of Natural Resources and


Conservation.

114

Tillman, D. A., of Ebasco Services, Inc.


1984.

April

Helena, MT:

Montana Department

of

Wind River Nursery: Wood GasificationFaciliiy, Aiijilicahilily of the

Natural Resources and Conservation.

Based Co^emration

Marenco
land,

Gasifier.

BPA PNWA-20.1.

Port-

January 1987. Bionote: Future of


Household Waxi Burners Tough
ena,
to Call.

OR: Bonneville Power Administration.


April 1984.

Hel-

MT: Montana Department

of Natural

Wood
at the
20.2.

Win J River Nursery:

Resources and Conservation.

Gasification-Based Cogeneration Facility

Wind River Nursery. BPA PNWAPortland, OR: Bonneville Power Ad-

January 1987. Bionote: Industry

Investigates

Wood and Coal

Fuel to Replace Oil.

ministration.

Helena, MT:

Montana Department

of

Natural Resources and Conservation.

Todd, Peggy, and Howard

E.

Haines,

Jr.

January 1987. Bionote: Energy Potential

of

January 1987. Bionote: Solar


of Natural

Leafy Spurge, Cattails and Fuel Beets. Helena,

Power Prevents Stock Water Freezing. Helena,

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

of Natural Re-

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

Re

United States Code. 1988. Washington, DC:


U.S.

Government Printing Office.

searchers

November 1987. Bionote: Find Way to fvlake Safflower Oil


.

ReInto

Diesel Fuel.

Van Hersett, David C, of Resource Development Associates, and Rayson Brothers


Logging Co.
Project.

ment
tion.

of

MT: Montana DepartNatural Resources and ConservaHelena,

May

1985.

Libby Bioenergy

#84-1045. Helena,

MT: Montana
through
Fuel.

and Howard

E.

Haines,

Jr.

Au-

Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

gust 1987. Bionote: Researchers


in

Make

Break-

Adapting Vegetable-Based Diesel

Helena, MT: Montana Department of

if

and the Sandpoint Cogeneration

Natural Resources and Conservation.

Study Group.

May

1983. Final Report: To

Conduct a Detailed Wood-Fired Cogeneration


Study of the Sandpoint, Priest River and Banners Ferry Areas of Northern Idaho.
Feasibility

Vranizan, John M., Peter Neild, Linda S. Craig, Lawrence F. Brown, Robert L. Gay,

and Dick DeZeeuw, of


Project

Carroll,

Hatch and

BPA PNWA-44.

Boise, ID: Idaho Depart-

Associates, Inc. July 1987. Biomass Energy

ment of Water Resources.


Vichorek, Dan. January 1987. Bionote: Corn

Development Guidebook.

BPA PNWA-

35.

Portland,

OR: Bonneville Power Ad-

ministration.

Cobs

to be

Burned

in Place of Fossil Fuels.

KEY

Densification

and

pellets

O +

General introductory and regulatory


Alcohol fermentation

Direct combustion
Gasification, liquefaction,

X
tt

and pyrolysis

Anaerobic digestion and biogas


Cogeneration

Oilseed extraction

Recovery, resources, and economics

115

Ward, David M. July 1982 A Comprehensive Survey Of Biological Methane Production From Agricultural, Domestic and Industrial
Resources of Montana.

Winsor, Herbert C.

November 1980.

Bionote:

An
In

Investigation Into Utilizing

Wood Waste

The

Le^vis

and Clark County Area For

#402-772, 402-782,

Space Heat In Medium-Sized Buildings. #301801.

and 435-811. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation.

Helena,

MT: Montana Department


and Conservation.
1986. Bionote:

of Natural Resources

Woodell,

Patricia.

November

Walters, Lawrence.

December

1984. Biomass

An

Inventory of Industrial and Commercial

Conversion Using Gasification and Catalytic

Boilers

Burning Wood or Related Biomass

Combustion: Process Design and Application.

Fuels in Alaska.

Anchorage, AK: Alaska

#LJW-650. Helena, MT: Montana Depart-

Energy Authority, Department of Commerce and Economic Development.

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

and Conserva-

4"

Wrench, Richard G. April 1982.


#322-811.

Bionote: De-

Wiatr, Stanley, M., of Eastern


lege.

Montana Col-

March

1984. Bionote: Fuel Beets

velopment of an Efficient Fireplace Insert


Stove.

Prospective Energy Crop For Montana. #821005.

Department of
Conservation.

MT: Montana Natural Resources and


Helena,

Helena,

MT: Montana Department


and Conservation.

of Natural Resources

<y
.

October 1984.

Bionote:

Overall

June 1984. Bionote: Biomass Po#445-81 1 A. Helena,


of Natural Re-

Efficiency

Of An

Integrated Energy Produc-

tential of Leafy Spurge.

tion

MT: Montana Department


sources and Conservation.

And a Fireplace Insert. #84-1036. Helena, MT: Montana Department of Natural Resources and
Managetnent System

Conservation.
.

August

1986. Bionote: Energy and


of Cattails in

Biomass Potential
#445-811. Helena,

Montana.

MT: Montana Departand Conserva-

ment
tion.

of Natural Resources

KEY

Densification

and

pellets

O
4*

General introductory and regulatory


Alcohol fermentation

Direct combustion
Gasification, liquefaction,

X
it

and pyrolysis

Anaerobic digestion and biogas


Cogeneration

Oilseed extraction

*
116

Recovery, resources, and economics

INDEX

Agricultural Residues, 10, 12, 13, 16, 17, 20, 22,


23, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 38, 94,

Alcohol Fuel Producer's Permit,


Alcohol Plants, 12,79

5, 14, 15, 51,

56

96

Agricultural Resources, 10, 12, 13, 36, 94, 96-103


Agriculture, 52-53

Anaerobic Oigestion,

Lx, 2,

10, 11, 16-18, 31, 40, 51

Animal Confinement
15, 36,

Facilities, 16,

66

commodities,

52

Asbestos, 42

feed dealer's permit, 14, 15, 36, 52 feed registration, 15, 52


grain storage, 53

BACT, see
BATF, see
76
Beneficial
6, 42, 54-55, 75, 76

Best Available Control Technology

Air Quality, 39^7, 54-55


air pollution, indoor, air toxics, 43,

U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and

Firearms

46

Water Use Permit,

14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 51,

burning permits,

68-69, 77

Indian reservations, 41, 43, 45, 47, 74


local

Benzene, 35, 42

programs, 76
xii,

Benzopyrene, 49
14, 24, 27,

nonattainment requirements,
43,46,55,77

Beryllium, 42
Best Available Control Technology (BACT),
ix,

odor control,

12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 22, 24, 25, 28,

19,25,28,41,55
Bioenergy,
ix, 2, 19,

31,33,37,42

25
79-82

PM-10 ambient air quality standards,


43,44,46-47,77

12, 14,

Bioenergy

Facilities, 39,

16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 25, 27, 28, 35, 37, 40, 42,

Bioenergy Projects

economic

factors, 3,

39

pollutants, 13, 17, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 32, 34, 36,

environmental considerations, 39, 43, 46, 47,


49, 50, 74, 75,

38,39,40,42
prevention of significant deterioration,
18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27, 43, 45, 46,
14,

77

financing, 6

55

occupational safety and health, 75-76


planning,
2, 3, 4, 33, 35, 46,

urban areas/municipalities, 76-77


wilderness areas, 45
Air Quality Construction and/or Operating
Permits,
5, 6, 12, 14, 18, 19, 21, 24, 25, 27, 33,

75

sale of products, 6
site selection, 3,

75

wastes, 47-50

37,39,41,51,54
Alcohol Oistributor's License,
14, 15,

Bioenergy Technologies,
56
Biogas,
be, 2, 10, 16, 17,

2, 9,

10

20, 25, 31, 32,

94

Alcohol Fermentation,

2, 10, 11, 12-15, 40, 51, 56

Biogas

Facilities,

79 93-104

Biomass,

x, 2, 16, 19, 22, 25, 32, 33,

117

Biomass Energy, see Bioenergy Biomass Resources,


27,30,33,62
Boiler Operator's License, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24,
10, 25, 93-104

Electrical

Energy Producer's License,


72

14, 18, 21,

24, 27, 30,

Boiler Operating Certificate, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24,

Electrical

Energy Producer's Tax,

18, 21, 24, 27,

30,72
Electrical Permit, 5, 14, 18, 21, 23, 24, 27, 30, 31,

27,30,33,62-63

35, 37, 51, 58, 72, 74


3, 15,

Bonding Requirements,
Building Permits,

56

Energy Costs, see inside back cover


Environmental Impact Statement
23, 24, 27, 30,
(EIS),

Briquettes, see Dcnsification


5, 6, 14, 18, 21,

see

Montana Ermronmental
mental Policy Act

Policy Act

31,35,37,51,57,74
Building Regulations

Environmental Policy Act, see Montana Environ74


Ethanol,

biomass energy
fire

projects, 6,

xi, 10, 12, 13, 15,

43, 56, 94, 97-98

safety insf)ections, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27,


63, 74-75

Business Licensing, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 71

Facility Siting, see

Major Facility Siting


14, 15, 36,

Butanolx, 10,13,49

Feed Dealer's Permit,

52

Feedstocks, 12, 13, 17, 20, 22, 23, 26, 29, 32, 33, 34,

36,37,38,93-104
Canola,
x, 10, 35, 36, 94,

103

FERC, see
54
Fire

U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory

Carbon Monoxide,
Compatibility,

28, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47,

Commission

Certificate of Public

Need and Environmental


61

Hazard Reduction/Certificate of Clearance,


24, 27, 59

5, 21, 33,

Qean Air Act,


Cogeneration,
71-72

Federal, 19, 41, 42, 43, 46, see

Fire Safety Inspertions, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 63, 74-75

also Air Quality

and Montana Clean Air Act

Rax Seed, 35
Floodplain Development Permit, 14, 18, 21, 24,
27, 60, 75

x, 2, 10, 11, 19-21, 25, 26, 40, 51,

Combustion

Facilities,

see Direct Combustion

Fluorides, 42, 44

Commodity
Creosote, 49

Dealer's License, 14, 15, 36, 52

Forests

and

Forestry, 59, 73
6, 42,

burning,
fire

51
24,

Cubes, see Dcnsification

hazard reduction agreements,

59

forest residues, 10, 12, 19, 20, 23, 24, 25, 26,
27, 29, 30, 33, 34, 37, 38, 51, 93, 94, 95,

96

Dam Safety, 72
Dcnsification,
xi, 2, 10, 1 1,

removal of dead or inferior timber,


22-24, 40, 51
30, 33, 37, 59, 73

24, 27,

wood pellet plants, 22, 23, 24, 81, 93 wood pellets, 22, 23, 24, 93, 96
Diesel Fuel Substitute, see Oilseed Extraction
Direct Combustion,
2, 10, 11,

slash disposal, 33, 37, 42, 59, 73

timber sales on federal lands, 73 timber sales on state lands, 73

25-27, 40, 51, 79, 94

EARC, see Eastern

Agricultural Research Center

Garbage Dumps, see Waste Disposal Gas Wells, 31


Gasification,
xi, 2, 10, 11,

Eastern Agricultural Research Center, 35, 83


Electric Cooperatives, 72, 83-85

28-30, 40, 49, 51

Gasohol,

xi, 14, 15,

56

Gastilino License

Tax on Gasahol, 14

118

Hazardous Waste Act, see Montana Hazardous


Wasle Act
I

Landfill, 28, 48, 55


lijndfill

Gas,

xi, 2, 10,

1,

31-32, 40, 51

lazardous Waste Management


14,18,21,24,27,49,63-64

I-acility

Permit,

Lead, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47


Liquefaction,
xi, 2, 10, 1 1,

33-34, 40, 49, 51

Hazardous Waste Reporting Requirements,


14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28, 33, 35, 37,

12,

Lowest Achievable Emission Rate G-AER), 46

48-50, 74

Hazardous Wastes, see


Highways, 73-74
advertising, 73

Transportation

and Waste

MACT, see Maximum Available Control


Technology

Major

Facility Siting, 5, 21, 33, 51, 61

approach permits, 73
driveways, 73

Maximum Available Control Technology, 46


Mechanical Permit,
35,37,51,57,74
5, 14, 18, 21, 23, 24, 27, 30, 31,

encroachments, 73, 75
utility

easements, 73, 75
6,

Mercury, 42

vehicle regulations,

73

Methane,
47

xii, 10,
xii,

16, 17, 28, 29, 31, 28, 29, 43, 49

32

Hog Fuel,

12, 16, 20, 22, 25, 28, 33, 37,

Methanol,

10,

Hyacles Process, 33

MGWPCS Permit, see Montana Groundwater


54
Pollution Control System Permit

Hydrocarbons,

10, 34, 38, 49,

Hydrogen Sulfide, 42, 44

MiU Residues,
94,96

10, 22, 23, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34, 38, 93,

Indian Agencies, 85

Montana Administrative Procedures Act, 54, 64 Montana Ambient Air Quality Standards, 41,
42, 43, 44, see also National

Indian Reservations, 74
air quality, 41, 43, 45, 47,

Ambient Air

74

Quality Standards

hazardous waste disposal, 74


water quality,
Indian Tribes
66, 67,

74

Montana Clean Air Act, 41, 54 Montana Environmental Policy


64,65

Act, 39, 54, 60,

water

rights,

77

Montana Groundwater Pollution Control


System

(MGWPCS) Permit, 5, 12, 14, 18, 19,

21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 33, 37, 48, 50, 65-66

LAER, see Lowest Achievable Emission Rate Lakes, Rivers, Streams, and Wetlands
alteration of lake area or shore, 60
alteration of stream, 67, 68

Montana Growth Through Agriculture


Program,
6,

86

dam safety, 72
navigable waters, 75

Montana Hazardous Waste Act, 48-50, 63-64 Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES), 5, 12, 14, 16, 18, 21, 24, 27,
48, 50,

66

Lakeshore Development Permit,


27, 60,

14, 18, 21, 24,

75

Land Use Regulations,seealsoP/a/>i^fl(/Zom^


bioenergy projects,
3, 5, 6, 20, 37, 51, 74,

75

Montana Safety Act, 75 Montana Science and Technology Alliance, 6, 86 Montana Solid Waste Management Act, 64-65 Montana Water Quality Act, 22, 25, 28, 33, 37,
48, 65-66

floodpbins and floodways,


27, 60,

14, 18, 21, 24,

75

Montana Water Use

Act, 68-69,77

lakeshores, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 60, 75


local areas, 74-75

119

MPDES, see Montana

Pollutant

Disdmrge

Pellet Plants, see Dcnsification

and Wood

Pellet

Elimination System

Plants
\Naste

Municipal Waste, see Solid

municifxil

Pellets, see Dcnsification

and Wood

Pellets

Phenol, 49

Phosphorus, 42

NAAQS, see National Ambient Air Quality


Standards

Planning and Zoning


bioenergy projects,
19, 25,
2-7, 20, 27, 33, 35,

46

National Ambient Air Quality Standards,


41, 43, 44, 46, 47, 55,

local areas, 75-76

77

Plumbing Permit,

5, 14, 18, 21, 23, 24, 27, 30, 31,

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System

35,37,51,58,74

(NPDES),

5, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 66, 67,

74

PM-10 Ambient Air Quality Standards,


44, 46-47, 77, see also Particulates

12, 14,

Natural Streambed and Land Preservation Act, 68

16, 18, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 35, 37, 40, 42, 43,

Navigable Waters, 75
Nitrogen Oxides, 29, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46
Noise, Occupational, 76

Prevention of Significant Deterioration fl^D),


xii, 14, 18, 19,
xii,

21, 24, 25, 27, 41, 43, 45, 46, 55

Nonattainment Permitting Requirements,


14,18,21,24,27,43,46,77

PSD, see Prevention


Pyrolysis,
xii, 2,

of Significant Deterioration
1 1,

10,

37-38, 40, 49, 51

NPDES, see National

Pollutant Discharge

Elimination System

Qualifying

Facility, xii, 21, 27, 71

Occupational Safety and Health, 62-63, 75-76


air pollution, indoor, 76

Rapeseed, see Canola


Refuse-Derived Fuel,
xiii,

12, 16, 19, 20, 22, 23,

boilers

and boiler operators,

14, 15, 18, 20,

25, 26, 28, 29, 33, 34, 37, 38,

47

21,24,27,30,33,62
federal rules, 75-76
fire

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 48

safety inspections, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27,


63, 74-75

Safety, see also Fire Safety Inspections

and

occupational noise, 76
standards, 14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 75-76
state

Occupational Safety and Health

alcohol plants, 12

programs, 75-76
12, 14, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 27, 28,

anaerobic digestion, 18
landfill gas, 31

Odor Control,

31,33,37,42
Oilseed Extraction,
xii, 2, 10, 11,

Safnowers,
35-36, 40, 51, 94

10, 35, 36, 94, 96,

102

Sawmill Wastes, see Mill Residues

Open Burning Permit, 6, 42, 54-55, 75, 76 OSHA, see U.S. Ocmpational Safety and Health
Aidministration

Sewage Treatment
Skygas, 28
Slash

Facilities, 16,

75

SIP, see State Implementation Plan

Ozone, 42,

43, 44,

46

Removal Permit, see Timber Removal Permit Solid Waste, see also Refuse-Derived Fuel and Waste
disposal, 12, 16, 19, 22, 25, 28, 33, 35, 37,
40, 47-50,

Particulates,

xii, 13, 17,

20, 23, 26, 29, 34, 35, 36,

94

37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47, see also

municipal, 17, 20, 26, 29, 34, 38, 94, 104


Solid

PM-10 Ambient Air

Quality Standards

and

Waste Management

Act, see

Montana

Solid

Total Suspended Particulates

Waste Management Act

120

Solid

Waste Management System

License, 12, 14,

U.S. Occupational Safety

and Health

16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 24, 25, 27, 28, 33, 35, 37,

Administration, 92, see also Occupatioml


Safety

47, 64-65

and Health
19, 20, 21, 25, 26, 40,

Solid

Waste Resources,

94, 96, 104

Utilities

Special Occupations Tax, 14, 15


State Implementation Plan (SIP), 43, 47

cogeneration,

2, 10,

1,

51,71-72
electric cooperatives, 21, 72,

Straw, 12, 13, 16, 25, 26, 94, 99-101

83-85

Stream Protection Act Pemiit,

14, 18, 21, 24, 27, 14,

67

Unes, 73, 75

Streambed and Land Preservation Permit,


18,21,24,27,68
Sulfur Dioxide, 29, 32, 40, 42, 43, 44, 46, 47

mains, 73, 75

Vinyl Chloride, 42

Sunflowers, 10, 35, 36, 96

Warehouseman's
Tax Incentives
gasohol, 14,15,56

License, 14, 15, 36, 53

Waste
disposal, 3,
6, 12,

47-50, 63-65, 94

property tax reductions, 14, 15

garbage dumps, 31

Taxation
electrical

hazardous wastes,
energy producei^s
72
tax, 31 tax, 18, 21, 24,

12, 16, 19, 22, 25, 27, 28,

33, 35, 37, 48-50, 63-64, 73-74

27, 30,

Indian reservations, 74
landfills,

gas well license

48

gasoline license tax on ge^ohol sold in

solid wastes,

nonhazardous,

12, 13, 16, 17,

Montana,

14, 15

19, 20, 22, 25, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,

special occupations tax, 14, 15

37,38,47-48,64-65

Timber

Cutting, Sales, Stand Improvement,


23, 24, 27, 30, 33, 37,

see Forests and Forestiy

Water Pollution Control Water Quality, 50, 65-68


animal confinement

Act, 67

Timber Removal Permit,


59,73
Total

facility, 16,
6, 35,

66

discharge of pollutants,
Particulates (TSP),
xiii,

37, 40, 48, 50, 74

Suspended

pollution, groundwater, 12, 48, 50, 65-66, 74


40, see

pollution, surface water, 12, 48, 50, 66, 67,

also Particulates

68,74
Transportation, 73-74

Water Quality
48, 49, 73-74

Act, see

Montarm Water

hazardous wastes,

Quality Act

motor carriers, 73

Water

Rights, 51, 68-69, 77. 87


51, 68-69,

wood

f>ellets,

24

Water Use,

77

TSP, see Total Suspended Particulates

Underground Storage Tanks, Leaking, 49 U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms,
14,15,56,90
U.S. Federal

Wood Pellet Plants, 22, 23, 24, 81, 93 Wood Pellets, 22, 23, 24, 93, 96 Wood Resources, 25, 93-94, 95, 96 Wood Stoves, 22, 25, 76 Wood Waste, 10, 19, 20, 22-23, 25, 26, 29, 33, 34,
38, 42, 73,

93

Energy Regubtory Commission,


Zoning, see Phumin;^ and Zoning

21,71-72,92

Zoning Pennit,

5,

75

121

122

MONTANA ENERGY COST COMPARISON CHART

Department of Natural
Resources and Conservation
Energ)' Dhision

Helena,

1520 East Sixth Avenue 59620-2301

MT