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CoUTENTS

THE UNITED KINGDOM


ad Figures l: T h e C o u n t r y C al l e d B ri ta i n . ...........
r n gA: En g la n d Britain, , UK : What is rhe Dif f e re n c e ? . ...........17 m g B:The 'Ce lti c Counrdes':S cotland,Wa le s , No rt h e rn lre la n d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9

16 .f7

g C : D i v i s i o nW s i th i nth eC o u n try.
n g D : A M etr op olis with Many Faces 2 : A De m o cr a ti c Monarchy.. . . . . . . . ingA: Constitutional MonarchyWithout a Constitution _ i n g C: We stm i nster.

..... _.25
........29 _.......35 . _...... .35 .. . ..... .40

D:Whitehall
n g E: Ele cti onRulesand P olitical P arris. 3 : L i f e an d Socie ty. n g A: To wn a n d Counrry.. n g B : M y H om e i s My Castle. . n g D l A M ulti culturalS ociety..

......44
.............47 .............51 ......... _.....51 ............55 .......58 ............63

4: Typically B r i t i sh
i n g A r Sp o r ts i n Bitain ...... -

.............68
......... _..68

i n g C: A Wor ld Powerin P op Music P artIt l9 5 0 s -1 9 7 0 s

...........76

in g D rAw o r l d P o w e ri nP o pMu si c P a rtl l t 1970s 1990s


vanced R ea d in gWhitby... : On the Trail of Co u n rDra c u la .

...........79
... ... ..... g2

AUSTRALIA
a n dF ig u r e s T l: An Island Continent . . . . . ln t ro d u c t io n . Reading A : Th e L a n d and Its First P eople.Reading B : Th e U niq u e Flora and Fauna. -

..........88
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 _......... _.g9 ......91 .......94

CONTENTS
U N IT2 : Govemment.-...... . . . . . . . . . 97 ReadingA: The Structure of Government: a ParliamentaryDemocracy. . . . . . . - . . - . . . 97 ReadingB: Political Partiesand Elecrions . . . ...... . . . . 100 ReadingC: The Legal System . . . . 104 U N IT 3 : 'A Lucky Country' . . . Re a d in g A : E conomy: a W ealthyCo u n rry . . R ea d in gB :LabourandlndustrialRe la rio n s . . . . . . . . ReadingC: Australia as a Bridge in the Southeast Asian Region. ......108 ....108 . . . . . . . _ ll 2 .. . . _ ll4

U N I T 4 r T he A u stra l i a Wa n y o f L i fe I n t r o d u cri o n . R e a d i n g A :S p o rts.... Reading B: The Beach, the Bushand Suburbia ....... R e a d i nC: g A Mu i ri cu l tu ra l N a ti on, a Muhi- Ethnic Socier.y. . . .
U N IT 5 : Currenl l\\ue). ...... ReadingA: Aboriginal Land Righrs . R ea d in g B: B ecomrng a Repuhlrc. . Advanced Reading:Caring for the Environment . - . . Qu iz o n A u'tralia

. .. ... ..... . . 116 ...........1i6 ...... ...1 16 . . . . . l 19 ........I22

129

r31 l

THE UNITED STATESOF AMERICA


Facts and Figures U\IT l: Ceograph) In tr oL lu cli.'n. ... R ea d r n g A : lhe lantl ol trrreme'. . ReadingB: The Four Regions:Northeast- Sourh Midwest - West . ReadingC: What a Wonderful World - Yellowstone National park . . . . . . R ea d in g D: W here DoWe Go frorn He re ? T o p T o u ris rA t ra c rio n s . . . . . . . . . . . U N IT 2 :C o\ernment ......... In tr od u cllt,n. ReadingAt An Historic Document - The US Constitution and Its lmpact . ReadingB: fhe Elephant versus de Donkey - The Two Pafties . . ReadingC: Federal,Stateand Local Authodries ReadingD: Lobbies and lnterest Groups in rhe US UNIT 3: T a$ In lr o d u .ton ReadingAi Justice for All - The Role of Law in American Life ReadingB: The Courr Systemof rhe United States . ReadingCr Guilty or Not Guilty The Role of theJury in Criminal Lnw.

,.
...

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CONTENTS
ID{IT 4: Economy
ItrtroducLion. ReadingAi The "Self-madeMan" in rhe Raceof Life.

173

r73
174

Reading B: The GlobalRoleof US Economy. Reading C: The Wall Street _ The StockExchanqe. Mystery .....
,,4 f -. ut L rtc

r76
179 lB2 182 183 185 187 190 192

htroduction . ReadingA: "In God We Trusr,, - nargion in tf,e US . . . .: ............ Readin8BAmericanHolidaysI'_TheEuIopeanHedtage' ReadingC: American Holidays IL - Uniquely American Zelebruriorrr. . . . . . Reading D: AmericanFootball_ the College Sport... . . . .. . ReadingE: The Magic of Baseball. . . .

. .

li lif T 6 : C u l t u r a I l ssu e s........... lnffoduction.

uaSay the RightThingar the RighrTime- political Correctness. ... ...... pg 1*1t"g Reading C: Therels No Business _ Holllvood . Like Showbusiness . . . . . . . . . ZO2 Rea d i nD g : Po p u l aC r u l tu re -Ja zza n dC o untr y M usic.. . . . . . ...... .. ......205 Rea d i nE: g Po p u l aC _ p o p _ R o ck. r u l tu re . .. ........2O7 A d v a n c e d R e a d i n g :A me ri ca n L i te ratur e:Tr anscendentalism. ...........211

Rcading A:Multiculturalism - M"f ring roi o.iuiJ n"*ii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i;i

CANADA
Irts and Figures. l rM T I : T h e T r u e No rth .......... Reading A: The World'sSecond Largest Country. Rad i nB: g T h eC ove mme n r.. .. .... . ..
ReadingC: Economic Acrivity. . . . ..

220 ..........221

..........22r
. 223 . 226 . 229
. 234

tfflT 2: The Tracks of History Reading A: BraveNew World


Reading Bt "The LasrBestWesr., ReadingC: Dreaming of paradise

Reading D: Whererhe Train Will Nor Takeyou


UNIT 3: Our Home and Native Land

Reading A: The Niagara Srory


Reading Bt FirsL Narions ReadingC: Native Expectarions

237

LallT 4: We're Canadians, eh?


Readjng At One Canada - or Two?

Reading B: A Canadian ldentiry

ll

'Whenpeoplesay England,they sometim"'s mean the United Kingdom, Great Britdin, sometimes sometimes the British Isles- but neverEnglanil.'
(George Mikes)

KTUCDOM Hr UUTTED

F,qcrs,qNn Frcunm
OlJici( n tme oJ stcttei United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Areq: 242910 s{]]u'are kilometres Popl atiotr (2000 estimate):59,756,000;3.,1olo increasesince I99I

(people Populqtio\density per square hilometrT,rcunded): 247


Chief oJstate:The Sovereign:Elizabeth I1, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Norrhem Ireland and of her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth. Defender of rhe Faith Fom oJgoyemmenL: Constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses

(since HeadoJgovernment May 1997):Prime Minister: The Rt. Hon. Anthony (Tony) Blair, MP qnguage O : English lf i cil.l 1
Nqtionol anthpm: God Save I he Queen Capitdl: Londo\

England: London . Scotland: Edinburgh Walas: Cardiff . Northemlrelsnd:Belfast Major cities(1994round.ed. London (7,000,000), figures): Birmingham(1,000,000), Leeds(720,000), Glasgow(680,000), Sheffield(530,000), Bradford (480,000), Liverpool (470,000), (130,000), Edinburgh(440,000), Manchester Bristol (400,000).
Lile expectancy at birth (yeors):male 73.2,fenale78.6 MonetcLt)t vnit: pound sterling (d) of 100 new pence (p)

(1999Jigures): Gross Domestic Product L 891,106million, {, 14,910per capita Inflationrate (1995):3.61"


(1999 Jigures): Ethniccomposition White 93.2olo, Non white 6.7"/o, (Caribbean, including Black African and other) 2.1%, Indian l.7olo,Pakistani 1.20,6, Bangladeshi0.5ol",Chinese 0.2olo, Other 1.1olo Religious LfJiliation (1998 estimate): Christian 67% (including Anglican 17olo, Roman Catholic l8"/o, Orher Protestant 32"/o), Muslim 2Yo,Hindu 0.8'/o,Sikh 0.7olo, Non-reliJewish 0.5"/o, sious 29%

UNIT I
READINGA

England, Britain, UK:What Is theDifference?


Match the political units with the names given below. lngland. r'reat & irain. No rrh e lm lre la n d . . scotland. UnitedR ngdom WaIes

,:

IHEUNITED KINGDOM

or has ro distinguishbetween I geographical andpoliricalconcepts. From I a geographical poinr o{ view, the British I Islesarea groupof two largeand a rum I
Dr or sma|eL rstrnctsot the norrh wesr I

f."furra. I worcls_, and it is impoftanr ro undeErand fhe rea""n {.,r \lrange rhLs \iruarion r<lhar I lhe drll( rcn.'c.bcl!\eenrhem. rhc $r. UK or igrndil\ rrcdleJrn IB0t, and I First,

Read the following re\r with special attenriod ro the words in bold. ut I rglr.t- In,JJdrnBI po,irrr. 1ou_hould porergn .peaker. abuu( rropift) .ppak I g f c n h ru o p o lrrira l u n rr. : t h rh e a n . lr h e ,ttunqaflan\ottenu.elF rmrlrk c I lano, r a n o , nntarn'. b n rrrn . e crear r(d l llritain,, U n rd i n 'Il 'UK., k ,Brirish B ,,ri ,h I tr,-h k" .,,hr,. I IrishReDubtic. lsles'.carelessll', as if thcir meaningrvas Ihe nameot rhcUK. ho\\e\r.suqqesrs I more or less the same.Brirish people. rhat ir j5 a lombinarion ot t"o I however, are far more carefirl with these LrnrrsGreatBriui" rna lo.tlr".n "ir,"alle. I unrrl to22 il ;nrrined ,f," *f,oL" oi f."_ luna. Wl"r, .ou,lr"rn tr"tuni U".u",. independent. the north"." nu.iJ".-,a"i ,o remainwuhin rheUK.
What aboul England, Scorland and

erncoast_of conrinenral (whichis Europe lWal5rhentAll,t"i".uunrr,"rnr"ioauy simplycalled the Conlinenr' in Brirain). lparrolCrtarBruarn.G,*,B.ii^,";..*_

has beenthe tradilionalnamefor rhe Acr u,'io" ,;li; ,h" ;;i"';i,n" I "f Br i,a,nunLlc,";;;;;;. Ih( .e.und i\tr ndor i : 1 ,^ "island _ .0 l :',l " :" , Ireland. l ,me ,., I largest is called

I comesfrom rhe Larin 'Brirannia,. which I dom ofEngf""a.in." rZd+.tf,"*inr"-trr"


Because ofthe complicared hisroryofthe

l he l rrse .ru t e \ $ h i rh r..r t.or h( ,to. ir c.lhrr heAcr ot rh , rZOZI .r ' ,i" t r r r o" I ,5:_:"*'""1,:.caled*Britainor "", ::,,_,^:. Ixtngd,morrnghn.landrheKingdomof (sinc t707) crearBrirain. rhc

nam.

s-ii*a.w"r"Jr,"ir,"";;;;,;ffi;i

UK con- | tainsnot only rheislandofBrirainbul rhe northeasrernpar of rhe orher island, I I lreland. asweli.Theresrof Ireland forms the independcrrRepublic of rreland or I I Lirc. lhcreturcit v^ u $anr ro d i. c u * I

lilT^: ,TheUnired I oJ themii'?lili';.." is calledl:til:j i"f",," I rrtunir.burt,ir rt." *a"li -officiatty ","f," Nu_'th".,, acountry,aporiticalunir.'rnrhjspoiiiical :ll-*1:l:f,91:,1 ]r"d.M I Ireland',in shorr,'the .g.uutrr'-ur.; UK,. The
'r;;;t"d sense, ,i" *'ora and hrielil ro rcnerally rbc the "hul"'oi UX tur tl" rern ,GrearUr,; ;""., inctudes N.rrthem r,"rr"a,,, s,ij.tii.trr" poLiri-l ;i;;.i;;d ;;;"^, "q"i"d";r ih a rs rrrs t n J . s c . rt a n , t rn J \ \ a le ,

J There are two independent potitical I rsles.,Bnrai" ^r" "rniier"", "",i'O;,h" ,*': one one hjrnd. irrerers toanisrand. ageographr_

Complete the following sentences

l. The two largestislands of rhe Bdtish Isles are and 2. England, Scotlandand Wales togerherare known 3. The two parts oI the United Kingdom are ..11... and

l8

UNIT I
The two independent politicalunirs on the British lslesare ..:.t.a-......r.r.....:...._....'.t1r...,,i........ e d . ......................... Theislandoflrelandispoliricallydividedinro..,ri:.t-.f!,.tr,.'.,;i:..,........................................ a n d . .....,:.......1......-r....i........4. . . .......... h a geographical Britainis an ...-..1.,,,..1.i1................; sense, in a politicalsense, it is an equivaht o [......................

fbe British usually distinguish between themselvesand the rest of Europe, which rhey call

i:.:.i.. t: -:.,.,-..i-1r.,

READING B

The'Celtic Countries': Scotland. Wales. Northern lreland


Choose the correct answer.

Tk prohunciation oJthenameof Walesrhymes with i whales. b. wells. c. walls. hnebodyJromScotland is called a a. Scorch. b. Scotsman. c. Scottish. Ihc traditional Celticlanguage of Wales is called a. Gaelic. b. Welsh. c. Cornish. fhe Cehiclanguage oJScotland. is called -trdditional a. Gaelic. b. Scots. c. Scotch. Iht Protestcrnt populationof Northem IrelanAcall their country a. Belfast. b. Der ry.

THE KINGDOM UNITED


6. which is the traditional symboliccolour of Northe'.r.lrish Catholic Republicans? arJ green b. orange c. red 7 . Which is the traditional symboliccolour of Northenl lrish ProtestdntUnio ists? a. green I b) orange c. red 8. The tradition oJ rvearinghihs and pldJinB the bagpipes originally comes Jrom a. Glasgow. r. b.)the Highlands. c. the Shetlandlslands.

tead rhe following text wirh special alrenrion to the *ords in bold.
make is tha! rhey call Britain 'England', and rhe Brilish 'English'. This attitude has always irritated Scotsmen and welshmen, and especially the Northern Irish, some of whom are still fighring for com plct independence {rom England. These people have long regaded the Erglish as invaders who occupied their countriesby lorce and 'uni!ed' the United Kingdom against theirwill. Histo cally, this is fairly close to the truth: at the time of the Roman Empire (first fi{th century), the wbole ofBritain

(ounlne5and regions oI rheBlitish f I lhe Ilsles have so many different names, how should one call their inhabitants? officially. there are only two kinds ofcitizenship on the British lsles: people are citizens of either the United Kingdom or the lrish Republic.Within the Uk there is no official distinction between the inhabitants of England, Scolland, Wales or No(hern Ireland: they are all 'British' citi zens. But citizenship is not the same as national identity. A typical mistake most Hungarians and many other loreigners
Hampton CouYt Palace,England

I{NGDOM UNITED THE

r:ll.*119:,1::i:l:;ffi:X'i"JJ,*"'l:*il"f the or wr,r.h $ i:::,:il:::*:"Y,.;.y,il: rhe initial letter ol the right country !
of mote than one country!) lrc l' ' rn J ' Nll r,ntlundr5 ' Ud lc s Wl Nn rt h e rn ' were Celts: -- I l. The original inhabitants of thcse countries u rt h a n r o l t h t o t h e r' ,. fl'r .uun,ry ha- no commonb' rrd ir 3. The Act of Union unified it with EnBland: i : '' increasedautonomy in 1qa7: 4. They receivecl the English-thronel 5. This country's ruling clynastycame to :' . -.--, uslng teronsm: independence lor fought have groups 6. tn thia.uurrt.y, ccrtain below Each using the suitable form of the words

oissqnb

and their naLu-

I UNIT
government of Scotland, and a unified in London. Brirish parliamentwascreated Bul one also has to consider that, while England $as not a benvolent ruler and largely suppressed rhe indepndent cultures and languages of these countdes, Scotland and wales also benefited lrom English dominance economically, and. afrer rhe 18rh century, living standards inproved considembly (Ireland was an exception, sinc it was far more severely exploited than Scotlandorwales). Within modem Britain, most people still distinguish one another as 'English', 'Scottish' or .welsh'. ln most cases,however, it simply refers to their birthplace: the great majority of the British population today are ethnically mixed and speak English as thir mother tongue. The special Scottish and Welsh idendty is more historical and cultural than ethnic or linguistic in origin. Thre are nalionalist

Irood

Palace , s.orland

Ireland was irhabited by various -d @tic peoples who were pushed out of rt rwe today call England and into what rr now call lreland, Scotland and Wales, ly the Anglo-Saxon invaders liom lhe bropan continent between the 5th and ilh centuries. A{ter severalcenturies, the ^LDglo-Saxon territoris were united and rlr relatively powerlul kingdom o{ England emerged in the south of the rslend. During the Middle Ages, the @bsh klngs made several attempts to .oquer rheir smaller neighbours. \\?les and Ireland had never existed as itdependent and united countries, but .msisted of several warring tribal lands rfich disliked on anolher almost as rrch as the invading English. Scotland rrs the only country besides England rtrkh had organised itself inio a united nd centralised monarchy, and it resisted Frgliqh attemptsat invasion for cnturies. S'hile Wales and Ireland were gradually oquered by militalt force over several <rrnuries, Scodandwas eventually united iith England peac{ully. In 1603. the Sdrarts. rhe scottish ruling d1.nasty, came ro the English throne aswell: from then on, rhr two countrieshad th same ruler, but continued to have separate parliaments rDd internal administralions. Then, in l;07. the Scottish Parhament passedthe ,{ct of Union, which abolished the separate

castle, wales Cacmarfon movemenrsand panies in bolh countries which demand more autonorny lor Scotland and Wales. They celebrated a great victory when, ln 1997, following a local referendurn, the British Parliament ScottishParliamentand createda separate a welsh assembly to overseelocal affairs. Reasonable Scolsmenor Welshmen, howver, do nor want completindependence from Bdtain: rhey know very well that it would be harmful to their owncountries.

zt
j

'

UNIT I
Iollowing word pairs are similat but not identical in meaning. On the basis of the tud exercise 4, define their exact meaning and the differencJberween them. Use a

only if absolutelynecessary. The definition of one word of eachpair is providd

e conquer .................-.-: to attackand enterinto in order to takecontrol of somethins -. inhabitant a person who is a member of a certain country by birth or bv

+ referendum :1_.*,t,L1.1t.rL.........: a vote by all the people of a country or an area on a certain polqsestion ce +r autonomy :j:-ir.,,a{,t-...-.....-.: self-govemment of a certaingroup or areawithin a country e suppress ,:-.... ..:...........-....I to srop, to bring ro an end (especiallyin a legal sense) Wales and Northern Ireland are all well known abroad for various reasons. much information as you can about each country and complete the cha below. dpfrrl inlormation has alreadl been prorided.

THE UNITED KINGDOM


ll Completethe following word groups.Use a dictionaryonly if absolutelynecessary.
verb l. inhabit
l ./

noun inhabitant

adjective inhabited,/uninhabited
. .. .. : ,. .; ... ..-.. .; . .. .. ... ..

2.
3. 4. 5. 7. 8.
9.

.',:!.p*1.!t-t,............ identity
conquer apply !......t,. 1o.1.,:;a.!...1. tn.:L:t:-'rJAJ-.... occupy
.)t!,L-J!-................

6. cr l-L .......:.......
!-.:t,.]r t..L.l.,lti .' i . ):'-u+,).h:.,. r.::.1.( ) -:u.;:.r...
.uJJ-nr-............... united
tJLf]:b)J)...J-) ) tt )..

10. Il. 12. 13.

.c)....)1..).t..7.,L...... lnvasion/invader resisr ::Q...L.:-:J.tt,\..-.... demand


attempt

aJ:*.i.. :.r ;.:...r.. ..... 1":

.:).t:u:1,;t1*............ .JLut2t-1.:..ta.....

(Not all @ Match the words from the table in exercise7 with the definitionsbelo\,'r'. have de{initions!) 1. '.t-ll;l-.,.ir:,:t:L a placewhereno personlives 2. .tt"Q)..:i,i"..........: to attackanotherplace(country,city, etc.)and enterits rerritory 3. I.a:]!l.,!tct.....: control gainedoveranotherland or countryby military lorce 4.7.t-a.1)J,9!,i-.....: ro gatherasa group 5. r a?,rtl,;Y......:thingsseparate or differentfrom one another o. )i"ul:.1.7,.......: a [irm, strongclaimor requesr for somerhing
7. .)..r-r..1......r..1,r1,!.: -^'' rhe use of an oblect or a method for some particular purpose

find the opposileof rhe lollowing words. '4111;1..i.;,.'.1...1 1.11.1..,.1, "

1. republic 2. independent 3. divided 4. dillerent 5. to attack 6. Celtic 7. legal alien

.A :t1+ !:"i,! -.........

... u !-::.'-J,.............
... /,...1.... -.'...t,1,...... "

A :n,'.L. :..;-t t.t,). :,.

UNIT I
the following passageinto English. .g}-arorszeg brtdnelmdben gyakoriak az idegenrdmadiisok, h6ditlisok es a friggetknsegi harcok. A magyar torzsek a X. sziizadv6gn telepedtekle orsziig mai ^z kialakult truleten, amely ekkor szinte lakatlan volt,6s egy vszdzadmrilva Kirdlysdg.Az orszig fejl6dstazonban ismEteltenidegen rdmadiisokzavartdk

.urtuok l21l-42-ben csaknem elpusztitort.ik azorszdsot. denemhoztakldrretarr6s


.{ XV. szdzadt6l azonbana Torok Birodalom miir meg akarta h6ditani Magyaroras t6bbszor is megtilmadtaaz orczi.got.A magyarok megpr6briltakellen:illni, es Ndndorleherviirnril le is gy6zt6k a hatalmastorok sereget, de 1526-banMohricskatasztroflilis veresget szenvedett. A tdrdkOk megsz:illtdkaz orsziigk6rrszt, s teljesenkizsdkmdnyoltAka lakossiigot.A XVII. szdzadv6g6n az orszag a r6r6k uralom a161, de ezt az osztr:ikHabsburq-dinaszria rdbb mint kt dvszri, Eelkodrisa kovette. 1848-49-bena magyarokmegkisdreltdkfegyveresen kiharcolni iket, de a szabadsiigharcot az osztrdkokoroszsegitsggel levertdk.

READING C

'11

41!"

bions Within theCountry


htifv the most imoortant of England and Scotland

outline map below.

EastAnglia Highlands Lowlands Midlands North country southeast West country


{1

:r-"';

_l L_,1

THE UNITED KINGDOM

,,1.' ,..,

t,.;.,'lr..:'....'.' : r,.r;.;,r...l.....':,.,.r..l1
:.llli

Read the following rert with special attention to the words in bold.
or admrnistrati\efurf'o\e\. rhe lerri\par\el\ DoD_ | \\frt ( ountry rrc reld||vel)

themhaverhe I rh MLdrand\ ,h;;;;.:;il,* word -s/rire ", in rheir name, because this I arerhtrnrddLe oI Engf".a. ,f" "- - '- -"* -' was the old AnSlo Saxon word for,coun- | ' ".*"?r.i"f
ty. The boundaries of rhese counries,

In Lo,counrie\ uhicn,re ot c rrt \ mc d i. I b . , o . e I r. h iu n rb . .t " r. h . t , , la ). d;;; I aeratoflgrn. and tookba(k ro d rhou,anJ ' rnerr coas rne and beauntul scenery. I years of_hisrorr.. Manyof

,"-L.:j,:lelTl ,"0 *r,lc, r- dr\rdcd utared rurrtared. burrhcih,.. ,";;",i)

':,,,:, .,,,
:,::,.

,::

however. are hi',".i;

".;;;--;; mo.r ot rhem ao ...'".ponJ "o, '" ";: I U--_

I n

rfl

.ocidldnd lulrlr!al hi.loD. theqourh(an I r^r \nstia rurrncr be \ubdi\iLl.d into thr \oulhea\t (essenlially the London area and the I I Waies and wesr of fast Anglia. The prob_ (uunlic., <urrounding tondon ca.r I l"rnarr.ra,k. howercr.,. ,"- a"f,* ,ii"r" AnS lia.rhe.r.rernmo\r

based panry."g""si"pl'i,-p".,r; ."lG

,-

rr
,#Z

,::
l

narto t I n g la n d . I lh ( V id l. rn d . , " a , f r" , " , f r ,f," "a rnepenrn<ura noflh (a.r ol I onJnn\. ", dnd I lurrh be4n. " lhc mo_r acccDreJ Aenercll\

England, the pninsula sourhof watet.

|,r ," "r r o u |l l r\.h uir a l .uo rl cr.l h ih e.r ,nband viatr i,;: l{ nFlu. ff," f,n, ."- pr ,",ing,f,f career opporruniries.
EasrAnglia and rhe I from rhe North srars froi the nonhrrn

o,:1.:''p"p*r,"r*.""u"r^,"J,r,"w".i'.io,n,^ ll:,'::ii::':::l:.:::l l a t ed rn d ,rhmo e .r t'xp cn -,,e ,"gion ir ,. l u^r ,. ;; i:;; ;,;;:;;";]' r ".

i1" s",",:"" i. i"",i.1"l.,," *""i;;l i,:*:":ll':,1:,""":l l":y: I :::lt:c Midt".;. .; f.";-ril;; esiu; I 1.

-E

INITI
l*t.t\\ale. andcn.t Ihe \ a-hd.$ell [h, -rra looL lrkca rriarglc. lhe \(nrrc ul d-l' Elhe hugeciry of Bimingham. fbc \onh - rhe large.r rnJ hrllr,.. .c. uo c[ Bnrarn .lr, r, h, trurn thL i.tril'nds up !o rhe Scolrish bordcr lltrouEhour hisrory, it was a poorer and Dyr back$ard region than rhe South, bul & mdusrnal revolulion in the late lsth ad rie l9rh rtnrurirs bLoughr prospcr_ rr qcalth ind a huge populationexplo tu and a number of large indusiriat ,c. rliverpool, Manchesrer. Sheftield, Lrcd;. Bradford and Newcasrle) devel_ ep.d In rhe secondhalfofthe 20rh cenru_ ff- hoiiever, rraditional industries have d.drned. causing great economic and Efi"lproblems in the florthern ciries. \\ ales is mostly covered by hills. rhe \hest peakof which is Snowdon(1085m) r ahenorrh. The most denselypopulared iiEas or rhe country are rhe rivr valleysin 6. south. u,here the largesl Welsh cilies, (:rdifl and Swansea. are also foun.l. Norrh Sales is a beautiful region full of hills. &p valleys and spectaiular scelerl, bui r hasa very small population. torland is usualLy divided inro two Earn rg'ons:the Lowlands and the Hieh_ hds. The Lowlands srretch from ihe English border to rhe narrowestpart ofthe xle and the eastern seacoast. whi;h hasthc

mo.l Ieflil lan(l in scoriand and r onrarn: lhe qrcdl rratorir\ ol the fopulslron i|lcludrn! the hig , illt'. ot r,la.eo$ and Fdinburgh a. utll a" rhe grcaiporr ol Dundee. the Uighland..crer iralt or (.otland. bur rherrpopulorron i.e\lcmcl\ small; drey are characterised by numerous lochs (lakes), beaurifui mountains and a rugged coastiine.The highesrpoinr ol rhe Highlands.Ben Nevis (1142 m), isalso rhe highsrpeakinBrirain. The longestrivr olBrirain. th Severn, ises in WaLes and. after making a bend in the wesl Midlands. flows inro the Allanric; ns wrde estuary separatessourh wals from rhe Wesr Country. The besr known British fiver, however, is probablv the Thames, w.hich rises in rhe Midiancls, crossesEngland in a sourh_easrerly djrec_ lion, and Ilows inlo rhe Norlh Seajust easr ofLondon

THE UNITED KINGDOI'I (F)? El True(T) or False


l . Thc Nnflh ol fnglenrl har a re r) lo u p o p u la liu n 2. The highest peak of Great Britain is in Wales. ! r re n lu n g h i' ro n . I i . l he modcrniuunlic- Lll Lng la n rl a n . ] \ V a lc - h . rv c 4. In Scotland,the maioity of the populadon live ill the Highlands 5. The Severnis the longest river in Britain. I 6. The largestWelsh cities are all located in the southern part of Wa)es.I 7. The large indusLrialcities are very wealthy and prosperoustoday. [] 8. In Britain, people prefer to spend their holidays in rural, sparselypopulated areas.f] 9. The Midlands are the areabetween wales, the North, East Anglia and Scotland.I @ ln which part of Great Britain can you find the following cities? Match them with t appropriate region. You may use the maps on pages 15 and 25 to check your solutions. l. Aberdeen2. Birmingh..m 3. Biislol 4. Bradlord 5. Cambridge 6. Caftliff 7. D:','ndlx 8. EAinburgh 9. Glasgow 10. I-eedsll. Liverpool 12. Mdnchcsttr 13. Neivcastle 14. Oxford 15. Shtffklcl 16. Srvansea

Edinbufgh

S Find the word or expression from Reading C that fits the dellnitions below. l. .i- -:..:--.., ,.........'. ...: dry land surrounded by lvater on three sides 2. ..'....i-.1.;r:t.......... all the naturalleatures of an area a sudddnincrease of the number of peopleliving in an area l. ],.-ir.-l-....1r.1.:,-...:.j long. deepmouth of a river +. ..:..,-..,..).1....!.......-.or a naturalsurlirce) 5. ..f. .l,Ll.:.:......... ....: uneven,rough.rock)' (ol a coastline

1 UNIT
: hl(e rn SLotland good economic situation (of a country or place); wealth (oI a person) : good for agriculture (land, region)

h.ring a smallnumberof people(of a countryor region) blloring text. The first letter of eachword is providedto help you
-' ' r'1ich means that it is s.f.Lr,:'.1.:r.:1..1. from the Coatt:-cc,tl. ;:,,=..r!-., the narrowest part of which is called the S:c:irj .. by the

. of D?'li'{: '

soaller islandsoff the c.Qt!:i:........ of Britain, and there are also a number of ins inro the sea.Sincethe cccr;ii'r'[is so r'.i].::.1...., it offersa lot of hJatr4i ;*e for ships, and therefore severa]great pur'--i. developed

island. its bcaulirr:':sare natural, and the only d:.r-l:--':l l.-lrr.:'.inside the y;:tt.=-|ct. of the England from Scotlandand Wales. The L:- 'l:J-.-';r'i-:r'id and beautiful: there are gentle hills, steep mO"r'.r.:l-. rand scenic lakes' but b concentratedmostly in large u.ai.fl'r" areas:in and around London, in the o{ Eneland, in 5':.,.t1,tc,.. Wales and in the Lc-t !':r'.'.J.:of Scotland.The most
' r r,., i,.. area\. sl.i,.{.4:.,/. :,,... can cen be b lound rn I ne mosl sLi,.{.4:.,/.,I -1,-

READING D

Faces WithMany A Metropolis


ialo vour mind when you hear London's name? Collect information, images . \[-hich of these are attractive or positive and which are negative to you?

rhe lollowing text with sPecial attention to th words in bold.


qdtss of all the natural beauties otbd attractions o[ the various d Fir , London l5 a mrr<f lo ll li i5 by far the largest town Ersts rb GreaterLondon area(whi(h suburb<as well) today luotrhe 7 million inhabitants, which icc i 5i'en times as big as the next largesr city, Birmingham. London boasts many of the most famous imagesforeiSnwith Englandor Britain: it has ersassociate the To\rer, the Big Ben, Trafalgar Square, 5t. Paul's Cathedral, the red doubledeckers, the black taxis, the London bobbies wirh rheir t'?ical helmels, and dozens of of the countryother well known sl.rnbols

lo

THE UNITED XINGDOM


England and the headquarrers of many British and inremarionai businesscornpa nies are located here), whereas Westminster becam the seat of the national Sovernmerr(seeunit 2). London's specraculargrowth began in the sixtenth cenrury: by 1600, lt had almost 200,000 inhabitanrs, a hundred years later about 500,000 and by 1800 a million people lived in the area. which made il the largest metropolis in rhe world at the time. The rown was growing sponlanously in all directions, withoui London was founded by rhe Romansin the firsr century on the north bank of the Thames, abour B0 kilometres upstream Irom the mourh oI the river. From the beginning, London was an excellent seapolt and an imporranl centre oftrade. The mediaevalCity, a sell-goveming commu, nity of merchanrs and craftsmen. extended from the Tower (which defendedit {rom the sea) appror.imarely to the present Black{riars Bridge, and did nol include Westminster,which wasa royalresidence. That differenceis part of the reasonwhy the City has developed inro one of rhe largestbusiness and financ cenrresin the world (the Srock Exchange,rhe Bank of
An Underground sraft,n

Taxis near Hyde Park

much cenrral planning. rhal is why it lacksany clearstructurein its streetpat tern. The sourhbank was built up much later than the north, therelore il hasvery

I UNIT
elsc*,here,so the air quality improved a lot, although heavl motor traffic ii still a major sourceof pollution. Londons image abroad was largely shapdbypopular nineteenthcntury nov elistssuch as CharlesDickens and Arthur ConanDoyle,and many tourisrsarriving in the to*'n todal xpecl a cosy Victorian The_"atmosphere. are usually surpriscd to find rhat contemporaryLondon is a highly cosmopolitan place. After world war Il. large numbers o{ Asian, Cafibbean and African immigrants settled in the capital (especially in the southern and eastern parts) and their nLrmberswere increased by EasternEuropeansfleing from political oppression. Today you can lind \r'hole neighbourhoods where almost all lhe peopleare AsianorWest Indian,and, according to a sur!ey, over a hundred dit ferent languages ar spoken *,ithin the Londonareal Greater
The Tower ol Londo.

Is sights for rourists. The west End has lraditionally been the rnore elegant part ..f London, $here the royal residence. Buckingham Palaceis found, and where man,varistocratsbuilt eleganthousesand greatparks. Todat, it is famous for its thealres. cinemas and lashionable shopping .lLstnrt5.lhe Last Lnd, In nelgnnourhood of the docks, bas ahvals been a poorr. working classarea-It has become famous for the Cockneys, the lraditional inhabiranb of the area ivho are distinguishedby their typical accent (for exam ple. they sa)''ouse instead of'house' and pronounce the word wa)" as il it was \rhy) and the famous Cockney rhyming slang (for example.'stairs' are called applesandpears'.or for short. 'apples'). ln the ninereenth ccnturv, the ovrcrowded towlr had to solve many difficult problcrns, such as watr supply, sanitarion and public tlansportation. London pionecrd the developmnt of the underground railway, lhe lamous LondonTube, Nhich todaycarriesalmosta million people to work elery day. Anofier pressingprob lem n'as thc infamous London smog, a mixture of$roke and fog. which in thc late I9th and eariy 201h century often made lif intolerable in th town. ln ihe m 20th cent ry. authoriries banned coal heating and mosl of thc faclories moved

l1

(INGDOM THE UNITED


! Here is a map ofcentral London. Match the famous placesmarked on it with the list

i. 10 Downing Slreet

J. nigaen
Palace lr, Buckingham ,-, Ilyde Park

... St. Paul'sCathedral .f. the British MusetLm if. the Housesof ParliamenL ... the NationalGallery

/,_ r the I ower ot I L)ndt)n ;.., Tower Bridge it. Trafalgar Square

Abbey iri Westminster

4
l

Match the olaces from exercise 3 with the definitions below.


, ) l: : t - . \ |t i .)! r.! :

the largest collection of paintings in Bitain, where entry is free for everybody

2 . ..,!..1 !,t.:-..: in the middle ol this place, there is a huge column with -!.)|i.t....... )..1,.
a statue of Admiral Nelson on top

3 . ....1.1!.1 i-. .... )J'..:i.,. ...........: in one corner of this place, arrybodycan stand up and speak
aboul any topic publicly

32

IJNIT I
residence the Queen's ,tr'.+.{,'l,la:p,/"iL'.L\..lLi.,l,,t clocktowerin London : the moslfamous .-;..-r-]U(1'I*...................
'^; Minisrea( reqidence fo:.--..: the Prime ./.-f..,..1.1.1.,..1:.1...-:
' t'

proComplete the following sentences using words from Reading D The first letters are

to help you. in London:you can use d(hblL highly developed P.JLlLc-..........t.ctu,{'-Fr(s.Lu}'r-is r:*iir'r'11 n.Ktr-r...... or the famousT|AL... , which is actuallyan u udrSclud-

a seriousproblondon was one of the first big townswh"re aL"r: p cl-l*trcrL - became lem. ln the early 20th century, the city was often coveredwith surc3 , which camefrom and housesthat usedc cX:tL. for heating.Today' m oLor" t m-{Fq- is the prifactories rnary source of p.oU'4t.:'{/l'.{ManypeopleimagineLondon asa Vtclor.uul*.
placeuhere dozensol dillerenl e : k'r4:

itis a cfi:u''cp'o&'btucity, but nowadays groupslive, olten in separate

peopleliving in London'sEo.iL l:he C(t*$'fi?..... are workinS-class

E q/'

is the oldestpart of London that is today an internationalcentreof busif- The C.r-tr4........ n"r, undiir,^n"", the s.lccl .... Exc!4*qL. and the B a-s''- of E'i+q(aad-are alsohere'
Find the words from Reading D that fit the definitions below'

L gbQ{l-- gldl4rl$c....:

areboughtand sold of companies a placewhereshares

LMgh/L.:dLaA$: .h'ties, u ,1pi"u\ly rnglish kind of buswith two floorsof seats


...: London policemen, nicknamed after Sir Robert Peel' who createdthe Metropolitan Police in 1829

l- .....3il.rctqtrnt]-............: the properremovalof wasteto protectpublic health peoplewho havemovedinto a countryfrom another 5. ..1u1t11{3cq,il":}............: counlry is to buy and sell ...: an old namefor peoplewhoseprofession vadousthings

,"ii.

KINGDOM THE UNITED


fl Complete the following sentencesby using the verb form of the nouns given below'

immi.rant. pollution. prosperity . suppll ' trdnsportation l. lfyou use a bicycleinsteadofa car,you don't.{:.ll.i'1l,t2-. ... the environment. into another country to find better opportunities in life or 2. Peopleusually ..-l) 1.11.(..!,.)..:.,'-. ftom political oppression. to escape 3. When the country's economy [{.l'{iF{{J., everybodybenefits from it. orersea'? 1..,^ 4. Ho\r "l|r yuu going to ..,{. f ..1.:...all rour helonging:

/- by groceryshops is 9,t-pp.l'r:. everything 5. Urbanpeopledon't grow food for themselves, and supermarkets. in about2( @ Haveyou everbeento London?lf yes,wdte a summaryofyour experiences you get there' or do when like to see you would words. Ifno, describein 200 words what below are p p Compare your informationon Bdtain to Hungaryin groups.Th questions vided to helo vou.
which are the main geographicaland sociologicalregions of Hungary? What are the defining characteistics of these reqions? Which are the largesl towns in Hungary? Compare London's characterand role wifhin Britai to the characterand role of Budapestwithin Hungary' Can you identify such a dividing line within Hungary as the one between the North and the South of Britain? what differencescan you find on the two sides of this linel l[ Translate the follolving passageinto English. az europai kontlnens kozepdn taldlhat6, tiivol a lengert6l Hatdrai A t- agyarorszag lakossrig l\ ,/l a totr"tt"l"- toran robbszoris negvdltoztak, ezdrt a magyaranyanyelvtii a r6gi6i a Dun.intil, legnagyobb Az orszdg hatdrainkivul 61. I V Legy reszema az orszag dt sokanugy tartjak.hogy a Dunantul eszaki6s dli NagyalfolJr* az Eszakikozphegys6g, A rcgiok kozril mrndig a nliugarrhatnrhozkajzeknlonbozik egymdstol. rs;eisjellegzetesen s tdrsadalmilagfejlenebbek, mert ezek voltak lebb esd teiuletek voltak gazdasdgilag Bizonyoskrilonbsgekma is megfigyelheN)'ugat-Eur6pdval. kapcsolatban a legszorosabb magasabb az 6letszinvonal'6s kisebb a munkan6lkrilisdS, t6k: a Dunrintulon alacsonyabb A legnagyobbkulonbsgekazonbanBudapests a vidik kozott fedezhetdkfel: a br1n6z6s. itr van a legtobbkulfoldi v,llalat szdkaz dtlagj6vedelmek, a f6vdrosban sokkal magasabbak a bii ds itt a legmagasabb helye,de a ibvdrosnagyon zsrilolt, a leve86jeerdsenszennyezett, jellegzetes el6it6leteka m:isik s a vidkiekben is dlnek bizonyos noz6s.A budapestiekben rartjnka vicl6kiet.ijakozadanabbnak milvelettenebbnek, nha fdllelszemben: abudapestik ldtjdk a f6vdrosiakal nagykdpiinek6sbar.ilsiigtalannak ket, mig azok olykor g6gosnek,

34