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Section 03: Pre-Exercise Evaluations and Risk Factor Assessment

ACSM Guidelines: Chapter 3 Pre-Exercise Evaluations ACSM Manual: Chapter 3 Risk Factor Assessments

HPHE 4450 Dr. Cheatham

Purpose
The extent of medical evaluations necessary before exercise testing depends of the assessment of risk. For many persons, especially those with CAD or other cardiovascular disorders, the exercise test and accompanying physical examination are critical to the development of safe and effective exercise programs. Not all persons warrant extensive testing

Purpose
In the clinical setting, pre-exercise test evaluations usually include:
Medical history (ACSM Guidelines, Box 3.1, P. 42) Physical examination (ACSM Guidelines, Box 3.2, P. 43) Laboratory tests (ACSM Guidelines, Box 3.3, P. 44) (Next slide)
We will focus on the blood lipid profile laboratory test

Laboratory Tests

Laboratory Tests

Blood Tests
Fasted (at least 12 hours) blood test results are relevant to determining risk of:
Hypercholesterolemia (cholesterol) Prediabetes (glucose)

Two options
1) Refer to local laboratory for testing 2) Purchase instrumentation to perform tests

Phlebotomythe practice of withdrawing blood from a blood vessel into a blood collection tube Insertion of needle into vein (larger-volume sample)
Requires professional training

Finger puncture (smaller-volume sample)


Sufficient for mini-analyzers

Risk Factor - Lipids and Lipoproteins


Blood Lipid Profile:
Total Cholesterol (TC) Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
Bad cholesterol Transports cholesterol and triglycerides from the liver to peripheral tissues

High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol


Good cholesterol Can remove cholesterol from within arteries and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilization

Ratios
TC/HDL: Desirable < 4.5 males, < 4.0 females LDL/HDL: Average Risk 3.6 males, 3.2 females

Triglycerides

Risk Factor - Lipids and Lipoproteins


LDL cholesterol is the primary target for cholesterol lowering therapy
LDL cholesterol is a powerful risk factor for CAD and a decrease in LDL markedly decreases the incidence of CAD

HDL cholesterol level is strongly and inversely associated with the risk for CAD

There is growing evidence for a strong association between elevated triglyceride levels and CAD risk

Risk Factor - Lipids and Lipoproteins

Risk Factor Blood Glucose


Standards set by the American Diabetes Association
Prediabetes risk factor = 100125 mg/dL Normal values <100 mg/dL Diagnostic of diabetes = 126 mg/dL or greater

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure


Definition:
Force of blood against walls of the vasculature created by contraction of the heart
Often assessed by indirect auscultation Expressed in millimeters of mercury Systolic blood pressure (SBP): Maximum pressure during contraction (systole) Diastolic blood pressure (DBP): Minimum pressure during relaxation (diastole)

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure


The relationship between BP and risk for cardiovascular events is continuous, consistent, and independent of other risk factors. For individuals 40 to 70 yrs of age:
Each increment of 20 mmHg in SBP or 10 mmHg in DBP doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease

Lifestyle modification, including physical activity, weight reduction, a DASH eating plan, and moderate alcohol consumption are the cornerstones of antihypertensive therapy. Most patients who require drug therapy, require two or more antihypertensive meds to achieve the goal BP.

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure


Theory of Blood Pressure Measurement by Indirect Auscultation
The inflated BP cuff occludes blood flow, yielding no sound heard in the stethoscope placed beyond the occlusion Slow release of cuff pressure allows the driving pressure of the blood to force the blood beyond the cuff and yields the first sounds (turbulence) heard in the stethoscope (SBP) Sounds cease with full opening of the artery as pressure continues to decline and turbulence no longer present (DBP)

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure


Korotkoff Sounds
Phase 1: SBP
Phase 2:
Initial onset of sound (clear, repetitive tapping) Soft tapping, murmuring, or swishing Typically 10 to 15 mm Hg below phase 1 Crisp, loud tapping High pitch and intensity

Phase 3:

Phase 4: True DBP


Muffling of sound Soft or blowing sound Considered true DBP, especially during exercise

Phase 5: Clinical DBP


Complete disappearance of sound Typically within 8 to 10 mm Hg of phase 4 Should be recorded if it is significantly different from phase 5

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure


Resting Measurement Procedures:
The patient should be seated with the legs uncrossed The BP measurement should be done in a relaxed, comfortable setting
White coat syndrome

An appropriate BP cuff should be used Center the bladder over the brachial artery and secure the appropriate BP cuff snugly at the level of the heart Locate the brachial artery pulse in the antecubital fossa and place the stethoscope bell over the artery

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure


Resting Measurement Procedures (contd):
Quickly inflate the BP cuff to:
20 mm Hg above SBP (if known) 150 to 180 mmHg Up to 30 mmHg above the disappearance of the radial pulse

Release pressure 2 to 3 mmHg per heartbeat or 2 to 5 mmHg per second to the fifth Korotkoff sound Deflate the cuff rapidly to zero after DBP is obtained Record the SBP and DBP (fourth and fifth Korotkoff sounds if they are significantly different) Wait at least 1 full minute and repeat Values should be within 5 mm Hg of each other; if not, repeat

Risk Factor - Blood Pressure

Blood Pressure - Exercise

Not in your books.

Blood Pressure - Exercise

Not in your books.

Blood Pressure - Calculations


Mean arterial pressure (MAP)
Represents the average BP in the arterial system MAP = DBP + 1/3(SBP DBP)

Pulse pressure (PP)


Related to stroke volume PP = SBP - DBP

Heart Rate
Heart rate can be measured by:
Palpation Auscultation Telemetry (HR monitors/watches) Electrocardiography (ECG, EKG)

Heart Rate - Palpation


Palpation:
30- or 60-sec counts are more accurate for resting HR 15- or 30-sec counts are more common during exercise Begin counting the first beat felt as zero (e.g., 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. . .) Avoid baroreceptor reflex at the carotid artery

Heart Rate - Exercise

Predicted Maximal HR: 220 - age

Risk Factor Obesity (BMI)


An excessive amount of body fat Recently considered a major, primary CAD risk factor For risk stratification purposes a height/weight comparison (BMI) and waist circumference are considered

Risk Factor Obesity (BMI)


Assessment standardizations (height) Performed with a stadiometer Remove shoes and hat (if worn) Stand erect, feet flat, heels touching Heels, mid- and upper body parts are against the wall Take and hold a normal breath, look straight Horizontal headboard is lowered to the top of the head

Risk Factor Obesity (BMI)

Risk Factor Obesity (BMI)


Weight protocol Scale calibration Wear minimal clothing Void bladder within 1 hour prior to measurement Ideal measurement is in the morning before meal consumption Variance in the above standards is acceptable with understanding of deviance between measured weight and standardized body weight

Risk Factor Obesity (BMI)

Risk Factor Obesity (BMI)


Body mass index = __Weight in kg__ (Height in meters)2
Example: BMI calculation for a 150-lb, 68-in. client: 150 pounds / 2.205 = 68.0 kg (convert lbs to kg) 68 inches 2.54 = 172.7 cm (convert in. to cm) 172.7 cm / 100 = 1.727 m (convert cm to m)

1.727 m 1.727 m = 2.98 m2 (convert m to m2)


BMI = 68.0 kg / 2.98 m2 = 22.8 kg . m2 (divide kg by m2)

Risk Factor Obesity (Waist Circ.)


Abdominal obesity is associated with greater risk Measurement protocol:
Technician stands to the right of the client Measurement made on bare skin Measurement made at the end of a normal exhalation Measuring tape is held parallel to the floor and flat against skin Take multiple measurements to determine smallest site
Mean of two measurements taken at this site is used

Risk Factor Obesity (Waist Circ.)

Correct

Incorrect

Risk Factor Obesity

Risk Factor Physical Activity


Most variable component of total daily energy expenditure Public heath guidelines advocate:
30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, 5 days/week, or 20 minutes of vigorous-intensity exercise 3 days/week

Assessment goal is to identify those not meeting threshold:


Regularcontinuous for at least 3 months Activity below this level constitutes a risk factorinactivity

Risk Factor Physical Activity

Risk Factor Physical Activity

Contraindications to Exercise Testing

Contraindications to Exercise Testing

Contraindications to Exercise Testing


Patients with absolute contraindications should not perform exercise tests until such conditions are stabilized or adequately treated. Patients with relative contraindications may be tested only after careful evaluation of the risk/benefit ratio. Contraindications might not apply in certain specific clinical situations, such as soon after an acute myocardial infarction, a revascularization procedure, or bypass surgery or to determine the need for, or benefit of, drug therapy.