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Revision Control

Revision Initial Release (K807139) Revision 1 (1010331) Revision 2 (1010332) Revision 3 (9002391) Revision 4 (9002391) Revision 5 (901047-1) Revision 6 (901047-2) Revision 7 Revision 8 Print Date June 1996 November 1996 August 1997 February 1998 October 1998 October 1999 May 2000 March 2002 February 2006

Important Notices
2006, Crown Broadcast, a division of International Radio and Electronics, Inc. Portions of this document were originally copyrighted by Michael P. Axman in 1991. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form by any means without the written permission of Crown International, Inc. Printed in U.S.A. Sony and RCA are trademarks of their respective companies. Crown attempts to provide information that is accurate, complete, and useful. Should you find inadequacies in the text, please send your comments to the following address: International Radio and Electronics 25166 Leer Drive, P.O. Box 2000 Elkhart, Indiana, 46515-2000 U.S.A.

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Contents
Section 1Getting Acquainted ..................................... 11
1.1 Your Transmitter ............................................................................................... 12 1.2 Applications and Options ................................................................................... 13 1.2.1 Stand-Alone .................................................................................................. 14 1.2.2 Backup .......................................................................................................... 14 1.2.3 Booster ......................................................................................................... 14 1.2.4 Exciter ........................................................................................................... 14 1.2.5 Translator ...................................................................................................... 15 1.2.6 Satellator ...................................................................................................... 16 1.3 Transmitter/Exciter Specifications ..................................................................... 17 1.4 Receiver Specifications ..................................................................................... 19 1.5 Safety Considerations ...................................................................................... 110 1.5.1 Dangers ...................................................................................................... 110 1.5.2 Warnings .................................................................................................... 110 1.5.3 Cautions...................................................................................................... 110

Section 2Installation ............................................... 21


2.1 Operating Environment ...................................................................................... 22 2.2 Remove PA Tray Spacers .................................................................................. 22 2.3 Power Connections ........................................................................................... 23 2.4 Frequency (Channel) Selection .......................................................................... 25 2.4.1 Modulation Compensator .............................................................................. 26 2.4.2 RF Tuning Adjustments ................................................................................. 27 2.5 Receiver Frequency Selection ............................................................................ 27 2.6 RF Connections ................................................................................................. 29 2.7 Audio Input Connections ................................................................................. 210 2.8 SCA Input Connections ................................................................................... 211 2.9 Composite Input Connection ........................................................................... 211 2.10 Audio Monitor Connections ............................................................................. 212 2.11 Pre-emphasis Selection ................................................................................... 212 2.12 Processor Bypass Option ................................................................................ 212 2.13 Program Input Fault Time-out ......................................................................... 213 2.14 Remote I/O Connector ..................................................................................... 213

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Section 3Operation ................................................. 31


3.1 Initial Power-up Procedures .............................................................................. 32 3.2 Power Switches................................................................................................. 34 3.2.1 DC Breaker .................................................................................................... 34 3.2.2 Power Switch ................................................................................................ 34 3.2.3 Carrier Switch ............................................................................................... 34 3.3 Front Panel Bar-Dot Displays ............................................................................. 35 3.3.1 Audio Processor Input .................................................................................. 35 3.3.2 Highband and Wideband Display .................................................................. 35 3.3.3 Modulation Display ....................................................................................... 35 3.5 Processing Control ............................................................................................ 36 3.6 Stereo-Mono Switch .......................................................................................... 36 3.4 Input Gain Switches .......................................................................................... 36 3.7 RF Output Control ............................................................................................. 37 3.8 Digital Multimeter .............................................................................................. 37 3.9 Fault Indicators ................................................................................................. 38

Section 4Principles of Operation................................. 41


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.15 Part Numbering ................................................................................................. 42 Audio Processor Circuit Board .......................................................................... 43 Stereo Generator Circuit Board .......................................................................... 44 RF Exciter Circuit Board .................................................................................... 46 Metering Circuit Board ...................................................................................... 48 Motherboard ..................................................................................................... 49 Display Circuit Board ....................................................................................... 410 Voltage Regulator Circuit Board ...................................................................... 411 Power Regulator Circuit Boards ...................................................................... 412 RF Driver ......................................................................................................... 412 RF Amplifier .................................................................................................... 413 Chassis ........................................................................................................... 413 RF Output Filter & Reflectometer ..................................................................... 414 Receiver Circuit Board Option ......................................................................... 414

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Section 5Adjustments and Tests ................................. 51


5.1 Audio Processor Adjustments ........................................................................... 52 5.1.1 Pre-Emphasis Selection ................................................................................ 52 5.1.2 Pre-Emphasis Fine Adjustment ..................................................................... 52 5.2 Stereo Generator Adjustments .......................................................................... 53 5.2.1 Separation .................................................................................................... 53 5.2.2 Composite Output ......................................................................................... 53 5.2.3 19 kHz Level ................................................................................................. 53 5.2.4 19 kHz Phase ................................................................................................ 53 5.3 Frequency Synthesizer Adjustments .................................................................. 54 5.3.1 Frequency (Channel) Selection ...................................................................... 54 5.3.2 Modulation Compensator .............................................................................. 54 5.3.3 Frequency Measurement and Adjustment ..................................................... 54 5.3.4 FSK Balance Control ..................................................................................... 54 5.4 Metering Board Adjustments ............................................................................. 55 5.4.1 Power Calibrate ............................................................................................. 55 5.4.2 Power Set ..................................................................................................... 55 5.4.3 SWR Calibrate ............................................................................................... 55 5.4.4 PA Current Limit ........................................................................................... 55 5.5 Motherboard Adjustments ................................................................................. 56 5.6 Display Modulation Calibration .......................................................................... 56 5.7 Voltage Regulator Adjustments ......................................................................... 56 5.8 Bias Set (RF Power Amplifier) ........................................................................... 56 5.9 Performance Verification ................................................................................... 57 5.9.1 Audio Proof-of-Performance Measurements ................................................. 57 5.9.2 De-emphasis Input Network .......................................................................... 57 5.10 Carrier Frequency .............................................................................................. 58 5.11 Output Power .................................................................................................... 58 5.12 RF Bandwidth and RF Harmonics ...................................................................... 58 5.13 Pilot Frequency ................................................................................................. 58 5.14 Audio Frequency Response ............................................................................... 59 5.15 Audio Distortion ................................................................................................ 59 5.16 Modulation Percentage ...................................................................................... 59 5.17 FM and AM Noise .............................................................................................. 59 5.18 Stereo Separation .............................................................................................. 59 5.19 Crosstalk ........................................................................................................... 59 5.19.1 Main Channel Into Sub .............................................................................. 510 5.19.2 Sub Channel Into Main .............................................................................. 510 5.20 38 kHz Subcarrier Suppression ....................................................................... 510 5.21 Additional Checks ............................................................................................ 510

Section 6Reference Drawings .................................... 61


6.1 Views ................................................................................................................ 62 6.2 Board Layouts and Schematics ......................................................................... 64

Section 7Service and Support .................................... 71


7.1 Service .............................................................................................................. 72 7.2 24Hour Support .............................................................................................. 72 7.3 Spare Parts ....................................................................................................... 72

Appendix ................................................................ A1 Glossary ................................................................. G1 Index................................................................ Index1

INFORMATION

Section 1Getting Acquainted


This section provides a general description of the FM500 transmitter and introduces you to safety conventions used within this document. Review this material before installing or operating the transmitter.

Getting Acquainted

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1.1 Your Transmitter
The FM500 is a member of a family of FM stereo broadcast transmitters. Crown transmitters are known for their modularity, ease-of-use, and reliability. The modularity is most apparent in the standard transmitter configuration which incorporates audio processing, stereo generation, and RF amplification without compromised signal quality. A single Crown transmitter can replace several pieces of equipment in a traditional system. Ease-of-use is apparent in the user-friendly front panel interface and in the installation procedure. Simply select your operating frequency (using four rotary switches), add an audio source, attach an antenna, connect AC power, and you're ready to broadcast. Of course, the FM series of transmitters also feature more sophisticated inputs and monitoring connections if needed. Reliability is a Crown tradition. The first Crown transmitters were designed for rigors of worldwide and potentially portable use. The modular design, quality components, engineering approach, and high production standards ensure stable performance. Remote control and metering of the transmitter is made possible through a builtin I/O port. For more direct monitoring, the front panel includes a digital multimeter display and status indicators. Automatic control circuitry provides protection for high VSWR as well as high current, voltage, and temperature conditions.

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 11 FM500 Stereo Broadcast Transmitter

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FM500 User's Manual

1.2

Applications and Options

Crown transmitters are designed for versatility in applications. They have been used as stand-alone and backup transmitters and in booster, translator, and satellator applications. The following discussion describes these applications further. Model numbers describe the configuration of the product (which has to do with its intended purpose) and the RF output power which you can expect. The number portion of each name represents the maximum RF output power. The FM500, for example, can generate up to 500 watts of RF output power. Suffix letters describe the configuration. The FM500T, for example, designates a "transmitter" configuration. Since this is standard, it is what is described in the manual except where specified. In this configuration, the product includes the following modules (functions): u audio processor u stereo generator u RF exciter u metering u low-pass filter

RF Exciter Stereo Generator Low-pass Filter Metering

Audio Processor

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 12 Standard (Transmitter) Configuration

Getting Acquainted

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1.2.1 Stand-Alone
In the standard configuration, the FM500 is an ideal stand-alone transmitter. When you add an audio source (monaural, L/R stereo, or composite signal), an antenna, and AC power, the transmitter becomes a complete FM stereo broadcast station, capable of serving a community. As stand-alone transmitters, Crown units often replace multiple pieces of equipment in a traditional setup (exciter, audio processor, RF amplifier).

1.2.2

Backup

In the standard configuration, Crown transmitters are also used in backup applications. Should your primary transmitter become disabled, you can continue to broadcast while repairs take place. In addition, the FM transmitters can replace disabled portions of your existing system including the exciter, audio processor, or amplifier. Transfer switches on each side of the existing and backup transmitters make the change-over possible with minimal downtime.

1.2.3

Booster

Also in the standard configuration, Crown transmitters have been used as booster transmitters. Booster applications typically involve certain geographic factors which prevent your system from broadcasting to the full coverage area allowable. For example, a mountain range might block your signal to a portion of your coverage area. Careful placement of a Crown transmitter, operating on the same frequency as your primary transmitter, can help you reach full coverage.

1.2.4

Exciter

In addition to the standard configuration, the FM500 is available in optional configurations to meet a variety of needs. An "E" suffix, as in the FM500E, for example, represents an exciter-only configuration. In this configuration, the audio processor and stereo generator are not included. The exciter configurations are the least expensive way to get Crownquality components into your transmission system. You might consider the Crown exciter when other portions of your system are performing satisfactorily and you want to maximize your investment in present equipment.

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FM500 User's Manual

1.2.5

Translator

A receiver configuration (FM500R, for example) takes an exciter configuration and adds receiver circuitry as well. This added feature makes the FM500 ideal for translator service in terrestrial-fed networks. These networks represent a popular and effective way to increase your broadcasting coverage. Translators, acting as repeater emitters, are necessary links in this chain of events. Traditionally, network engineers have relied on multiple steps and multiple pieces of equipment to accomplish the task. Others have integrated the translator function (receiver and exciter) to feed an amplifier. Crown, on the other hand, starts with an integrated transmitter and adds a solid-state Receiver Module to form the ideal translator.
RF IN Low-pass Filter RF Out

Receiver Module (option)

Stereo Generator

RF Exciter

Metering
Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 13 Crown's Integrated Translator This option enables RF in and RF out on any of Crowns FM series of transmitters. In addition, the module supplies a composite output to the RF exciter portion of the transmitter. From here, the signal is brought to full power by the built-in power amplifier for retransmission. The Receiver Module has been specifically designed to handle SCA channel output up to 100 kHz for audio and high-speed data. FSK ID programming is built-in to ensure compliance with FCC regulations regarding the on-air identification of translators. Simply specify the call sign of the repeater station when ordering. Should you need to change the location of the translator, replacement FSK chips are available. The Receiver Module option should be ordered at the time of initial transmitter purchase. However, an option kit is available for field converting existing Crown units.

Getting Acquainted

15

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1.2.6 Satellator
Another option is available for all configurationsan FSK Identifier (FSK IDer). This added feature enables the FM500 to transmit its call sign or operating frequency in Morse Code. This option is intended for use in satellite-fed networks. Transmitters equipped in this fashion are often known as "satellators." Connect the transmitter to your satellite receiver and the pre-programmed FSK IDer does the restshifting the frequency to comply with FCC requirements and in a manner that is unnoticeable to the listener. The FSK IDer module should be ordered at the time you order your transmitter but is available separately (factory programmed for your installation). Add the FSK IDer option to the exciter configuration for the most economical satellator (a composite input signal is required).

Low-pass Filter FSK IDer (option) Stereo Generator RF Exciter

RF Out

Audio Processor
Audio Input
2 10

Metering
Fault Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High Band
High 2 Expand Compress 20

RF Power SWR ALC PA DC Volts

SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 14 Transmitter with FSK IDer Option

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FM500 User's Manual

1.3

Transmitter/Exciter Specifications
87 MHz108 MHz (65 MHz73 MHz optionally available) 100550 watts (VSWR 1.5:1 or better) 50 Meets FCC specifications from 0-50 degrees C 50 k bridging, balanced, or 600 Selectable for 10 dBm to +10 dBm for 75 kHz deviation at 400 Hz Selectable for 25, 50, or 75 sec; or Flat Conforms to 75 sec pre-emphasis curve as follows 0.30 dB (50 Hz10 kHz) 1.0 dB (10 kHz15 kHz)

Frequency Range

RF Power Output RF Output Impedance Frequency Stability

Audio Input Impedance Audio Input Level

Pre-emphasis Audio Response

Complete transmitter

Exciter only Distortion (THD + Noise) Complete transmitter Exciter only Stereo Separation Complete transmitter Exciter only Crosstalk

0.25 dB (50 Hz15 kHz)

Less than 0.7% (at 15 kHz) Less than 0.3% (50 Hz15 kHz)

Better than 40 dB (50 Hz15 kHz) Better than 40 dB (50 Hz15 kHz) Main into sub, better than 40 dB Sub into main, better than 40 dB

Stereo Pilot Subcarrier Suppresion FM S/N Ratio (FM noise) Complete transmitter Exciter only

19 kHz 2 Hz, 9% modulation 50 dB below 75 kHz deviation

Better than 60 dB Better than 70 dB

Getting Acquainted

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AM S/N Ratio Asynchronous and synchronous noise better than NAB recommendations 120 kHz, better than 35 dB 240 kHz, better than 45 dB RF Spurious Products Operating Environment Better than 70 dB Temperature (050o C) Humidity (080% at 20o C) Maximum Altitude (3,000 meters; 9843 feet) AC Power 100, 120, 220, or 240 volts (+10%/15%); 50/60 Hz Type notified for FCC parts 73 and 74; Meets FCC, DOC, and CCIR requirements 17.8 x 41.9 x 44.5 cm (7.0 x 16.5 x 17.5 inches) Weight 29.5 kg (65 lbs); 31.8 kg (70 lbs) shipping weight RF Bandwidth

Regulatory

Dimensions

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FM500 User's Manual

1.4

Receiver Specifications
3.5 V for signal-to-noise > 50 dB 12.6 V for signal-to-noise > 60 dB

Monaural Sensitivity (demodulated, de-emphasized)

Stereo Sensitivity (19kHz pilot frequency added) 2.8 V for signal-to-noise > 40 dB 8 V for signal-to-noise > 50 dB 31 V for signal-to-noise > 60 dB Connector Shipping Weight Standard type N, 50 1 lb

Getting Acquainted

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1.5 Safety Considerations
Crown Broadcast assumes the responsibility for providing you a safe product and safety guidelines during its use. Safety means protection to all individuals who install, operate, and service the transmitter as well as protection of the transmitter itself. To promote safety, we use standard hazard alert labeling on the product and in this manual. Follow the associated guidelines to avoid potential hazard.

1.5.1

Dangers

DANGER represents the most severe hazard alert. Extreme bodily harm or death will occur if DANGER guidelines are not followed.

1.5.2

Warnings

WARNING represents hazards which could result in severe injury or death.

1.5.3

Cautions

CAUTION indicates potential personal injury or equipment or property damage if the associated guidelines are not followed. Particular cautions in this text also indicate unauthorized radio-frequency operation.
Type of Hazard

WARNING
Severe shock hazard!

Pictorial Indication of Hazard

Turn power off and wait approximately 1 minute for capacitors to discharge before handling them.

Explanation of Hazard

Illustration 15 Sample Hazard Alert

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FM500 User's Manual

Section 2Installation
This section provides important guidelines for installing your transmitter. Review this information carefully for proper installation.

Installation

21

CAUTION
Possible equipment damage! Before operating the transmitter for the first time, check for the proper AC line voltage setting and frequency selection as described in sections 2.3 and 2.4.

2.1

Operating Environment

You can install the FM transmitter in a standard component rack or on a suitable surface such as a bench or desk. In any case, the area should be as clean and wellventilated as possible. Always allow for at least 2 cm of clearance under the unit for ventilation. If you set the transmitter on a flat surface, install spacers on the bottom cover plate. If you install the transmitter in a rack, provide adequate clearance above and below. Do not locate the transmitter directly above a hot piece of equipment.

2.2

Remove PA Tray Spacers

The Crown FM 500 is shipped with spacers between the PA tray and the transmitter back panel. The spacers prevent damage to internal contacts during shipping. Remove and save the spacers and screws before installing the FM500.

#8 #8

#6
Illustration 2-1 FM 500 PA Tray Mounting Screws 1. 2. 3. Remove screws and spacers from five locations. Firmly push the PA tray into the FM 500 until the PA tray panel touches the back panel. Locate the bag labeled 500 Hardware. Install four #8 screws and washers and one number #6 screw and washer. See photo for locations.

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FM500 User's Manual

2.3

Power Connections

The FM500 operates on 100, 120, 220, or 240 volts AC (50 or 60 Hz; single phase). As shipped (factory default settings), the FM500 operates on 120 volts at 60 Hz. If you are operating the transmitter at 120 volts you do not need to make any changes. To operate the FM500 at 100, 220, or 240 volts, a few changes are necessary. To change the voltage setting, follow these steps: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Disconnect the power cord if it is attached. To set the input voltage for 100 volts, skip to step 7. Open the cover of the power connector assembly using a small, flat blade screwdriver. See Illustration 22. Insert the screwdriver into the top slot of the voltage selection assembly (red) and pry out the assembly from the power connector. If you are setting the input voltage for 220 or 240 volts, replace the installed fuses with 12 amp fuses (included in your package). See Illustration 23. Replace the red fuse assembly so that the "230V" setting appears right side up in the window. Close the assembly window.

115V

115V 230V

Illustration 22 Opening the Power Connector Cover

Illustration 23 Removing the Voltage Selection (red) Assembly

Installation

23

7.

Turn the transmitter upside down and remove the bottom cover. Note: The front panel filter grill must be removed to expose all of the bottom

Power Distribution Board

front of transmitter

Illustration 24 Underside of TransmitterBottom Cover Removed

cover screws for bottom cover removal and installation. 8. 9. 10. Locate the power distribution circuit board on the left side next to the large transformer cover. See Illustration 24. For 100 or 220 volt operation, change the jumper setting of P1 to the 100/ 220 V setting. For 220 or 240 volt operation, remove the jumper connecting P6 and P7. remove the jumper connecting P4 and P5. use a jumper to connect P5 and P6. 11. 12. Replace the bottom cover, and the front grill. Connect the AC power cord.

For your reference, use 12 amp fuses for 220 or 240 volt operation and 20 amp fuses for 100 or 120 volt operation.

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FM500 User's Manual

2.4

Frequency (Channel) Selection

You may select an operating frequency of 87 to 108 MHz in the FM broadcast band with 100 kHz channel spacing (10 kHz spacing is optional with the addition of a fifth rotary selector switch). To adjust the operating frequency, follow these steps: 1. 2. Remove the top cover by removing 15 screws. Locate the RF Exciter board and identify the frequency selector switches which will be used to change the setting. See Illustrations 25 and 26.

Modulation Trim-pot RF Exciter

Frequency Selection Rotary Switches

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 25 Top Cover Removed

MEGAHERTZ

.1

.01

Illustration 26 RF Exciter Board Frequency Selector Switches

Installation

25

3.

Use small flat blade screwdriver or another suitable device to rotate the switches to the desired setting. (The selected number will appear directly above the white indicator dot on each switch.) See examples of selected frequencies in the illustration below.

= 88.1 MHz = 107.9 MHz


Illustration 27 Two Sample Frequency Selections 4. If you have the receiver option, proceed to section 2.5 to set the incoming frequency. Otherwise, replace the top cover.

2.4.1

Modulation Compensator

The Modulation trim-potentiometer (see illustration 28) compensates for slight variations in deviation sensitivity with frequency. Set the trim-pot dial according to the following graph:
Modulation Compensation Pot Setting

90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
75 80 85 90 95 100 105 110

Frequency (MHz)

Illustration 28 Modulation Compensator Settings These compensator settings are approximate. Each mark on the potentiometer represents about 1.8% modulation compensation. For more exact settings, refer to section 5.2.2.

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FM500 User's Manual

2.4.2

RF Tuning Adjustments

All the RF stages are broadband to cover the 88 to 108 MHz broadcast band. The RF amplifier stages require no tuning.

2.5
1. 2. 3.

Receiver Frequency Selection


With the top cover removed, locate the receiver module and the two switches (labeled SW1 and SW2). Use the table on the following pages to set the switches for the desired incoming frequency. After setting the frequency, return to section 2.3.1 to set the modulation compensator.

If you have a transmitter equipped with the receiver option, you will need to set the receiving or incoming frequency.

Frequency Selection Switches SW1 & SW2

RF IN

Stereo Receiver Generator Module

RF Exciter

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault
High Band
SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 28 Receiver Module Switches

Installation

27

Frequency 87.9 88.0 88.1 88.2 88.3 88.4 88.5 88.6 88.7 88.8 88.9 89.0 89.1 89.2 89.3 89.4 89.5 89.6 89.7 89.8 89.9 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 90.4 90.5 90.6 90.7 90.8 90.9 91.0 91.1 91.2 91.3 91.4 91.5 91.6 91.7 91.8 91.9 92.0 92.1 92.2 92.3 92.4 92.5 92.6 92.7 92.8 92.9

SW1 SW2 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 0 8 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 A A B B C C D D E E F F 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9

Frequency 93.0 93.1 93.2 93.3 93.4 93.5 93.6 93.7 93.8 93.9 94.0 94.1 94.2 94.3 94.4 94.5 94.6 94.7 94.8 94.9 95.0 95.1 95.2 95.3 95.4 95.5 95.6 95.7 95.8 95.9 96.0 96.1 96.2 96.3 96.4 96.5 96.6 96.7 96.8 96.9 97.0 97.1 97.2 97.3 97.4 97.5 97.6 97.7 97.8 97.9

SW1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 1 9 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 2 A 3 B 3 B 3

SW2 9 A A B B C C D D E E F F 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 A A B B C C D D E E F F 0 0 1 1 2

Frequency 98.0 98.1 98.2 98.3 98.4 98.5 98.6 98.7 98.8 98.9 99.0 99.1 99.2 99.3 99.4 99.5 99.6 99.7 99.8 99.9 100.0 100.1 100.2 100.3 100.4 100.5 100.6 100.7 100.8 100.9 101.0 101.1 101.2 101.3 101.4 101.5 101.6 101.7 101.8 101.9 102.0 102.1 102.2 102.3 102.4 102.5 102.6 102.7 102.8 102.9

SW1 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 3 B 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4

SW2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 A A B B C C D D E E F F 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 A A B

Frequency 103.0 103.1 103.2 103.3 103.4 103.5 103.6 103.7 103.8 103.9 104.0 104.1 104.2 104.3 104.4 104.5 104.6 104.7 104.8 104.9 105.0 105.1 105.2 105.3 105.4 105.5 105.6 105.7 105.8 105.9 106.0 106.1 106.2 106.3 106.4 106.5 106.6 106.7 106.8 106.9 107.0 107.1 107.2 107.3 107.4 107.5 107.6 107.7 107.8 107.9 108.0

SW1 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 4 C 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 5 D 6 E 6 E 6 E 6 E 6 E

SW2 B C C D D E E F F 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 A A B B C C D D E E F F 0 0 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4

Table 21 Receiver Frequency Selection


28 FM500 User's Manual

2.6

RF Connections

Connect the RF load, an antenna or the input of an external power amplifier, to the type-N, RF output connector on the rear panel. VSWR should be 1.5:1 or better.

WARNING
Severe shock hazard! Do not touch the inner portion of the RF output connector when transmitter power is on.

The RF monitor is intended primarily for a modulation monitor connection. Information gained through this connection can supplement that which is available on the transmitter front panel displays. If your transmitter is equipped with the receiver option, connect the incoming RF to the RF IN connector.

RF Output Connector RFInput Connector (receiver option only)

RF Output Monitor
115V

Illustration 210 RF Connections

Installation

29

2.7

Audio Input Connections

Attach audio inputs to the Left and Right XLR connectors on the rear panel. (The Left channel audio is used on Mono.) Pin 1 of the XLR connector goes to chassis ground. Pins 2 and 3 represent a balanced differential input with an impedance of about 50 k. They may be connected to balanced or unbalanced left and right program sources. The audio input cables should be shielded pairs, whether the source is balanced or unbalanced. For an unbalanced program source, one line (preferably the one connecting to pin 3) should be grounded to the shield at the source. Audio will then connect to the line going to pin 2.

SCA IN

COMPOSITE IN R

MONITOR L REMOTE I/O

RIGHT

LEFT/MONO

Audio Inputs

Illustration 2-10 XLR Audio Input Connectors By bringing the audio return line back to the program source, the balanced differential input of the transmitter is used to best advantage to minimize noise. This practice is especially helpful if the program lines are fairly long but is a good practice for any distance. If the program source requires a 600 termination, install resistors on the 8pin DIP socket on the motherboard (socket A501 located between the XLR connectors). See the motherboard schematic, on page 613.

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FM500 User's Manual

2.8

SCA Input Connections

You can connect external SCA generators to the SCA In connectors (BNC-type) on the rear panel. The inputs are intended for the 60 kHz to 99 kHz range, but a lower frequency may be used if the transmitter is operated in Mono mode. (The 23 to 53 kHz band is used for stereo transmission.) For 7.5 kHz deviation (10% modulation), input of approximately 3.5volts (peak-to-peak) is required.

SCA IN

COMPOSITE IN R

MONITOR L REMOTE I/O

RIGHT

LEFT/MONO

SCA Inputs (BNC) Connectors

Illustration 212 SCA Input Connectors

2.9

Composite Input Connection

To use the Crown transmitter as an RF Exciter only ("E" version or when using the "T" version with composite input), it is necessary to use the Composite Input section of the transmitter. This will feed composite stereo (or mono audio) directly to the RF exciter. In the "T" version, this will bypass the internal audio processor and stereo generator. See Section 2.12 on the next page for caution in using the bypass option. Input sensitivity is approximately 3.5volt P-P for 75 kHz deviation. 1. 2. Enable the Composite Input by grounding pin 9 of the Remote I/O connector (see Illustration 215). Connect the composite signal using the Composite In BNC connector.

Installation

211

SCA IN

COMPOSITE IN R

MONITOR L REMOTE I/O

RIGHT

LEFT/MONO

Composite Input (BNC) Connector

Audio Monitor (RCA) Jacks

Illustration 213 Composite In and Audio Monitor Connections

2.10

Audio Monitor Connections

Processed, de-emphasized samples of the left and right audio inputs to the stereo generator are available at the Monitor jacks on the rear panel. The signals are suitable for feeding a studio monitor and for doing audio testing. De-emphasis is normally set for 75 sec; set to 50 sec by moving jumpers, JP203 and JP204, on the Stereo Generator board.

2.11

Pre-emphasis Selection

Select the pre-emphasis curve (75 sec, 50 sec, 25 sec, or Flat) by jumpering the appropriate pins of header JP1 on the audio processor board. If you change the pre-emphasis, change the de-emphasis jumpers JP203 and JP204 on the Stereo Generator board to match.

2.12

Processor Bypass Option

You may bypass the audio processor in order to feed the left and right (preemphasized) audio directly to the stereo generator. The Normal-Bypass slide switch is near the left-rear corner of the motherboard. If the audio source is already processed and you do not desire further processing, use the Normal mode but turn the Processing control (on the front panel) to 0. (See also section 3.5.)

CAUTION
In the BYPASS position, the pre-emphasis circuits and the filters that protect the pilot and stereo subcarrier are bypassed. As a result, the occupied bandwidth specifications of the transmitter could be compromised. The 15Hz high-pass filters are also bypassed which may mean that modulation with frequencies below 10 Hz could cause the frequency synthesizer to unlock.

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FM500 User's Manual

2.13

Program Input Fault Time-out

You can enable an automatic turn-off of the carrier in the event of program failure. To enable this option, see the table on the next page. The time between program failure and carrier turn-off is set by a jumper (JP701) on the voltage regulator board (see Illustration 64 for board location). Jumper pins 1 and 2 (the two pins closest to the edge of the board) for a delay of approximately 30 seconds; pins 3 and 4 for a 2minute delay; pins 5 and 6 for a 4minute delay, and pins 7 and 8 for an 8minute delay.

2.14

Remote I/O Connector

Remote control and remote metering of the transmitter is made possible through a 15pin, D-sub connector on the rear panel. (No connections are required for normal operation.)

SCA IN

COMPOSITE IN R

MONITOR L REMOTE I/O

RIGHT

LEFT/MONO

Remote I/O

Illustration 214 Remote I/O Connector The following table summarizes the Remote I/O pin connections.

Installation

213

Pin Number 1 2 3 4

Function Ground (no connection) Composite Out (sample of stereo generator output) FSK In (Normally high; pull low to shift carrier frequency approximately 7.5 kHz. Connect to open collector or relay contacts of user-supplied FSK keyer.) /Auto Carrier Off (Pull low to enable automatic turnoff of carrier with program failure.) Meter Battery (unregulated DC volts; 5 volts = 50 VDC) Meter RF Watts (1 volt = 100 watts) Meter PA Volts (5 volts = 50 VDC) /Ext. Enable (Pull low to disable internal stereo generator and enable External Composite Input.) a) 38 kHz Out (From stereo generator for power supply synchronization.) b) For transmitters equipped with tuner option, this pin becomes the right audio output for an 8ohm monitor speaker. 38kHZ Out is disabled.

5 6 7 8 9 10

11 12 13 14 15

ALC /Carrier Off (pull low to turn carrier off.) Fault Summary (line goes high if any fault light is activated.) Meter PA Temperature (5 volts = 100 degrees C.) Meter PA Current (1 volt = 10 amperes DC.)

Table 23 Remote I/O Connections

15

Illustration 215 Remote I/O Connector (outside view)

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FM500 User's Manual

Section 3Operation
This section provides general operating parameters of your transmitter and a detailed description of its front panel display.

Operation

31

3.1

Initial Power-up Procedures

These steps summarize the operating procedures you should use for the initial operation of the transmitter. More detailed information follows.

CAUTION
Possible equipment damage! Before operating the transmitter for the first time, check for the proper AC line voltage setting and frequency selection as described in sections 2.3 and 2.4.

1.

Turn on the main power switch.


Carrier Switch
Fault
SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

Power

Stereo

50 40 30 20

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Power Switch

Illustration 31 Front Panel Power Switches 2. Verify the following: a. b. 4. 5. 6. 7. The bottom cooling fans runs continuously. The Lock Fault indicator flashes for approximately 5 seconds, then goes off.

Set the Input Gain switches for mid-scale wideband gain reduction on an average program level (see section 3.4). Set the Processing control (see section 3.5; normal setting is 50). Set the Stereo-Mono switch to Stereo (see section 3.6). Turn on the Carrier switch.

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FM500 User's Manual

8.

Check the following parameters on the front panel multimeter: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. RF Power should be 500550 watts. SWR should be less than 1.25 (A reading greater than 1.25 indicates an antenna mismatch). ALC should be between 4.00 and 6.00 volts. PA DC Volts should be 4656 volts. (Varies with antenna match, power, and frequency.) PA DC Amperes should be 1216 amps. (Varies with antenna match, power, and frequency.) PA Temperature should initially read 2035 degrees C (room temperature). After one hour the reading should be 3550 degrees C. Supply DC Volts should display a typical reading of 6570 V with the carrier on and 8085 V with the carrier off Voltmeter should be reading 0.0.

The remainder of this section describes the functions of the front panel indicators and switches.

Operation

33

3.2
3.2.1

Power Switches
DC Breaker

The DC breaker, on the rear panel, must be on (up) for transmitter operation, even when using AC power. Electrically, the DC breaker is located immediately after diodes which isolate the DC and AC power supplies.

3.2.2

Power Switch

The main on/off power switch controls both the 120/240 VAC and the DC battery power input.

3.2.3

Carrier Switch

This switch controls power to the RF amplifiers and supplies a logic high to the voltage regulator board, which enables the supply for the RF driver. In addition, the Carrier Switch controls the operating voltage needed by the switching power regulator. A "Lock Fault" or a low pin 12 (/Carrier Off) on the Remote I/O connector will hold the carrier off. (See section 2.12.)

Carrier Switch
Fault
SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

Power

Stereo

50 40 30 20

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Power Switch

Illustration 32 Front Panel Power Switches

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FM500 User's Manual

3.3

Front Panel Bar-Dot Displays

Bar-dot LEDs show audio input levels, wideband and highband audio gain control, and modulation percentage. Resolution for the gain control and modulation displays is increased over a conventional bar-graph display using dither enhancement which modulates the brightness of the LED to give the effect of a fade from dot to dot. (See section 4.7.)

3.3.1

Audio Processor Input

Two vertical, moving-dot displays for the left and right channels indicate the relative audio levels, in 3 dB steps, at the input of the audio processor. Under normal operating conditions, the left and right Audio Processor indicators will be active, indicating the relative audio input level after the Input Gain switches. During program pauses, the red Low LED will light. With the receiver module option installed, the audio processor indicators are disabled.

3.3.2

Highband and Wideband Display

During audio processing, the moving-dot displays indicate the amount of gain control for broadband (Wide) and pre-emphasized (High) audio. These indicators are disabled if the receiver module option is installed. As long as program material causes activity of the Wideband green indicators, determined by the program source level and Input Gain switches, the transmitter will be fully modulated. (See section 3.4.) The Wideband indicator shows short-term syllabic-rate expansion and gain reduction around a long-term (several seconds) average gain set. Program material and the setting of the Processing control determine the magnitude of the short-term expansion and compression (the rapid left and right movement of the green light). High-frequency program content affects the activity of the Highband indicator. With 75sec pre-emphasis, Highband processing begins at about 2 kHz and increases as the audio frequency increases. Some programs, especially speech, may show no activity while some music programs may show a great deal of activity.

3.3.3

Modulation Display

A 10segment, vertical peak-and-hold, bar graph displays the peak modulation percentage. A reading of 100 coincides with 75 kHz deviation. The display holds briefly (about 0.1 seconds) after the peak. The Pilot indicator illuminates when the transmitter is in the stereo mode. To verify the actual (or more precise) modulation percentage, connect a certified modulation monitor to the RF monitor jack on the rear panel.
Operation 35

3.4

Input Gain Switches

The +6 dB and +12 dB slide switches set audio input sensitivity according to the following table.
Nominal Input Sensitivity +10 dBm +4 dBm -2 dBm -8 dBm Switches +6 dB +12 dB Down Down Up Down Down Up Up Up

Table 31 Input Gain Switches Find, experimentally, the combination of Input Gain switch settings that will bring the Wideband gain-reduction indicator to mid scale for normal level program material. The audio processor will accommodate a fairly wide range of input levels with no degradation of audio quality.

3.5

Processing Control

Two factors contribute to the setting of the Processing control: program material and personal taste. For most program material, a setting in the range of 40 to 70 provides good program density. For the classical music purist, who might prefer preservation of music dynamics over density, 10 to 40 is a good range. The audio will be heavily processed in the 70 to 100 range. If the program source is already well processed, as might be the case with a satellite feed, set the Processing to 0 or 10.

3.6

Stereo-Mono Switch

The Stereo-Mono slide switch selects the transmission mode. In Mono, feed audio only to the left channel. Although right-channel audio will not be heard as audio modulation, it will affect the audio processing.

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FM500 User's Manual

3.7

RF Output Control

Set this control for the desired output power level. Preferably, set the power with an external RF wattmeter connected in the coaxial line to the antenna. You may also use the RF power reading on the digital multimeter. The control sets the RF output voltage. Actual RF output power varies as the approximate square of the relative setting of the control. For example, a setting of 50 is approximately 1/4 full power. Operation below 100 watts is not recommended as instability can occur which could damage the transmitter.

CAUTION
Possible equipment damage! Operation below 100 watts can cause oscillations and other problems that could damage the transmitter.

3.8

Digital Multimeter

The four-digit numeric display in the center of the front panel provides information on transmitter operation. Use the Up and down push-buttons to select one of the following parameters. A green LED indicates the one selected.

Digital Multimeter Multimeter Functions


Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Multimeter Push-buttons
Fault Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High Band
High 2 Expand

SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 33 Digital Multimeter RF PowerActually reads RF voltage squared, so the accuracy can be affected by VSWR (Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio). See section 5.4 for calibration. Requires calibration with the RF reflectometer being used. SWRDirect reading of the antenna standing-wave ratio (the ratio of the desired load impedance, 50 ohms, to actual load).
Operation 37

ALCDC gain control bias used to regulate PA supply voltage. With the PA power supply at full output voltage, ALC will read about 6.0 volts. When the RF output is being regulated by the RF power control circuit, this voltage will be reduced, typically reading 4 to 5.5 volts. The ALC voltage will be reduced during PA DC overcurrent, SWR, or LOCK fault conditions. PA DC VoltsSupply voltage of the RF power amplifier. PA DC AmpsTransistor drain current for the RF power amplifier. PA DC TemperatureTemperature of the RF power amplifier heatsink in degrees C. Supply DC VoltsUnregulated DC voltage at the input of the voltage regulators. For battery operation, this reading is the battery voltage minus a diode drop. VoltmeterReads the voltage at a test point located on the front edge of the motherboard. A test lead connected to this point can be used for making voltage measurements in the transmitter. The test point is intended as a servicing aid; an alternative to an external test meter. Remember that the accuracy is only as good as the reference voltage used by the metering circuit. Servicing a fault affected by the reference affects the Voltmeter reading. The metering scale is 0 to 199.9 volts.

3.9

Fault Indicators

Faults are indicated by a blinking red light as follows: SWRLoad VSWR exceeds 1.5:1. ALC voltage is reduced to limit the reflected RF power. LockFrequency synthesizer phase-lock loop is unlocked. This indicator normally blinks for about five seconds at power turn-on. Whenever this light is blinking, supply voltages will be inhibited for the RF driver stage as well as for the RF power amplifier. InputThe automatic carrier-off circuit is enabled (see sections 2.11 and 2.12) and the absence of a program input signal has exceeded the preset time. (The circuit treats white or pink noise as an absence of a program.) PA DCPower supply current for the RF power output amplifier is at the preset limit. ALC voltage has been reduced, reducing the PA supply voltage to hold supply current to the preset limit. PA TempPA heatsink temperature has reached 8085 C (178185 F). At about 83 C (181F), ALC voltage begins to decrease, reducing the PA supply voltage to prevent a further increase in temperature. By 85 C (185 F), the PA will be fully cut off.

38

FM500 User's Manual

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ma

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Section 4Principles of Operation


This section discusses the circuit principles upon which the transmitter functions. This information is not needed for day-today operation of the transmitter but may be useful for advanced users and service personnel.

Principles of Operation

41

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4.1

Part Numbering

As this section refers to individual components, you should be familiar with the part numbering scheme used. Although parts on the various circuit boards and circuit board drawings may be marked with identical reference numbers, each component in the transmitter has a unique part reference number. The circuit boards and component placement drawings use designators such as R1, R2, and C1. These numbers represent only a portion of the full part numbers (as shown on the schematic). To find the full number, refer to the chart below. R401, for instance, is marked R1 on the Metering board and on its component placement drawing.

Circuit Name Audio Processor Stereo Generator RF Exciter/Synthesizer Metering/Protection Motherboard Display Voltage Regulator Power Regulator RF Predriver Chassis Wiring RF Power Amplifier RF Low-Pass Filter

Part numbers 0-199 200s 300s 400s 500s 600s 700s 800s 900s 1000's 1100's 1200's

Illustration 41 Component Part Numbering

42

FM500 User's Manual

4.2

Audio Processor Circuit Board

The audio processor board provides the audio control functions of a compressor, limiter, and expander. Illustration 65 and accompanying schematic may be useful to you during this discussion.

Audio Processor

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 42 Audio Processor Board This board also contains the pre-emphasis networks. Reference numbers are for the left channel. Where there is a right-channel counterpart, references are in parenthesis. One processor circuit, the eighth-order elliptical filter, is located on the stereo generator board. Audio input from the XLR connector on the rear panel of the transmitter goes to differential-input amplifier, U1A (U2A). Binary data on the +6 dB and +12 dB control lines sets the gain of inverting amplifier U1B (U2B). Analog switch, U3, selects one of four feedback points in 6 dB steps. The output of U1B (U2B) goes to an eighth-order, elliptical, switched-capacitor, low-pass, 15.2 kHz filter. The filter finds its home on the stereo generator board to take advantage of the ground plane and proximity to the 1.52 MHz clock. The circuit associated with U4B (U4A), along with R22/C8 (R58/C20), form third-order, low-pass filtering, attenuating audio products below 30 Hz. The output level of analog multiplier U5 (U6) is the product of the audio signal at pin 13 and the DC voltage difference between pins 7 and 9. At full gain (no gain reduction) this difference will be 10 volts DC.

Principles of Operation

43

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When either the positive or negative peaks of the output of U5 (U6) exceeds the gain-reduction threshold, U13A generates DC bias, producing broadband gain reduction. Q5 is a precision-matched transistor pair. Q5 and U13B form a log converter, so that a given voltage change produces a given change in gain control dB of U5 (U6). The log conversion ensures uniform level-processing characteristics well beyond the 20 dB control range. The log conversion has an additional benefit; it allows a display of gain control on a linear scale with even distribution of dB. Q1 (Q2) is a recover/expansion gate with a threshold about 18 dB below the normal program level. The amount of short-term expansion and gain reduction is controlled by R650, located on the front panel display board. (See section 3.5.) Pre-emphasis, in microseconds, is the product of the capacitance of C10 (C22), multiplied by the gain of U8 (U9), times the value of R31 (R67). For a 75 second pre-emphasis, the gain of U8 (U9) will be about 1.11. Select the pre-emphasis curve (75 sec, 50 sec, 25 sec, or Flat) by jumpering the appropriate pins on header JP1. Use trim pot R29 (R65) to make fine adjustments to the pre-emphasis. (See section 5.1.) For highband processing, the peak output of U10B is detected and gain-reduction bias is generated, as with the broadband processor. The highband processing, however, shifts the pre-emphasis curve rather than affecting overall gain. Peak audio voltages are compared to a plus and minus 5 volt reference, U17 and U18. This same reference voltage is used by the stereo generator, metering, and display boards. For an explanation of on-board adjustments see section 5.1.

4.3

Stereo Generator Circuit Board

The stereo generator board (see Illustration 43) generates a composite stereo signal from left and right-channel audio inputs. The component side of the board is mostly a ground plane. Once again, the eighth-order, 15.2 kHz, elliptical, low-pass filters (U201 and U202) are on this board, but belong to the audio processor. Illustration 66 and accompanying schematic complement this discussion. U207A and Y201 comprise a 7.6 MHz crystal oscillator from which the 19 kHz and 38 kHz subcarriers are digitally synthesized. U207F is a buffer. The 7.6 MHz is divided by 5 in U208A to provide 1.52 MHz at pin 6, used by filters U201 and U202. 3.8 MHz, 1.9 MHz, and 304 kHz are also derived from dividers in U208. Exclusive-OR gates, U210A and U210B, provide a stepped approximation of a 38 kHz sine wavea scheme described in the CMOS Cookbook by Don Lancaster (Howard W. Sams &. Co., Inc., Indianapolis, IN, 1978). With the resistor ratios used, the synthesized sine wave has very little harmonic energy below the 7th harmonic. U210C and D generate the 19 kHz pilot subcarrier. U211 is a dual, switched-capacitor filter, configured as second-order, low-pass filters,

44

FM500 User's Manual

Stereo Generator

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 43 Stereo Generator Board

each with a Q of 5. The 38 kHz and 19 kHz outputs of pins 1 and 20, respectively, are fairly pure sine waves. Harmonic distortion products are better than 66 dB downTHD of less than 0.05%. U212 is a precision, four-quadrant, analog multiplier. The output of U212 is the product of 38 kHz applied to the X input and the difference of left and right audio (L-R signal) applied to the Y input. The resulting output is a double sideband, suppressed carrierthe L-R subcarrier. The SCA subcarrier, the left, right, and left-minus-right subcarriers, and the 19 kHz pilot subcarrier are combined into the composite stereo signal by summing amplifier U206B. Analog switch U205, at the input of U206B, provides switching of left and right audio for stereo and mono modes. In the mono mode, right channel audio is disabled, and the left channel audio is increased from 45% modulation to 100%. MON L and MON R outputs go to the AF Monitor jacks on the rear panel. R208+R210 (R220+R222) and C207 (C211) comprise a 75 sec de-emphasis network. Processed, de-emphasized (75 sec) samples of the stereo generator input signals are used for a studio monitor and for audio testing. Option jumpers JP203 (JP204) allow you to select 50 sec. VR201 and VR202 supply +6 volts and 6 volts, respectively. A 5 volt reference from the audio processor board supplies the subcarrier generators. For an explanation of on-board adjustments see section 5.2.

Principles of Operation

45

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scrivendo con ondo, ma uestoom s in q se, un i dice for diciamo che se scrivendo con a m diciamo che se scrivendo con ma

4.4

RF Exciter Circuit Board

This board is also known as the Frequency Synthesizer board. The entire component side of the board is a ground plane. Rotary switches along the front edge of the board establish the operating frequency. The VCO (voltage-controlled oscillator) circuitry is inside a shielded cover. Illustration 67 and accompanying schematic can be used as reference in this discussion. The following theory may apply to previous versions of the exciter board, but it is typical of the operation of the current board which has the latest technological improvements. VCO, VCO61, operates at the synthesizer output frequency of 87 MHz to 108 MHz. The frequency is controlled by voltage-variable capacitors DV71 and DV72. U7A and U7B form an active filter to supply clean DC to the drain of Q71. They also serve as a common-base RF amplifier for Q71. A71 and A1 are hybrid RF amplifiers to provide buffering and gain. A sample of the RF from the VCO goes to the input of A2. A2 amplifies the signal and feeds it back to the synthesizer IC, U6. This signal, available at pin 4 of U6, may be used with a high frequency receiver for deviation and frequency measurements. (See sections 5.2 and 5.3.) U6 is a phase-locked-loop frequency synthesizer IC. The 10.24 MHz from the crystal oscillator is used by U6, along with ICs U1 through U3 and the frequency selector switches, to generate the frequencies of the transmitter.

RF Exciter

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 44 RF Exciter Board

46

FM500 User's Manual

U6 is programmed with the four or five rotary switches. The binary output of the 0.1 MHz switch programs the A counter directly. BCD data from the 100s, tens, and units rotary switches is converted to binary data by U3 to set the N counter. An optional fifth digit rotary switch for 10kHz spacing is available. U5C is a differential amplifier and filter for the error signal. Audio that is out of phase with that appearing on the error voltage is introduced by U5A, allowing for greater loop bandwidth with less degradation of the low-frequency audio response. U5D is an integrator. U5B is a VCO input voltage clamp. DV71 and DV72 are hyper-abrupt varactor tuning diodes with a square-law capacitance vs DC voltage curve, giving a straight-line frequency vs voltage curve in a LC oscillator where the varactors are the dominant source of capacitance. Lock and unlock status signals are available at the outputs of U4E and U4F, respectively. Modulation is introduced to the VCO through R17 and R71 to R75. About 4.1 millivolts across R75 produces 75 kHz deviation. An FSK signal (used for automatic identification of FM repeaters) shifts the frequencies of the 10.24 MHz crystal reference and the VCO. With keying, diodes D9 and D10, are reverse biased, increasing the crystal reference frequency. At the same time, current through R72 increases the VCO frequency. See section 5.3.4.

Principles of Operation

47

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scrivendo con ondo, ma uestoom s in q se, un i dice for diciamo che se scrivendo con a m diciamo che se scrivendo con ma

4.5

Metering Circuit Board

The ALC and metering circuitry is on the metering board (see Illustration 44). This board processes information for the RF and DC metering, and produces ALC (RF level-control) bias. It also provides reference and input voltages for the digital panel meter, voltages for remote metering, fan control, and drive for the front-panel fault indicators. Illustration 68 and accompanying schematic complement this discussion. PA voltage and current come from a metering shunt on the power regulator board. The PAI input is a current proportional to PA current; R405 converts the current to voltage used for metering and control. A voltage divider from the PAV line is used for DC voltage metering.

Metering

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 45 Metering Board

U406A, U406B, and U407A, with their respective diodes, are diode linearity correction circuits. Their DC inputs come from diode detectors in the RF reflectometer in the RF low-pass filter compartment. U407B, U407C, Q405, and Q406 are components of a DC squaring circuit. Since the DC output voltage of U407C is proportional to RF voltage squared, it is also proportional to RF power. U404C, U404A, U403A, and U404D are level sensors for RF power, reflected RF power, PA temperature, and external PA current, respectively. When either of these parameters exceeds the limits, the output of U404B will be forced low, reducing the ALC (RF level control) voltage, which, in turn, reduces the PA supply voltage.

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The DC voltage setpoint for U404A (reflected RF voltage) is one-fifth that of U404C (forward RF voltage). This ratio corresponds to an SWR of 1.5:1 [(1+.2)/(1.2)=1.5]. The U405 inverters drive the front panel fault indicators. To get a direct reading of SWR, the reference input of the digital panel meter is fed from a voltage proportional to the forward-minus-reflected RF voltage, while forward-plus-reflected is fed to the digital panel meter input. The panel meter provides the divide function. U408 & U409 function as data selectors for digital panel meter input and reference voltages. Binary select data for U408 & U409 comes from the display board. The output voltage of U403D goes positive when the temperature exceeds about 35 degrees C (set by R426) providing proportional fan control. When the Carrier switch is off or the RF power is less than about 5 watts, the SWR automatically switches to a calibrate-check mode. U406C provides a voltage that simulates forward power, while Q403 shunts any residual DC from the reflectedpower source. The result is a simulation of a 1.0 to 1 SWR. (See section 5.4.)

4.6

Motherboard

The motherboard is the large board in the upper chassis interconnecting the audio processor, stereo generator, RF exciter, and metering boards. The motherboard eliminates the need for a wiring harness, and provides input/output filtering, test points, and modular customization. Motherboard components are passive with the exception of the fan driver transistor, power FET Q501. With Normal-Bypass slide switch SW501, it is possible to bypass the audio processor, connecting the left and right audio inputs directly to the inputs of the stereo generator.

CAUTION
In the BYPASS position, the pre-emphasis circuits and the filters that protect the pilot and stereo subcarrier are bypassed. As a result, the occupied bandwidth specifications of the transmitter could be compromised. The 15Hz high-pass filters are also bypassed which may mean that modulation with frequencies below 10 Hz could cause the frequency synthesizer to unlock.

If the audio source is already processed, and further processing is not desired, use the Normal mode instead of Bypass and turn the Processing control on the front panel to 0. If it is necessary to provide resistive terminations at the audio inputs (either lineto-line or line-to-ground), you may place resistors directly into the 8pin DIP socket, A501, located between the XLR input connectors. See Illustration 69 and accompanying schematic for the socket pin-out.

Principles of Operation

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4.7

Display Circuit Board

The front-panel LEDs, the numeric display, the slide switches, and the processing and RF level controls are mounted on the display circuit board. To access the component side of the board, remove the front panel by removing 12 screws. The board contains circuits for the digital panel meter, modulation peak detector, and LED display drivers, as well as indicators and switches mentioned above. Illustration 610 and accompanying schematic complement this discussion. Left and right audio from input stages of the audio processor board (just after the Input Gain attenuator) go to the L VU and R VU input on the display board. Peak rectifiers U601A and U601B drive the left and right Audio Input displays. The LED driver gives a 3 dB per step display. The lowest step of the display driver is not used; rather a red LOW indicator lights when audio is below the level of the second step. Transistors Q601 and Q602 divert current from the LOW LEDs when any other LED of the display is lit. Resolution of the linear displays, High Band, Wide Band, and Modulation, has been improved using dither enhancement. With dither, the brightness of the LED is controlled by proximity of the input voltage relative to its voltage threshold. The effect is a smooth transition from step to step as input voltage is changed. U606A, U606B, and associated components comprise the dither generator. Dither output is a triangular wave. Composite stereo (or mono) is full-wave detected by diodes D605 and D606. U607, U613, Q603, and Q604 are components of a peak sample-and-hold circuit. Oscillator, U609F, supplies a low-frequency square wave to the Fault indicators, causing them to flash on and off. Digital multimeter inputs are selected with push buttons located to the right of the multimeter menu. Signals from the push buttons are conditioned by U609A and U609B. U610 is an up/down counter. Binary input to U611 from U610 selects a green menu indicator light, and lights the appropriate decimal point on the numeric readout. The binary lines also go to analog data selectors on the ALC/ metering board. Processing control, R650, is part of the audio processor. (See section 4.2.) The DPM IN and DPM REF lines are analog and reference voltage inputs to digital multimeter IC U612. They originate from analog data selectors on the ALC/ metering board.

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4.8

Voltage Regulator Circuit Board

The voltage regulator board is the longer of two boards mounted under the chassis toward the front of the unit. It has switch-mode voltage regulators to provide +12, 12, and 24 volts. It also contains the program detection and automatic carrier control circuits. Illustration 611 and accompanying schematic complement this discussion. U703E and U703F convert a 38 kHz sine wave from the stereo generator into a synchronization pulse. In the transmitter, synchronization is not used, thus D709 is omitted. U704 and U705 form a 24 volt switching regulator running at about 35 kHz. U704 is used as a pulse-width modulator; U705 is a high-side driver for MOSFET switch Q701. Supply voltage for the two ICs (approximately 15.5 volts) comes from linear regulator DZ702/Q705. Bootstrap voltage, provided by D710 and C714, allows the gate voltage of Q701 to swing about 15 volts above the source when Q701 is turned on. Current through the FET is sensed by R738 and R738A. If the voltage between pin 5 and 6 of U705 exceeds 0.23 volts on a current fault, drive to Q701 is turned off. Turn-off happens cycle by cycle. The speed of the turn-off is set by C713. U706 is a switching regulator for both +12 volts and 12 volts. It runs at about 52 kHz. Energy for 12 volts is taken from inductor L702 during the off portion of the switching cycle. The 12 volts tracks the +12 volts within a few tenths of a volt. There will be no 12 volts until current is drawn from the +12 volts. Q702, Q703, and Q704 form an active filter and switch, supplying DC voltage to the RF driver, when the Carrier switch is on. The program detection circuit is made up of U701 and U702. U701A and U701D and associated circuitry discriminate between normal program material and white noise (such as might be present from a studio-transmitter link during program failure) or silence. U701A and surrounding components form a band-pass filter with a Q of 3 tuned to about 5 kHz. U701D is a first-order low-pass filter. Red and green LEDs on the board indicate the presence or absence of program determined by the balance of the detected signals from the two filters. U702 and U701C form a count-down timer. The time between a program fault and shutdown is selected by jumpering pins on header JP701. For times, see section 5.7. The times are proportional to the value of R721 (that is, times can be doubled by doubling the value of R721).

Principles of Operation

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4.9

Power Regulator Circuit Boards

The power regulator boards are the two boards mounted under the chassis on either side of a pair of 15,000 f filter capacitors toward the front of the unit. Each board has the switch-mode voltage regulator for a RF power amplifier, and circuitry for PA supply current metering. Illustration 612 and accompanying schematic complement this discussion. Diode D804, in series with the battery input, together with the AC-supply diode bridge, provides diode OR-ing of the AC and DC supplies. U801 and U802 form a switching regulator running at about 35 kHz. U801 is used as a pulse-width modulator; U802 is a high-side driver for MOSFET switch Q801. Power for the two ICs comes from the 24 volt supply voltage for the RF driver (available when the Carrier switch is on). The voltage is controlled at 16 volts by zener diode DZ801. Bootstrap voltage provided by D802 and C809 allows the gate voltage of Q801 to swing about 16 volts above the source when Q801 is turned on. Current through the FET is sensed by R812 and R812A. If the voltage from pin 5 to 6 of U802 exceeds 0.23 volts on a current fault, drive to Q801 is turned off. This happens on a cycle-by-cycle basis. The speed of the turnoff is set by C805. In the transmitter, synchronization is not used, thus D801 is omitted. U803 and Q802 are used in a circuit to convert the current that flows through metering shunt, R819, into a current source at the collector of Q803. Forty millivolts is developed across R819 for each amp of supply current (.04 ohms x 1 amp). Q803 is biased by U803 to produce the same voltage across R816. The collector current of Q803 is the same (minus base current) as that flowing through R822 resulting in 40 microamperes per amp of shunt current. R405 on the metering board converts Q803 collector current to 0.1 volt per amp of shunt current (.04 ma X 2.49 k). (See section 5.4.)

4.10

RF Driver

The RF Driver module is mounted next to the heat sinks on the bottom of the RF Amplifier/Combiner sub chassis. The driver amplifies the approximate 20 milliwatts from the frequency synthesizer to about 15 watts to drive the RF power amplifiers. A CA2832 hybrid, high-gain, wideband amplifier, operating at about 20 volts, provides about one watt of drive to a single MRF137 MOSFET amplifier. The MRF137 stage operates from a supply voltage of approximately 15 to 16 volts. The circuit board has components for input and output coupling and for power supply filtering.

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4.11

RF Amplifier

The two RF power amplifier modules are mounted on a combiner board, heat sink, slide rail assembly which slides into the main chassis at the rear, and is fastened to the back panel with six screws. RF power, DC power, and control voltages enter the PA assembly through a 72pin edge connector that it slides into at the front of the chassis. The amplifier is built around two Phillips BLF278, dual-power MOSFETs rated for 50 volts DC and a maximum power of about 300 watts. When biased for class B, the transistor has a power gain of 20 dB. (It is biased below class B in the transmitter.) Input transformer, T1111, is made up of two printed circuit boards. The four-turn primary board is separated from the one-turn secondary by a thin dielectric film. R1112R1117 are for damping. Trim pot R1111 sets the bias. Output transformer, T1121, has a one-turn primary on top of the circuit board and a two-turn secondary underneath. Inductors L1121 and L1122 provide power line filtering. The amplifiers are surrounded by a 50 impedance, input/output combiner board which takes the 15 watts input and divides it equally to each power amp. Then the output from each amplifier is combined to form a single output.

4.12

Chassis

The AC power supply components, as well as the bridge rectifier and main filter capacitor are mounted on the chassis. Changing the jumpers on the AC distribution board (located beside the transformer assembly on the bottom of the transmitter), configures the power transformer for 100, 120, 220, or 240 VAC; see section 2.2 for switching and fuse information. The board also includes MOV voltage-surge suppressors and in-rush current limiters as well as a 12 volt power supply for the PA assembly cooling fans. The main energy-storage/filter capacitors are located between the two power regulator boards. The DC voltage across each capacitor will be 65 to 70 volts when the carrier is on.

WARNING
Shock hazard! Do not attempt to short the capacitor terminals. A bleeder resistor will discharge the capacitor in approximately one minute after shutdown.

Principles of Operation

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4.13

RF Output Filter & Reflectometer

The RF low-pass filter/reflectometer are located beside the motherboard in the right-hand compartment on the top of the chassis. See Illustration 614 and accompanying schematic for more information. A ninth-order, elliptic, low-pass filter attenuates harmonics generated in the power amplifier. The capacitors for the filter are circuit board pads. The reflectometer uses printed circuit board traces for micro-strip transmission lines. Transmission line segments (with an impedance of about 82 ohms) on either side of a 50 ohm conductor provide sample voltages representative of the square root of forward and reverse power. DC voltages, representative of forward and reflected power, go through a bulkhead filter board to the motherboard, then to the metering board, where they are processed for power control, metering, and for SWR metering and protection.

4.15

Receiver Circuit Board Option

This option allows the transmitter to be used as a translator. The receiver board receives terrestrially fed RF signal and converts it to composite audio which is then fed into the exciter board. Microprocessor controlled phase lock loop technology ensures the received frequency will not drift, and multiple IF stages ensure high adjacent channel rejection. Refer to illustrations 46, 616 and its schematic for the following discussion. The square shaped metal can located on the left side of the receiver board is the tuner module. The incoming RF signal enters through the BNC connector (top left corner) and is tuned through the tuner module. Input attenuation is possible with jumper J1 on the top left corner of the receiver board. Very strong signals can be attenuated 20 dB automatically by placing the jumper on the left two pins (LO position). An additional 20 dB attenuation is also available with the jumpers in the top left corner of the board. The frequencies are tuned by setting switches SW1 and SW2 (upper right corner). These two switches are read upon power up by the microprocessor (U4). The microprocessor then tunes the synthesizer IC SA1057 (U3) to the selected frequency. The switches frequency range is 87.9 Mhz at setting 00 to 107.9 Mhz at setting 64. Other custom ranges are available. The synthesizer chip works on a phase lock loop system. It receives the frequency information from pin 6 of the tuner module, then goes through a FET buffer amplifier (Q2) on its way to synthesizer IC (U3). The synthesizer feeds back a DC voltage through two resistors to pin 4 of the tuner module. Different frequencies cause different tuning voltages to go to the tuner module to tune it on frequency. The frequency synthesizer locks on to the exact frequency needed and adjusts the DC voltage accordingly. The microprocessor tunes the frequencies of the synthesizer IC, but the DC tuning voltage is somewhat dependent on the tuner module.

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Receiver Module (option)

RF IN

Stereo Generator

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 46 Receiver Board (optional)

Generally, the voltage is around 0.5 volt DC for tuning 88.1 MHz, and from 5.5 to 6.5 volts DC for tuning 107.9 MHz. The 10.7 MHz IF frequency comes out of the tuner module on pin 5 and is coupled into the first filter FL1; passes through FL1 and into the IF decoder system of IC LM1865 (U1). The FL1 filter sets the bandwidth or everything outside of the bandwidth depending on the filter that is selected. It could be a bandwidth of 180 kHz where everything outside of that is filtered out depending on the filter characteristics. A second filter (F3) is available when the signal has a great amount of interference from an adjacent signal. In such a case, remove the jumper cap that is in the F3 position, then remove the ceramic filter that is in the F4 storage position and place it into the F3 position. Then the signal goes to a buffer gain stage at pin 1 of LM1865 (U1). From there the signal passes through F2, which is a second filter for further removal of unwanted products, and then it goes on to the IF of that chip. The quadrature coil L4 is tuned to 10.7 MHz as per calibration procedures. This results in a low distortion of around 0.2 to 0.3% on the audio. The audio, still a composite at this point, will come out of pin 15 of that IC (U1) and go to the first buffer U9. Then it goes through a compensation network R54 and C26, and on to the stereo decoder chip at pin 2 of U5. When a stereo signal is present, Led 1 illuminates which indicates that left and right audio is available. Then the stereo signals go to gain stages U6A and U6B and out to the RCA jacks on the back of the cabinet. These can be used for off-air monitoring of the audio signal. Incoming frequency can be monitored from the frequency monitor BNC jack on the back. The stereo buffer U9, stereo decoder U5, and gain stages U6A and U6B have no effect on the signal that goes through the transmitter. This section along with the composite signal coming out of pin 15 of LM1865 (U1) is totally separate from the transmitter section.

Principles of Operation

415

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A muting circuit, consisting of C22, a 1N914 diode, R14, and varible resistor R15 mutes the output when a signal is too weak to be understood. The strength of the signal muted is determined by the adjustment of R15. Any signal below the setting of R15 is shorted to +VCC through C22 by the current drawn through R14 and the diode. The audio signal above this setting goes through C17 to the connector P3. The P3 connector block allows jumpering to either internal circuitry or to external signal processing such as advertisement injection or other forms of altering the signal. If the jumper is installed for internal circuitry, the signal will go through R39 to the input of U2A. This is a buffer that drives the R20 pot located on the top left hand corner of the board. R20 sets signal gain for 100% modulation if adjusted correctly with a full incoming 75 kHz deviation signal. Then the signal goes through R21, R22, and C20 which, along with adjustable pot R24 and C21, forms a compensation network with some phase shifting. This allows the best stereo separation possible by adjusting and compensating for differences in FM exciter boards. The signal is buffered through U2B and finally reaches the output connectors P1 and P2, and on to the transmit circuitry. The power supply is fairly straight forward. The incoming 12 volt supply goes to a 7809, 9 volt regulator (VR1) which supplies all 9volt needs on the board. The 9 volts also supplies a 7805, 5 volt regulator (VR2) which supplies all 5volt needs on the board. Plus and minus 12 volts from the motherboard is filtered and supplies various needs on the board. Finally there is a precision reference voltage supplied through R50 by U7 and U8. These two 2.5 volt reference shunts act very much like a very accurate zenor diode to provide precision 5 volts to the metering board.

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Section 5Adjustments and Tests


This section describes procedures for (1) advanced users who may be interested in customizing or optimizing the performance of the transmitter and (2) service personnel who want to return the transmitter to operational status following a maintenance procedure.

Adjustments and Tests

51

5.1
5.1.1

Audio Processor Adjustments


Pre-Emphasis Selection

Select the pre-emphasis curve (75 sec, 50 sec, 25 sec, or Flat) by jumpering the appropriate pins of header JP1 on the audio processor board. (See section 2.9.) If you change the pre-emphasis, change the de-emphasis jumpers, JP203 and JP204 on the Stereo Generator board, to match. (See section 2.8.)

5.1.2

Pre-Emphasis Fine Adjustment

Trim potentiometers, R29 and R65, (for left and right channels, respectively) provide for fine adjustment of the pre-emphasis. Set the potentiometers to bring the de-emphasized gain at 10 kHz equal to that of 400 Hz. (At the proper setting, 15.0 kHz will be down about 0.7 dB.) When making these adjustments, it is important that you keep signal levels below the processor gain-control threshold. A preferred method is to use a precision de-emphasis network in front of the audio input. Then, use the non-de-emphasized (flat) output from the FM modulation monitor for measurements.

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5.2
5.2.1

Stereo Generator Adjustments


Separation

Feed a 400 Hz sine wave into one channel for at least 70% modulation. Observe the classic single-channel composite stereo waveform at TP1 on the RF Exciter circuit board. Adjust the Separation control for a straight centerline. Since proper adjustment of this control coincides with best stereo separation, use an FM monitor to make or confirm the adjustment.

5.2.2

Composite Output

Adjust the composite output with a modultion monitor following the steps below: 1. 2. Set the Stereo-Mono switch to Mono. Check that the setting of the Modulation compensation control, R17 on the RF Exciter circuit board, falls within the range specified for the frequency of operation. (See section 2.3.1.) Feed a sine wave signal of about 2.5 kHz into the left channel at a level sufficient to put the wideband gain-reduction indicator somewhere in the middle of its range. Set the Composite level control to produce 90% modulation as indicated on an FM monitor. Apply pink noise or program material to the audio inputs and confirm, on both Mono and Stereo, that modulation peaks are between 95% and 100%.

3.

4. 5.

5.2.3

19 kHz Level

Adjust the 19 kHz pilot for 9% modulation as indicated on an FM modulation monitor. (The composite output should be set first, since it follows the 19 kHz Level control.)

5.2.4
1. 2.

19 kHz Phase

Apply a 400 Hz audio signal to the left channel for at least 70% modulation. Look at the composite stereo signal at TP301 on the RF Exciter circuit board with an oscilloscope, expanding the display to view the 19 kHz component on the horizontal centerline. Switch the audio to the right-channel input. When the 19 kHz Phase is properly adjusted, the amplitude of the 19 kHz will remain constant when switching between left and right. Recheck the separation adjustment as described in section 5.2.1.

3.

4.

Adjustments and Tests

53

5.3
5.3.1

Frequency Synthesizer Adjustments


Frequency (Channel) Selection

Refer to section 2.3.

5.3.2

Modulation Compensator

Refer to section 2.3.

5.3.3

Frequency Measurement and Adjustment

Next to the 10.24MHz crystal on the RF Exciter board is a 111 pF piston trimmer capacitor (C3). Use C3 to set the frequency of the 10.24MHz crystal while observing the output frequency of the synthesizer. Use one of these methods for checking frequency: u Use an FM frequency monitor. u Couple a frequency counter of known accuracy to the output of the synthesizer and observe the operating frequency. (Do not connect to the 10.24MHz clock circuit.)

5.3.4

FSK Balance Control

An FSK signal (used for automatic identification of FM repeaters) shifts the frequencies of the 10.24MHz crystal reference oscillator and the VCO. Use an oscilloscope to observe the cathode end of D4. With no program, the pulse will be less than 1 sec wide. With an FSK input (a 20Hz square wave at the FSK input will work), set trim pot R45 for minimum pulse width. The setting will vary slightly with operating frequency.

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5.4
5.4.1

Metering Board Adjustments


Power Calibrate

While looking at RF Power on the digital panel meter, set the Power Calibrate trim potentiometer to agree with an external RF power meter.

5.4.2

Power Set

With the front panel RF Output control fully clockwise, adjust the Power Set trim pot to 10% more than the rated power (33 W for FM30, 110 W for FM100, 275 W for FM250, 550 W for FM500) as indicated on an accurate external watt meter. If the authorized power is less than the maximum watts, you may use the Power Set to limit the range of the RF Output control. Operation below 100 watts is not recommended as instability can occur which could damage the transmitter.

CAUTION
Possible equipment damage! Operation below 100 watts can cause oscillations and other problems that could damage the transmitter.

5.4.3

SWR Calibrate

When the Carrier switch is off, or the RF power is less than about 5 watts, the SWR circuit automatically switches to a calibrate-check mode. (See section 4.5 for more information.) Set the digital panel meter to read SWR. With the Carrier switch off, set the SWR CAL trim pot to read 1.03.

5.4.4

PA Current Limit

Since it may not be practical to increase the PA current to set the PA Current Limit control, you may use this indirect method. With the carrier turned off, look at the DC voltage at the right end of R413 on the Metering board. The current limit, in amperes, will be 0.35 amps higher than ten times this voltage. Set the current limit for 16.5 amps or 1.615 volts at R413.

Adjustments and Tests

55

5.5

Motherboard Adjustments

For Normal-Bypass switch setting, see section 2.10.

5.6

Display Modulation Calibration

The Modulation Calibrate trim pot sets the sensitivity of the front panel Modulation bar graph display. This adjustment may be made only after the Output trim pot on the Stereo Generator board has been set. (See section 5.2.4.) 1. 2. Set the Stereo-Mono switch to Mono. Feed a sine wave source of about 2.5 kHz into the left channel at a level sufficient to put the wideband gain-reduction indicator somewhere in the middle of its range. Set the Modulation Calibrate trim pot so that the 90 light on the front panel Modulation display just begins to light.

3.

5.7

Voltage Regulator Adjustments

JP701, a 10pin header on the Voltage Regulator board, sets the time between program failure and carrier turnoff. Pins 1 and 2 are the two pins closest to the edge of the board. The times are approximate. Sections 2.11, 2.12, and 4.8 contain further information. 1. 2. 3. 4. Short pins 1 and 2 for a 30second delay. Short pins 3 and 4 for a 2minute delay. Short pins 5 and 6 for a 4minute delay. Short pins 7 and 8 for an 8minute delay.

You may select other times by changing the value of R721. The time is proportional to the resistance.

5.8

Bias Set (RF Power Amplifier)

The Bias Set trim pot is located on the PA module on the input circuit board. Set the trim pot to its midpoint for near-optimum bias.

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5.9

Performance Verification

Measure the following parameters to receive a comprehensive characterization of transmitter performance: u Carrier frequency u RF output power u RF bandwidth and RF harmonics (see section 5.12) u Pilot frequency, phase, and modulation percentage u Audio frequency response u Audio distortion u Modulation percentage u FM and AM noise u Stereo separation between left and right u Crosstalk between main channel and subcarrier u 38kHz subcarrier suppression In addition to the above tests, which pertain to signal quality, a complete check of the unit will include items listed in section 5.21.

5.9.1

Audio Proof-of-Performance Measurements

References to 100% modulation assume 9% pilot and 91% for the remainder of the composite stereo signal. Because the audio processing threshold is at 90% modulation, it is not possible to make audio proof-of-performance measurements at 100% modulation through the audio processor. Instead, audio data for 100% modulation is taken from the input of the stereo generator (SW501 on Motherboard set for Bypass). Then, data, including the audio processor (SW501 set for Normal), is taken at a level below the audio processing threshold.

5.9.2

De-emphasis Input Network

A precision de-emphasis network, connected between the test oscillator and the audio input of the transmitter, can be very helpful when making the audio measurements. Note that the input impedance of the transmitter or the source impedance of the test oscillator can affect network accuracy. With the de-emphasis network, oscillator level adjustments need only accommodate gain errors, instead of the whole pre-emphasis curve.

Adjustments and Tests

57

5.10

Carrier Frequency

Carrier frequency is measured at the output frequency with a frequency monitor or suitable frequency counter. To adjust frequency, see section 5.3.3. (FCC tolerance +/ 2000 Hz per FCC Part 73.1540 and 73.1545.)

5.11

Output Power

The output power reading on the front panel display should be 90105% of the actual value. For a more precise measurement, use a watt meter in the RF output line. See sections 5.4.1 and 5.4.2 for setting power.

5.12

RF Bandwidth and RF Harmonics

You can observe RF bandwidth and spurious emissions with an RF spectrum analyzer. In the Stereo mode, feed a 15.0 kHz audio signal into one channel to provide 85% modulation as indicated on a monitor. Doing so produces 38% main, 38% stereo subcarrier, and 9% pilot per FCC Part 2.989. As an alternative, use pink noise into one channel. Using a spectrum analyzer, verify the following (per FCC 73.317): 1. Emissions more than 600 kHz from the carrier are at least 43 + 10log(power, in watts) dB down (70 dB for 500 watts). The scan should include the tenth harmonic. Emissions between 240 kHz and 600 kHz from the carrier are down at least 35 dB. Emissions between 120 kHz and 240 kHz from the carrier are down at least 25 dB.

2. 3.

5.13

Pilot Frequency

The pilot frequency should be within 2 Hz of 19 kHz. (FCC Part 73.322.) Using a frequency counter, measure 1.9 MHz at pin 1 of U209 on the Stereo Generator board. A 200-Hz error here corresponds to a 2-Hz error at 19 kHz. If the frequency is off by more than 50 Hz, you may change the value of C213. (Changing C213 from 56 pF to 68 pF lowers the 1.9 MHz by about 35 Hz.)

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5.14

Audio Frequency Response

For the response tests, take the readings from an FM modulation monitor. Make audio frequency response measurements for left and right channels at frequencies of 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 400 Hz, 1 kHz, 5 kHz, 10 kHz, and 15 kHz. See sections 5.9.1 and 5.9.2.

5.15

Audio Distortion

Make distortion measurements from the de-emphasized output of an FM modulation monitor. Make audio distortion measurements for left and right channels at frequencies of 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 400 Hz, 1 kHz, 5 kHz, 10 kHz, and 15 kHz. See sections 5.9.1 and 5.9.2.

5.16

Modulation Percentage

While feeding an audio signal into the left channel only, confirm that the total modulation percentage remains constant when switching between Mono and Stereo. Measure modulation percentage with an FM modulation monitor, or by using an HF receiver and Bessel nulls. See section 5.2.2. 19kHz pilot modulation should be 9%.

5.17

FM and AM Noise

Take noise readings from a de-emphasized output of a modulation monitor.

5.18

Stereo Separation

Make left-into-right and right-into-left stereo separation measurements with an FM modulation monitor for frequencies of 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 400 Hz, 1 kHz, 5 kHz, 10 kHz, and 15 kHz.

5.19

Crosstalk

For stereo crosstalk measurements, both left and right channels are fed at the same time. For best results, there needs to be a means of correcting small imbalances in levels and phase. The balance is made at 400 Hz.

Adjustments and Tests

59

5.19.1

Main Channel Into Sub

Feed the left and right channels in phase with audio (L+R) at 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 400 Hz, 1 kHz, 5 kHz, 10 kHz, and 15 kHz at 100% modulation, while observing the stereo subcarrier (L-R) level on an FM modulation monitor.

5.19.2

Sub Channel Into Main

Feed the audio into the left and right channel as above, with the exception of reversing the polarity of the audio of one channel (L-R input). Using the frequencies of 5.19.1 above, observe the main channel (L+R) level with a modulation monitor.

5.20

38 kHz Subcarrier Suppression

With no modulation, but in the Stereo mode, the 38 kHz subcarrier, as indicated on an FM modulation monitor, should be down at least 40 dB.

5.21

Additional Checks

In addition to the tests and adjustments mentioned in this section, the following checks ensure a complete performance appraisal of the transmitter: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Perform a physical inspection, looking for visible damage and checking that the chassis hardware and circuit boards are secure. Check the functionality of switches and processing control. Verify that all indicators function. Check the frequency synthesizer lock at 80 MHz and 110 MHz. Measure the AC line current with and without the carrier on. Perform a functional test of the SCA input, Monitor outputs, and the monitor and control function at the 15pin, D-sub connector. Test the functionality of the FSK circuit. Check the operation and timing of the automatic carrier-off circuitry associated with program failure. Check all metering functions. Test ALC action with PA current overload, SWR, and PLL lock.

NOTE: FCC type acceptance procedures call for testing the carrier frequency over the temperature range of 050 degrees centigrade, and at line voltages from 85% to 115% of rating. (See FCC Part 2.995.)

510

FM500 User's Manual

Section 6Reference Drawings


The illustrations in this section may be useful for making adjustments, taking measurements, troubleshooting, or understanding the circuitry of your transmitter.

Reference Drawings

61

6.1
Gain Reduction/Expansion Indicators
Audio Input
2

Views

Digital Multimeter

Multimeter Select
Fault

Modulation Indicators
Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier Switch
Carrier

10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

High Band
High 2 Expand

SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Audio Processor Processing Control Input Level Indicators Input Gain Stereo/Mono Switch Switches

Fault Indicators

Power Switch

Relative RF Voltage Out

Illustration 61 Front View

RF Output

RF Output Monitor

Ground
SCA IN

Composite Input

Audio Monitors
MONITOR R REMOTE I/O L RIGHT

Audio Inputs
LEFT/MONO

COMPOSITE IN

FUSE

AC Power In

Power Amplifier and Cooling

SCA Inputs

Remote I/O

Illustration 62 Rear View

62

FM500 User's Manual

RF Exciter Stereo Generator Low-pass Filter Metering

Audio Processor

Audio Input
2 10 RF Power Compress SWR 20 ALC PA DC Volts

Fault High Band


SWR Lock Input PA DC PA Temp

Modulation
Over 100 90 80 70 60

Carrier

High 2 Expand

Wide Band
-6 -12 +6 dB +12 dB

PA DC Amps PA Temperature Supply DC Volts Voltmeter

Power

Stereo

50 40 30

-18 Low

20

Input Gain

Processing

Mono

RF Output

Pilot

FM500
FM BROADCAST TRANSMITTER

Illustration 63 Chassis Top View

Power Transformer

Power Amp Fans

Power Distribution Board

Voltage Regulator Board

Power Regulator Boards

Filter Capacitors

front of transmitter

Illustration 64 Chassis Bottom View

Reference Drawings

63

6.2

Board Layouts and Schematics

Illustration 65 Audio Processor Board

64

FM500 User's Manual

L VU C3 1.0 R4 24.9K 1

R9 1K GAIN REDUCTION THRESHOLD 10DB 20DB VOLTS P-P 1.1 3.5 11 +12V AD632 1 U5 10 11 R17 360K 3 R22 11.3K 1 D2 R24 24.9K 1 D1 C8 1.0 POLY Q1 2N5087 R25 24.9K 1 6 7 5 U7B TL072 +12V C17 .047 R LP2 R LP1 R46 360K R98 100 R49 R48 1K R40 1K C13 100PF R41 1K C16 1.0 R43 24.9K C15 1.0 R42 24.9K R44 24.9K +12V 2 3 4 C14 100PF R45 24.9K -12V 8 1 U2A TL072 R47 30.1K 1 -12V C18 .047 8 2 3 4 7 9 13 12 11 U6 10 3 R58 11.3K 1 R60 24.9K D7 C20 1.0 POLY R61 24.9K +12V R123 50K 8 2 3 U7A 4 U2B TL072 R53 499 1 -12V C50 47PF 1 2 3 SW1A R119 4.7K -5VDC at 0DB GR 4.1V at 20 DB GR C36 .01 2 2 IN U17 REF02 4 GND TRM 5 -12V R118 10.0K 1 VO 6 3 4 8 1 U18A TL072 R120 100 +5V D19 +5.00V VDD +5V C46 0.1 C47 0.1 R78 91K R121 10.0K 1 R79 49.9K 1 Q5 LM394 8 7 6 5 8 C1 7 B2 6 E3 4 5 1 2 3 4 D13 3mV/DB 8 2 1 U13A TL072 D20 R82 120 -12V D15 D14 YEL R75 2.4K C8A OPEN C45 0.1 -12V 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 C20A OPEN R112 49.9K 1 +12V 8 6 7 5 U13B TL072 5 U15B TL072 6 7 R84 49.9K 1 R110 49.9K 1 NOTES : 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 3. ALL DIODES ARE 1N4148 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 3 4 -12V U15A TL072 U14B TL072 2 1 R113 100 6 7 5 5 U16B TL072 R102 49.9K 1 R114 49.9K 1 3 4 -12V U16A TL072 C30 1.0 Q3 2N5210 R77 3.3K R76 10K 3 4 +12V R91 10M R92 1K D21 D18 560 R99 3.3K .25V/DB R93 10K R100 120 1 2 3 4 +5V C28 1.0 POLY R86 3.3M R83 10K +12V R89 330K C27 .047 R85 3.3K R88 10M R87 3.3K -5V HEAVY PROC A R109 3.3K R94 20.0K 1 C33 .047 R103 3.3K 1 TL072 R90 1K C29 0.1 D11 C49 47PF +5V Q2 2N5087 R66 49.9K 1 U4A TL072 1 +12V 14 AD632 1 2 D8 R62 100K R64 OPEN PRE-EMP. R65 10K 7 9 13 12 11 U9 R59 100K 1 (+/-5.0V PK) R67 24.9K R70 24.9K C23 220PF C22 .0027 POLY +5V D9 C24 0.1 R74 1K R28 OPEN R26 100K PRE-EMP. R29 10K 7 9 13 12 11 R30 49.9K 1 U8 +12V 1 4 AD632 1 2 10 3 R32 12K R33 10K 2 R31 24.9K 1 C10 .0027 POLY R23 100K FLAT A=0 25uSEC A=0.33 50uSEC A=0.67 75uSEC A=1.0 (+/-5.0V PK)

L IN1

R2 1K C1 100PF R3 1K

R6 24.9K 1 +12V

R8 30.1K 1

U1B TL072 6 5 7 L LP1 L LP2

C5 .047

R20 75K 1

GAIN: U5, Pin 2 to U8, Pin 2 (No Hi-band gain reduction) +5V

L IN2

R5 24.9K 1 C4 1.0

8 2 1 3 4 -12V U1A TL072

U4B TL072 6 7 5 C6 .047

14 7 9 13 12

R34 24.9K

C12 0.1 1 R35 240K

R38 1K

D3 L OUT

R1 100 R13 2.0K 1 R14 1.0K 1 R15 499 1 X0 X1 X2 X3 Y0 Y1 Y2 Y3 INH A B 74HC4052 12 14 15 11 1 5 2 4 6 10 9

C2 100PF

R7 24.9K 1

C11 220PF

D4

-12V

R39 1K

-5V 6 5 U10B TL072 7 R36 24.9K R37 24.9K

R12 20K 1

6 5

U12B TL072 7

U3 13 3 +5V +5V -5V R10 47K R11 47K 16 7 8 X Y

R56 75K 1

-12V

D5

D6

R16 499 1

R OUT

/+12DB /+6DB

+12V 14 AD632 1 2 10 3 R68 12K

R71 240K D10

+12V R81 1K -5V 8 2 3 1 U10A 4 TL072 -12V R72 24.9K R73 24.9K +12V 8 2 3 4 -12V D12 U12A TL072 1

R VU

20K

R50 2.0K 1 R51 1.0K 1

-12V

R IN1

-12V R69 10K

6 7 5

R IN2

R52 499 1

PROC B

R650 100K

PROC C LIGHT POT LOCATED ON DISPLAY PCB FLAT 25uS 50uS 75uS JP1 HEADER 4X2 1 3 5 7 2 4 6 8

R95 20.0K 1

C34 OPEN R97 49.9K 1

R104 OPEN

C38 1.0

SW1B 5

4 6 C26 100PF

C32 100PF R96 20.0K 1 +12V Q7 LM394 1 C8 2 B7 3 E6 4 5 8 7 6 5 3mV/DB R101 10K 8 D16 1 3 U14A TL072 -12V D17 C35 1.0 4 2 R106 1K R107 10K R105 1M

VEE

C37 .01 6 7 5 U18B TL072 C39 1.0 C48 0.1 R122 100 VSS -5V -5V

TEST

+12V C44 0.1

+12V R80 3.3K

C40 1.0

C42 0.1

C43 0.1 C41 1.0 -12V

-5V R116 49.9K 1 R115 49.9K 1 6 .25V / DB BR GR 7 +12V 8 2 1 R117 100

C25 100PF J3 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 +12V -12V /+6DB /+12DB L VU R VU +5.00V PROC A PROC B PROC C BR GR HI GR TEST

R111 49.9K 1

C31 100PF

0.25V / DB

HI GR

J1 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 L IN1 L IN2 R IN1 R IN2 L LP1 L LP2 R LP1 R LP2 R OUT L OUT 10 8 6 4 2

J2 9 7 5 3 1

RECEPT 5X2

SCM, FM AUDIO PROCESSOR 103202

RECEPT 10X2

RECEPT 13X2

AUDIO PROCESSOR Reference Drawings 65

Illustration 66 Stereo Generator Board

66

FM500 User's Manual

EXT RTN

R54 24.9K 1%

+12V C26 1.0

R55 24.9K

EXTERNAL COMPOSIT IN (3.5V P-P for 75KHz) R56 24.9K 2 1% R57 24.9K 3

8 1 U6A TL072

R58 3.9K

EXT IN

D3

D4

C5 .0027 POLY 15.2 KHz LOW-PASS FILTER (8th ORDER ELLIPTICAL) LTC1064-1 LPIN L +6V 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 JP1 INPUT L 1 2 -6V R1 330 C1 .0027 POLY LPOUT L R38 1M R6 499 1% R7 3.65K 1% 2 3 4 C6 1030PF -12V 3 +12V 8 1 U3A TL072

(3.5V P-P for 7.5KHz) SCA IN R3 0 OHM

-12V

C27 1.0

C4 0 OHM

R5 1K

C3 100PF

R12 10.0K 1% +12V 2 3 3 2 JP3 75 C7 .01 POLY -12V 4 U4A TL072 D5 U5 74HC4053 12 13 2 1 5 3 X0 X1 Y0 Y1 Z0 Z1 INH A B C 8 7 R17 100 8 1 R11 100 R9 2K 1% +6V MON L C28 1.0

U1

R8 4.99K 1% 1

R10 2.49K 1%

OUTPUT
R14 1K

R15 (SELECTABLE BY TEST, USE 4.12K OR 4.15K IF NEEDED) 4.02K 1%

C9 .0027 POLY JP2 LTC1064-1 LPIN R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 INPUT R 1 2 R19 3.65K 1% R2 330 C2 .0027 POLY LPOUT R R39 1M R18 499 1% 6 7 5 U3B TL072 C10 1030PF R20 4.99K 1% 3

50

16 X Y Z 4 6 7 5 U6B TL072 R16 100 COMP OUT (3.85V P-P) 14 15

D6

U2

R22 2.49K 1% 1 3 2 75 C11 .01 POLY

6 7 5 JP4 U4B TL072

R24 100

MON R

MONO/STEREO 9 +6V R21 10K

6 11 10

C24 1.0

D1 1N5818

C23 1.0

D2 1N5818

50 +5.00V C30 1.0 +6V 74HC86 1

R53 10K /EXT ENABLE R204 1K

-6V R13 24.9K 1% R23 24.9K COMP METER

SYNC OUT

14 U10A 3

R28 243K 1% C15 0.1

C31 1.0 R33 10.0K 1% C17 0.1 R37 1K

1% 10 8 6 4 2

J3 9 7 5 3 1

+6V 1.52 MHz

+12V U12 B-B 4214 1 2

C37 OPEN

-12V +12V

4 R26 1K R25 1M Y1 7.6MHZ 1 U7A 74HC04 2 13 U7F 14 7 U8A 74HC390 12 1 4 2 CK CK CLR Q Q QC QD 3 5 6 7 15 12 14 CK CK CLR 8 304 Khz 16 QA QB QC QD 13 11 10 9 U9B 74HC393 13 C L K A C L K B 1.9MHz A 1 74HC86 CLR 2 9 10 U10C 8 R30 243K 1% R36 49.9K 1% 1 1 C29 1.0 R27 100 5 U10B 6 R29 100K 1% 3.8 MHz 1 0 14 A Q Q QC QD 7 U9A 74HC393 CLK 3 4 5 6 QA QB QC QD 11 10 9 8 9 8 7 6 L V V S S D A A H + + / B 5 0 / A 1 V V G 0 D A N 0 - - D 1 1 1 1 2 3 4 5 S 1 A 5 I N V A 4 H P A 3 B P A 2 L P A U11 LMF100 S 1 B 1 6 I N V B 1 7 H P B 1 8 B P B 1 9 L P B 2 0 R34 49.9K 1% 1 C18 .0027 POLY 38 KHz 3.0VP-P 14 7 9 R40 10K 13 12 11 3

RECEPT 5X2 R48 4.3K J1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RECEPT 12X1 J2 EXT IN EXT RTN SCA IN COMP OUT COMP METER MONO/STEREO /EXT ENABLE GND INPUT L INPUT R

10

R46 10K -12V C21 0.1 R32 10K

SEPARATION
R47 20K

C13 56PF NPO

C12 5.518PF

C14 33PF NPO

U8B 74HC390 7.6 MHz

12

CLR

QA

19 KHZ PHASE
R242 1K R35 10.0K 1% R41 510 19 KHz 3.3VP-P

19 KHZ LEVEL
R244 10K R43 33K

QB

12 13 U10D 7 11 R31 100K 1% C16 0.1

QC

C19 0.1

QA XOR QC 3

U7B 74HC04 4 VR1 LM317 +12V C33 1.0UF 1 IN C 2 R49 240 OUT 3 C34 1.0UF EXTERNAL COMPOSITE 8 R50 910 +6V

QB XOR QC

C32 1.0

C20 .0027 POLY

NOTES : _______ _______ 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS UNLESSOTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 3. ALL DIODES ARE 1N4148 UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 RECEPT 12X1

MON L MON R GND LPIN L LPOUT L LPIN R LPOUT R +5.00V SYNC OUT

+5.00V

+12V Current at U211 pin 4. U7C 74HC04 5 6

-6V

U205 Connections

CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


1718 WEST MISHAWAKA ROAD ELKHART, IN. 46517

PHONE (219) 294-8000

QD 9 QB XOR QD

U7D 74HC04

SCM, FM STEREO GENERATOR


U5Y STEREO X X0 B Z1 R51 240 C36 47UF MONO U5X Y Y0 STEREO/MONO A C /EXT EN FILENAME: 103203A.SCM NEXT ASM: Y1 Z0 PROJ # MLOWCM0 PE U5Z Z U206, pin6 SCALE NONE EE E.C. DWG. NO. REV X1 DRAWN CHECKED JFL JB 7-28-97 1 ME APPROVED BY : SUPERSEDES DO NOT SCALE PRINT

QC XOR QD 11

U7E 74HC04 10 -12V -12V C35 1.0 1 VR2 LM337 IN C 2 OUT 3

-6V

Current at U211 pin 17.

103203

R52 910

STEREO GENERATOR Reference Drawings 67

SEE NOTE 10

TOP SIDE COMPONENT MAP, FM-VFM EXCITER


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THESE DRAWINGS, SPECIFICATIONS AND ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC FILES ARE THE PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP., AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.

PWB: 200440-PWB-A.PCB SIZE DWG. NO.

M200440PT-A.DOC REV

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200440-PWA
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509

1 OF 1

DWG. NO.

200440-SCH

REV.

10

11

12

E . C . N.

REV
1 2

REVISION HISTORY DESCRIPTION


FOR PROTOTYPE MODIFIED PER MIKE SENEKI CHG'D R18 PER EAD MRH01. R18 WAS 91K OHM. U5 WAS C 6900-5 R8 WAS 1.0K OHM. PRODUCTION RELEASE

DATE
01-04-02 02-06-02 06-24-02 05-23-03 01-29-04

DWN
DW DW DW DW DW

APPROVALS CHK CM

PE

3 246 A-G 277 4 A

DW

DP

+8V

88-108 MHZ
+12V

C6 100PF GND DATA CLOCK LOAD +5V

R24 150
2

+12V

A2

1 +5V

MAR-6
3

C7 .001

VU5 /LOCK

R30 10 1

U7A NE5532

5 37

R68 499K 1% R35 499K 1%


+ C21

C44 1
+8V

DL1 GREEN
+5V

R25 680

U7B NE5532

C9 .001

R33 100 1%

C22 .001 R38 15 C82 .01

C8 1 D6 1N4148 REMOTE FREQUENCY CONTROL R5 1.0K 1% R4 100K 1% 10.24MHZ Y1 C3 1-10PF R9 100K 1% R7 10 C11
9

U4F 74HC14

U4E 74HC14

C10 .001

C12 1 .001

VVCO

10 8 6 4 2

PL1 HEADER 5X2

LOCK DET.

R22 200K

R23 1M
13 12 11 10 LOCK

D11 1N4148

10/35V DL2 RED R26 680 C19 .001


TANT.

9 7 5 3 1

POLY

U6
OSC in OSC out 1 2 3 Fin 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9

VDD C4 1

FSK-R

R6 100K 1% R8 100 1% D12 1N4148


+5V

10

MC33284P

R10 100K 1%

C14 .001 POLY R16 100K 1%


+5V

MC145170 CLOCK /ENABLE

C1 33PF NPO
+5V

C2 39PF NPO

C62 220pF

R62 100 1%
+ C61

R67 15

DATA

R64 4.99K 1%
6 7

47/20V
TANT.

HD1 HEADER 5X2


9 7 5 3 1 E

U1 74HC165

U2 74HC165

VDD
CLK QH INH SH/LD

U5B MC33284P

CLK QH INH SH/LD

SER A B C D E F G H

SER A B C D E F G H

10 8 6 4 2

10 11 12 13 14 3 4 5 6

2 15 1

10 11 12 13 14 3 4 5 6

D1 1N4148

2 15 1

D2 1N4148
LOAD DATA CLK

R2 10.0K 1%

TP

R88 30.1K 1%

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

RA2 RA3 RTC CLR VSS RB0 RB1 RB2 RB3

RA1 RA0 OSC1 OSC2 VDD RB7 RB6 RB5 RB4

18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10

R3 150K

R13 100K 1% R14 100K 1%

D7 1N4148
+ C27

R15 100K 1% D8 1N4148

R65 100K 1%

R63 39

QH

QH

+8V

U5C

12

C15 0.01

R61 10.0K 1%

8 6 4 2

C13 3900PF

R11 100K 1%

MC33284P
13

U5D

14

R12 1.0K 1%

VCO61 POS-150

7 5 3 1

C23 .001
1

R39 100 1% MAR-6 A1


2 RF OUT

R66 150

C24 33pF NPO

C26 .001

JP1 JUMPER

10/35V
TANT.

C77 0.1
-12V 4

C5 .001 POLY R21 100K 1% D5 1N4148

R80 24.3K 1% C76 0.1

3 2 1 U8A TL072 8

R81 10.0K 1%

R84 5.11K 1%
6 5

RP1 100K RPACK


10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

R1 10.0K 1%

U3 PIC16C61

C78 0.1

U8B TL072

R83 5.11K 1% G Q72 IRFD9120

S D13 3.9V

C28 8 9 R18 68K RP2 100K RPACK D4 1N4148 PB1 RESET R20
4 2 3

1
POLY

+12V

1M
VU5 1

R89 26.7K 1% R87 10K PWR. CNTRL TILT R86


-12V

C81 1000pF

U5A

C43 1 R82 24.3K 1%

C80 0.1 TP2 4.5 - 8.0V

MC33284P
11

680.0 C79 0.1

499 1%

R90

R19 25K LF SEP. R17 1K BECKMAN


+ C30

C29 1
TP1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

5 4 3 2 1

SW1

SW2

SW3

SW4

SW5

R85 2K PWR. CNTRL. OFFSET

D14 6.2V 1N753A VR3 LM317


C

10/35V
TANT.

COMPOSITE IN C

C41 100PF R27 10.0K 1% U4B 74HC14


4 3 2

+5V

+12V + C36

IN

OUT

8.26V R51 237 1% R52 1.27K 1%

+8V

U4A 74HC14
1 +5V

R28 10.0K 1% R41 10.0K 1% R42 10.0K 1% FSK R40 10.0K 1% R43 1.0K 1%

DL3 AMBER

10/35V
TANT.

+ C38

10/35V
+ C37 TANT.

10/35V
TANT.

NOTES :
UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:
1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% TOL. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS.

R47 1.0K 1% C31 .001 C32 .001

D9 1N4148

U4D 74HC14

U4C 74HC14

C33 33pF
FSK-R 3

VR2 LM78L05
IN C OUT 1 + C39 +5V

REFERENCE DESIGNATORS NOT USED: C40 1 C16, C17, C18, C20, C25, C34, C45-60, C63-75, Q1-71, R29, R31, R32, R34, R36, R37, R49, R50, R53-60, R69-79, VCO1-VCO60.
B

J1
RF OUT COMPOSITE IN -12V +12V Local/Remote /LOCK LOCK FSK-ID-CHAN 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 25 23 21 19 17 15 13 11 9 7 5 3 1 2 4 6 8 10 B Local/Remote

Frequency Select C42 .001

HD2 HEADER 5X2


1 3 5 7 9

R44 10.0K 1% FSK BAL.

R48 1.0K 1%

D10 1N4148

10/35V
2 TANT.

-12V FSK +12V GND GND

C35 .001

R45 10K D3 1N4148 CH. SEL. DIRECT FSK ID BAND LIMIT AUTO ID

R46 39K

RECEPT 13X2

APPROVALS DWN CHK CM PE K


FILENAME:
9 10

IREC
TITLE:
SIZE

DW DJ DW DP

01-04-02 01-05-02 01-05-02 01-05-02

INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. 25166 LEER DRIVE ELKHART, IN. 46514 574-262-8900 WWW.IREC1.COM

SCH, FM-VFM RF EXCITER


DWG . NO .

UNCONTROLLED
UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
C_L_SHT1_A.DOT REV. A

THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO CORP. AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
7 8

DISTRIBUTION

C
SCALE : NONE

200440-SCH
PROJ NO.
11

REV A
SHEET

509

1
12

OF

Illustration 68 RF Metering Board (Add 400 to component designators for schematic reference)

610

FM500 User's Manual

D 8169-1

PAV J2-4

+12V C401 .01 R406 100K 1 8 2 3 4 -12V 6 7 (Jumper under board) C406 .01 R405 2.49K 1 5 U402B TL072 R410 100 J4-4 REM PADCA 1.00V = 10.0A U402A TL072

+5.00V

U2
1

D406 R409 100 J4-3 REM PADCV 1.00V = 10VDC R411 15K

R450 10K +5V

J401 10 8 6 4 2 9 7 5 3 1

Parts not loaded: C403, 404 DZ401 R402, 403, 404 Q401, 402 U401 LB401

U5
PAI LIMIT
R414 2.2M R413 33K 13 14 12 U404D TL074 R416 100K R415 120K 1 D402 R429 220K C408 1.0UF R430 100K R431 120K FAN J2-7 /LOCK J4-1 R432 100K +5V D409 2 U405A 74HC14 9 8 U405D 74HC14 D407 C405 .001 +5V D401 13 12 U405F 74HC14

SWR LAMP J3-20

-12V +12V

-12V +12V

R412 10K POT H

RECEPT 5X2 J402 PADC LAMP J3-14 INPUT RF REV RF FWD RFV VOLTMETER FAN TEMP OUT PAV PAI DC SUPPLY /+28V INH 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 RECEPT 12X1

R401 1N4148 PAI J2-3

U4

R407 10.0K 1 +12V 2 4

D408

R425 1M

11

10 U405E 74HC14

FAULT SUM J4-8

J2

R408 1.1K 1

U3
1 U403A TL074

C407 .001

PATEMP LAMP J3-12

C421 .001

50mv per degree C. R422 75k -12V R423 240K R424 100k

3 11 -12V

R420 100K 1

R426 30.1K 1

13 12

U3
14 U403D TL074

R492 10K

HD403 SEL A SEL B SEL C RF LEVEL +5.00V PATEMP LAMP PADC LAMP INPUT LAMP LOCK LAMP SWR LAMP 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19

4 U405B 74HC14 D411 D410

TEMP OUT J2-6

R418 1K

9 10

U3
8 U403C TL074

LOCK LAMP J3-18 /+28V INH J2-1

+5.00V

R421 100

J4-6 REM PATEMP 5.00V = 100 deg. C -12V

R427 240K R428 10K

J3
DPM REF DPM IN

+12V 2 4

R437 1M

C409 .001 D403 R439 100K R438 120K INPUT J2-12 5 6 U405C 74HC14 D412

C431 0.1 R419 24.9K

U4
1 U404A TL074

10mV/Deg. C R435 100K RF LEVEL J3-8 (R435+R436)+R436 ---------------- = ---(R435+R436)-R436 150K = 1.5:1 100K R434 10K POT H R440 33K -12V R436 24.9K 3 11

INPUT LAMP J3-16

HEADER 10X2

J404 +5.00V 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 RECEPT 12X1

D405

SWR LIMIT=

R441 1M R443 51K D404 R442 51K

C411 0.1 R445

R446 10K

GND FAULT SUM REM BATT REM PATEMP REM RFWATTS REM PADCA REM PADCV ALC /LOCK ALC J4-2 R448 100K 1

100K

J4

POWER SET
DC SUPPLY J2-2 R451 100K 1 6 5 C412 0.1 R452 10K 1 U403B TL074

9 10

U4
8 U404C TL074

C410 0.1

6 R444 200K 5

U4
7 U404B TL074

R447 1K

U3
7

R454 100

REM BATT J4-7 -12V

R449 11K 1 +5V FULL SCALE 16 (1.999V reads "1999") 13 14 15 12 1 5 2 4 6 11 10 9 X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 INH A B C 8 R468 1K X 3 C422 0.1 DPM IN J3-19

R453 1.1K 1 10mV/Volt 100mV/Amp 1mV/Degree C 10mV/Volt 10mV/Volt R456 1K 1 U406A TL074 R457 10K RF REV J2-11 C414 .01 +12V 4 2 3 C413 0.1

.001V per Watt

RF POWER (RFV SQUARED)

VOLTMETER J2-8

R455 100K 1

RF POWER SWR ALC PA DCV PA DCI PA TEMPERATURE SUPPLY DC VOLTS VOLTMETER

1999 WATTS 19.99 19.99V 199.9V 19.99A 199.9 Deg. C 199.9V 199.9V

U8
U408 74HC4051

R467 1K POTH

(VFWD+VREFL)/40

U6
1

D413 1N6263

R460

R465 56K

R466 56K

SWR CAL

+5.00V R488 24.9K R490 10.0K 1 13 12 +5V 16 (VFWD-VREFL)/4 13 14 15 12 1 5 2 4 6 11 10 9 X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 INH A B C 8 X 3

NUMBERS USED: R1-91 (C2) C1-29

11 C415 .001 -12V

1K R459 100K R486 100K

U6
14 U406D TL074 1.00V

C423 0.1

DPM REF J3-17

R458 22K R484 10K U406B TL074 R461 10K RF FWD J2-10 C416 .01 6 5 D418 Q403 2N5210

100K R487

R489 24.9K R491 2.49K 1 +5.00V J3-9,10 J4-12 J3-2 J3-4 J3-6

U9
U409 74HC4051

U6
7 C417 .001

D414 1N6263 R464 1K D417 +5V R462 22K C420 .01 LM394 1 C1 8C 2 B2 7B 3 6E E3 4 5 4 Q405 LM394 1 8C 2 C1 7B B 3 2 6E E3 4 4 5 Q406 8 7 6 5 R481 39K R476 49.9K R485 100K C424 1.0UF

+5.00V

SEL A SEL B SEL C

R463 100K

VDD +12V 1 C425 1.0UF IN VR401 78L05 OUT C 2 3 C426 1.0UF VSS -12V C427 1.0UF C428 1.0UF VEE -12V VCC +5V C429 1.0UF DZ402 LM329DZ U8,9 pin 7 R417 3.3K -6.9V

R483 1M

+12V -12V

U407A TL074 R469 10K

+12V 2 3 11 4

POWER CAL

D416 8 7 6 5 9 10

U7
1 C419 .001

D415 1N6263

R472 10K POT H R471 100K R473 10K

U7
8 U407C TL074 R477 7.5K (2.5VDC at 100W) (.135V) R479 1.1K 1 R482 1K

9 10

U6
8 U406C TL074

RFV J2-9

C418 .01

6 5

U7
7 U407B TL074 R474 3.3K

-12V

(Clamp SWR reading below 5W.)

FM500 METERING 103204A

R470 22K

R475 49.9K

R478 10.0K 1 13 12

U7
14 U407D TL074

R480 100

J4-5 REM RFWATTS (1.00V at 100W)

-6.9V

METERING Reference Drawings 611

6 - 12

FM30/FM100/FM250 User's Manual

DWG. NO. 1 2 3 4

REV.

201207-SCH

10

11

12

E . C . N.
HD7 FAN
FAN+12V
H 1 2 +12V

REV
1

REVISION HISTORY DESCRIPTION


FOR PROTOTYPE

DATE
02-05-05

DWN
DW

APPROVALS CHK CM
DW

PE

AUDIO PROCESSOR SHUNT

HEADER 2 .156

ALC / METERING

RF EXCITER
C54 1.0

R42 4.7K
+12V

HD2
1 2 3 4 5 6 HEADER 6X1 .156 1 2 3 4 NC Vin

U2
NC NC 8 7 6 5 2 3

+12V

C50 1.0

C52 .01 R43 100 C54 1.0 Z9 OPEN

H +5.00V

TL072 1 U3A C51


-12V

TEMP Vout GND TRM

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

C25 .01

C26 .01

C27 .01

J4 R25 Q1 OPEN IRF541

J2

J1

J1

1.0

REF02 J5 MCX
+12V

HD44 TP1 VOLTMETER R26 1K C10 .01

HEADER 12 +5.00V

HD42

HEADER 12

HD41

HEADER 5 x 2 +12V

HD31

26 HEADER

J6 MCX

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26

6 5

TL072 7 U3B

/LOCK ALC METER PAV METER PAI METER RFW METER PATEMP METER BATT FAULT SUM

/LOCK FAULT DC SUPPLY PAI PAV

NC

TEMP FAN V-METER RFV RF FWD RF REV INPUT

FSK IN

-12V

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HEADER 5 x 2

R29 1K R28 1K R27 1K


/LOCK ALC

ALC

HD4

/LOCK

NC

Z31 OPEN
ADD FOR M2HD-S MOTHERBOARD ONLY

-12V RFX OUT

AUDIO PROCESSOR

HD12
COMP OUT +12V
NC

HD5 V+ TEMP GND


1 2 3

C41 .001 C42 .001


METER PATEMP

LEFT FSK IN RIGHT


NC NC

HEADER 3X1 F

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HEADER 5 x 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

J2 HD13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 HEADER 13 x 2 +12V -12V /+6DB /+12DB L VU R VU +5.00V PROC A PROC B PROC C BR GR HI GR
NC

+5.00V

+12V

HD61
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 HEADER 10 x 2

C43 .001
METER RFW ALC METER PAV METER PAI

METER BATT

FAULT SUM

HD11
L IN1 L IN2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 HEADER 10 x 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

INPUT R IN1 TEMP R IN2

J3 J1

HD3
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 HEADER 10 x 2 LPIN L

NC NC

LPOUT L LPIN R LPOUT R Z30 JUMPER


NC

C17 .01
COMP METER

Z32 OPEN
COMP METER

Z33
E

NC NC NC NC ALC

Z29

OPEN

C18 JUMPER .01


Z28 JUMPER Z27 JUMPER Z26 JUMPER Z25 JUMPER Z24 JUMPER Z23 JUMPER

INSTALLED WHEN USING AUDIO PROC. SHUNT CKT.

-12V

C19 .01 C20 .01 C21 .01 C22 .01 C23 .01 C24 .01
COMP OUT +5.00V MON L MON R
NC

STEREO/MON +12V

Z15

Z16

Z17

Z18

Z19

Z20

Z21

Z22

C40 OPEN C39 OPEN C38 OPEN C36 .01 C35 .01 C34 .01 C33 .01 C32 .01 C30 .01 C31 .01 C29 .001 C28 .001
ALC

TP2 +12V

STEREO GENERATOR
HD22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 HEADER 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

TP3 -12V

+12V +5.00V D

LPIN L LPOUT L LPIN R LPOUT R 38KHZ COMP METER /EXT ENABLE OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN COMP METER RIGHT LEFT /EXT ENABLE 38KHZ

J2
+12V

TP4 +12V

HD23
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 HEADER 5 x 2 -12V

TP5 GND

R24 220

R23 220

R22 220

R21 220

R20 220

R19 220

R18 220

R17 220

STEREO/MON

J3

HD21
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

D1 1N4148
R IN1 R IN2 L IN1 L IN2 EXT RTN EXT IN SCA IN

J4
8 15 7 14 6 13 5 12 4 11 3 B 10 2 9 1 _/EXT ENABLE _METER PAV _METER PAI _METER RFW _METER PA TEMP _METER BATT _FAULT SUM _/AUTO CAR. OFF _/CARRIER OFF _FSK IN _ALC _COMPOSITE OUT _38 KHZ OUT

J1

Z6 R1 1K Z4 R2 R16 220 R15 100 R14 390 R13 390 JMP1 OPEN R12 1K R11 220 C11 .01 C12 OPEN C13 .001 C14 .001 C15 .01 C16 .01 OPEN JMP2 OPEN
/EXT ENABLE COMP METER

OPEN
R IN1

COMP METER

R3 1K

C9 220pF C8 220pF
COMP OUT

HEADER 12

NOTES: UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED: 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% TOL. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS.

OPEN
L IN2

R4 1K C5 220pF C6 220pF C7 220pF R3A 300 R4A 300 Z7 OPEN Z8


MON_R MON_L EXT_IN EXT_RTN SCA

1K
FSK IN

Z13 OPEN Z12 OPEN Z14

STEREO GENERATOR SHUNT

R40 100 R39 100


B

Z1 JUMPER C2 220pF Z5 OPEN Z3 R1A 300 R2A 300

Z2 JUMPER C1 220pF

C3 220pF

C4 220pF

R9 1K

R8 1K

R5 1K

R6 1K

R7 1K R10 240

SCA IN

R41 1K 1N4148 D2 D3 1N4148 R32 1K

OPEN Z11
EXT RTN

DB15

R33 24.9K 1%
2 +12V

R34 24.9K 1% C48 1.0 TL072 1 U1A C49 1.0

OPEN

OPEN

R38 4.02K 1%

Z10 J1 XLR J2 OPEN HD6 OPEN


1 2 3 4 5 EXT IN

R35 24.9K 1%

R37 3.9K

6 5

OPEN

TL072 7 U1B
APPROVALS DWN CHK CM PE DISTRIBUTION
DW 11-23-04

-12V

INPUT CONFIGURATION CHART


2 A

NON-OMNIA BOARD INPUT IMPEDENCE 50 KOHM Z1, Z2 ON Z3, Z5, Z7, Z8 OFF Z4, Z6 OFF 600 OHM Z1, Z2 ON Z3, Z5, Z7, Z8 ON Z4, Z6 OFF

OMNIA BOARD AES/EBU INPUT


1

3 REF. FOR XLR CON.

HI LO GND

R36 24.9K 1%

IREC
Error : logo3A.jpg file not found. 574-262-8900

3 2 1

1 2 3

INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. 25166 LEER DRIVE ELKHART, IN. 46514 WWW.IREC1.COM
A

Z1, Z2 OFF Z3, Z5, Z7, Z8 OFF Z4, Z6 ON ANALOG LEFT/RIGHT LEFT IN 1 LEFT IN 2

DW

11-23-04

TITLE:
SIZE DWG . NO .

SCH, FM/IBOC MOTHER BOARD


REV

UNCONTROLLED

UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
6 7 8

THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
9 10

K
FILENAME:

D
SCALE : NONE
11

201207-SCH
PROJ NO.
12

1
SHEET 1 OF 1

Reference Drawings

6 - 13

Jumper FMA "E" Z1 Z2 Z3 Z4 Z5 Z6 Z7 Z8 Z9 Z10 Z11 Z12 Z13 Z14 Z15 Z16 Z17 Z18 Z19 Z20 Z21 Z22 Z23 Z24 Z25 Z26 Z27 Z28 Z29 Z30 Z31 Z32 Z33 JMP1 JMP2 Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Short Short Open Open

FMA "T" 50K input Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMA"T" 600 input Short Short Short Open Short Open Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMA "R" Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMA "Omnia" Analog input Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMA "Omnia" AES input Open Open Open Short Open Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMX "E" FMX "T" 50K input Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Open Short Open Short Open Short Open Short Open Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Short Open Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMX "T" 600 input Short Short Short Open Short Open Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMX "R" FMX "Omnia" Analog input Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open

FMX "Omnia" AES input Open Open Open Short Open Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open

FMX RMS

Short Short Short Short Short Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Open Short Short Short

Open Open

Motherboard Configuration Chart

6-14

FM30/FM100/FM250 User's Manual

D 8167-5

Illustration 610 Display Board (Add 600 to component designators for schematic reference)

614

FM500 User's Manual

R27

JP601 +12V +12V R602 100K D601 1N4148 1 C601 1.0UF 3 4 U601A TL072 D602 1N4148 R604 1.2K 5.00V 9 8 7 6 5 C602 1.0UF +12V -12V 4 3 2 1

U602 LM3915 MODE RADJ ROUT DHI IN DLO V+ VL1 L10 L9 L8 L7 L6 L5 L4 L3 L2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

DL601-610 +5V RED YEL GRN GRN 50mA GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN R606 R605 1K RED 330 Q601 MPS-A56 HI GR R613 1K C605 .001 +12V 5.00V +5V -12V RED YEL GRN GRN 50mA GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN C607 0.1 BR GR R617 1K C608 .001 R618 1.2K LOCK LAMP PROC A 5.00V R650 100K BECKMAN INPUT DL646 RED PA DC PADC LAMP 2 3 8 1 4 -12V U606A TL072 R632 620 R631 5.6K R633 33K 6 7 5 D616 D617 U606B TL072 DP10 R634 5.1K DECIMAL POINT DP100 R656 220 F.S. DL636-643 GRN DP10 DP100 +12V C631 1.0UF VR601 7805 1 C623 1.0UF IN OUT C 2 3 C624 1.0UF C629 1.0UF 14 U9 7 8 16 PA DC VOLTS U10 U11 PA DC AMPS VEE VSS 19.99 GRN PA TEMPERATURE 199.9 GRN SUPPLY DC VOLTS 199.9 GRN VOLTMETER 199.9 13 14 15 12 1 5 2 4 6 11 10 9 U610 74HC193 U609B 74HC14 3 C633 .001 R642 10K +5V
NOTES :

Y DL621-625 +12V C626 1.0UF

R645 100

Q604 2N5087

6 C611 0.1 5

U613B TL072 7 +12V DL648-658

+5V

L VU

R601 68K

R603 1K

R644 33K R646 10M

JP603 JUMPER FOR BAR 9

C628 1.0UF

1 8 L 2 +5V L 1 1 L 3

1 7 L 4

1 6 L 5

1 5 L 6

1 4 L 7

1 3 L 8

1 2 L 9

1 1 L 1 0

1 0 D605 COMPOSITE R622 10.0K 1N6263 R623 10.0K +12V 2 3 4 R624 1M C612 .001 D607 C610 0.1 8 1 D606 1N6263 R653 1K 6 5 U607B TL072 7 -12V R643 3.3M U613A TL072 +12V D618 Q603 2N5210 2 3 4 -12V R626 33K DL626-635 R649 10K POT H R625 10K MOD. CAL. DITHER C625 0.1 8 1 R647 1K 5.00V R627 2.7K

U608 LM3914 MODE RADJ ROUT DHI IN DLO V+ VL1 L10 L9 L8 L7 L6 L5 L4 L3 L2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

R652 5.6K

"110" RED YEL GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN GRN "PILOT" R629 680

8 7 6 5

U604 V 2 V + 3

LM3914 D L O 4 I N 5 D H I 6 R O U T 7 R A D J 8 R614 1.2K M O D E 9

R648 1K +12V

4 3 2 1

U607A TL072

JP602 R608 100K C603 1.0UF R VU +12V R610 1.2K 5.00V 9 8 7 6 5 C604 1.0UF +12V 4 3 2 1

U603 LM3915 MODE RADJ ROUT DHI IN DLO V+ VL1 L10 L9 L8 L7 L6 L5 L4 L3 L2 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

DL11-20 C606 0.1 Y Y G G G G G G Y RED

R607 68K

6 7 5 U601B TL072

D603 1N4148

R609 1K

R615 33K L 2 DITHER

1 8 L 3

1 7 L 4

1 6 L 5

1 5 L 6

1 4 L 7

1 3 L 8

1 2 L 9

1 1 L 1 0

1 0

SW603 R655 4.7K DL644-647, 659 SWR SWR LAMP DL644 RED C634 1.0UF 5.00V +5V

STEREO ST/MON MONO

D604 1N4148

U605 L 1 1 V 2 V + 3

LM3914 D L O 4 I N 5 D H I 6 R O U T 7 R A D J 8 M O D E 9

+5V

R616 33K

R657 1K BECKMAN

RF LEVEL

RED R611 1K

R612 330 Q602 MPS-A56

+12V

LOCK

DL645 RED INPUT

SW601

/+6DB

PROC B

PROC C +5V +12V C613 .01

SW602 U609F 74HC14 12 13

/+12DB

DITHER 10V P-P DITHER PATEMP LAMP

DL647 RED PA TEMP

R619 510

2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 DL101 DISPLAY 1000 100's TENS UNITS

R620 220K

+5V

DL659 RED

C609 1.0UF

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 +5V

Pin 1, upper left from front of unit. J601 +12V -12V L VU R VU 5.00V PROC A PROC B PROC C BR GR HI GR U611 74HC4051 X0 X1 X2 X3 X4 X5 X6 X7 INH A B C X 3 R630 150 J602 SEL A SEL B SEL C RF LEVEL 5.00V PATEMP LAMP PADC LAMP INPUT LOCK LAMP SWR LAMP 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 +12V -12V /+12DB /+6DB 5.00V +12V -12V

+12V

RF POWER SWR VDD VCC +5V

1999 GRN 19.99 GRN

ALC

19.99 GRN 199.9 GRN

COMPOSITE MON/ST GND

HEADER 10X2

+5V 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

-12V C622 1.0UF

-12V C630 1.0UF

U612

ICL7107

5.00V

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 C627 1.0UF R651 2.2K -12V DZ601 6.2V 5 +5V U609C 74HC14 6

UP SW605

R628 1K

C620 .01 1 C632 .001 C621 .01 R641 10K

U609A 74HC14 2

DPM REF DPM IN

R639 100K DOWN SW606 R654 1K R640 100K

HEADER 10X2 3 2 6 7 12 13 SEL A SEL B SEL C

C618 0.1

R638 100K

15 1 10 9 4 5 4 11 14

A B C D UP DN LOAD CLR

QA QB QC QD CO BO

C616 0.1 POLY DPM IN R635 100K C614 0.1 R637 470K

C617 0.1

C619 100PF

U609D 74HC14 9 8 U609E 74HC14 10

SCM, FM DISPLAY
1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

103206
DISPLAY 615

DPM REF

R636 100K

11

C615 0.1

Reference Drawings

Reference Drawings

6 - 17

CARR SW R701 4.7K /CARRIER OFF R733 4.7K R702 10K U703C 5 6 +12V

CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


1718 WEST MISHAWAKA ROAD ELKHART, IN. 46517 PHONE (219) 294-8000 R723 1K +6V

VDD R703 4.7K R704 10K

74HC14 D701 1N4148 U703A 1 2 3 U703B 4 DZ701 1N4735 6.2V D702 1N4148

FM VOLTAGE REGULATOR
VDD VCC DRAWN CHECKED SCALE PROJ # NONE MLOWCMO 10.SCM JFL 8-25-97 APPROVED BY : ME EE PE NEXT ASM: DO NOT SCALE PRINT SUPERSEDES E.C. DWG. NO. REV

/AUTO CARRIER

74HC14 Fo=5KHZ BPF; Q=3

74HC14

+12V D707 1N4148 R709 1K R713 100K

VSS R722 100K

C702 .001 R705 91K

R707 180K

+12V

U702 74HC4060 D706 1N4148 7 U701B TL074 R716 10K 11 12 PI Q4 Q5 Q6 RST Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Q12 Q13 Q14 PO PO 7 5 4 6 14 13 15 1 2 3 9 10

FILENAME:

103207
THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC. AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.

4 2 1 R706 5.1K C703 .001 3 1 1 -12V U701A TL074

D703 1N6263

R708 100K

6 5

TIME-OUT SELECT MINUTES 0.5 2 4 8 JP701 2 4 6 8 10 1 3 5 7 9 D708 1N4148 U703D 9 8 28V ENABLE

NOTES : _______ _______ 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

AUDIO or COMPOSITE COMP2

C701 .01

R714 220

R715 2.2K R717 10K

74HC14 INPUT FAULT

HEADER 5X2

R710 75K 1

13 14 12 C704 .001 U701D TL074

D704 1N6263

R711 100K

DL701 GREEN R712 1M C705 1.0 POLY

DL702 RED

R718 100K VDD

R721 24.9K 1

C706 1.0 POLY

R719 10K Remove: 9 8 10 U701C TL074

Modifications for use with 12.5V RF driver.


(C707) (R726) (R708) (R749) U706 L704 R745 R744 C724 D713 P701

PROGRAM DETECT

R720 10K

R724 100

+UNREG R734 10K

Change:

R732 100K to 49.9K D714 1N5822 to MUR110 DZ703 1.5KE36A to ICTE-12 C721, C722 3300UF to 220UF/50V 1UF/100V between L701 and L703 under board. 7912 regulator, using "L704" pads. Jumper "U706" pads 1 and 2. DZ705

Q705 MPSA06 DZ702 1N9661B 16V

Add: U1 LM3578 U2 IR2125

U704 LM3578 1 2 3 4 C709 2200PF POLY C711 .01 1 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 8 7 6 5

C712 1.0 U705 IR2125 1 2 3 4 R730 2.2K C713 100PF 1 2 3 4

D710 1N4148

C723 330 100V

1 -IN 2 +IN

V+

1 VCC 2 IN 3 ERR 4 ESS

VB OUT

8 7

CS 7 C 6 E 5

8 7 6 5

8 7 6 5

C714 0.1

R735 51

Q701 IRF540

3 OSC 4 GND

CS 6 VS 5

C715 0.1

R736 2K

R737 4.3K

R738A 1.0 0.5W

R738A 1.0 0.5W (+13.5V) L701 380UH R740 10 Q703 MPSA56

VDD R725 100K

VDD

D709 OPEN R748 10K

C710 56PF NPO

R728 68K

Q704 MJE15028 R743 220 C717 1UF

(+12.5V)

DRVR V+

D711 MUR110

C718 220 63V

DZ703 ICTE-12

R739 510

C725 220 63V

13 C707 .001 R726 100K U703F 74HC14

12 C708 220 Pf

11

10 U703E 74HC14

R749 1.5K

R732 82.5K 1

C719 1000 35V

R741 1K

R727 620

R729 4.12K 1

U706 LM2576ADJ 1 2 3 4 5 Q702 MPSA06

CARR SW DRVR V+

-12V +12V

METER UNREG

R750 100

R744 1.1K 1% +UNREG L702 960UH R745 10K 1%

R742 1K

+12V +12V

6 5 4 3 2 1

INPUT FAULT HD701

+12V

/LOCK FAULT R751 JUMPER 1 3 5 7 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 7 9 HD702 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 1 2 3 FAN A10124-22 HD703

SYNC -12V DRVR V+ PAV PAI ALC

6 5 4 3 2 1

HD704

D713 1N5822 Inductor Data

DZ704 ICTE-12

C720 220UF 50V

HEADER 6 (TO POWER REG. BOARD)

L701

L702-703

D715 1N4004

C724 47 20V

L Wire Turns

380uH #22 80

960uH #26 165 L703 960UH

D714 1N5822

L704 960UH

-12V -12V

c 8667-5 COMP2 38KHZ /CARRIER OFF /AUTO CARRIER

Micrometals T90 core

C721 3300UF 16V

C722 3300UF 16V

VOLTAGE REGULATOR 617

Reference Drawings

Illustration 612 Power Regulator Board

618

FM500 User's Manual

ON CHASSIS

E . C . N.
BATTERY

REV
A B C

REVISION HISTORY DESCRIPTION


PRODUCTION RELEASE CORRECTED Z3 AND Z6 UNIT STATUS FOR M2 AND FM100 SWAPPED Z1, Z2 TO MATCH PWB

DATE
10-31-03 01-29-04 08-10-04

DWN
DW DW DW

APPROVALS CHK CM
DW DW DW

PE
DP DP DP

P801 FASTON TAB P802 FASTON TAB

~
F

+
C1001 0.015F 110V

DC INPUT

D804 BYV72EW-150

274 323

P806 FASTON TAB

P803 FASTON TAB CIRCUIT BREAKER P804 + UNREG IN FASTON TAB P805 FASTON TAB P807 FASTON TAB
E

L801 C815 330/100V


+

30UH C816 330/100V

C817 330/100V

R801A 27.4K 2

E 1

* Z2
R801B 24.9K
2 1

* Z3
1 2

HD1

1N4735 6.2V
1 2 3 1

-IN +IN OSC GND

V+ CS C E

8 7 6 5

* R828 30K
R809 51.0 R811 Q801 IRF540 R821 10.0K Q804 MPSA06 DZ803 1N4735 6.2V R819 .04 OHM 15W 3%
+

U2
1 2 3 VCC IN ERR ESS VB OUT CS VS 8 7 6 5

C809 .1

2200PF POLY

82K

56PF

R803

R802 10K PA VOLTAGE SET


3

C801 220PF C802


2

LM3578AN R806A 330K 2 C814 1/50V

R807 2.2K

C805 100PF

C808
2

.0027 IR2125

R810 2.0K

R812A 0.1 5W

R812B 0.1 5W L802

L803 30UH
+

R817B 1 2K 2W
TP2

* Z5

P808
PA-DC OUT

* Z7 * Z6

R806B 200K

* DZ807
1N966B 16V
3 1

D803 BYV72EW-150

330/100V

C811 C810 330/100V

FASTON TAB R818A 2.0K 2W R818B 2.0K 2W C813 .01UF R815 100.0 R813 1.0K
TP1

R816 1.0K 1%

C820 0.01UF DISK

1 1

R805A 330K 2

C806
+

* Z9 * Z8

R805B 200K

D805 1N4148

R804 10.0K 1%

4.7UF/63V R820 100K OPEN

2 3

U803 OP-27GNB
6

C819 .01UF Q803 2N5087 C818 .1UF R822 22.0K

*
JUMPER
Z1 Z2 Z3 Z8 Z7 Z6 Z4 Z5 Z9

UNIT CONFIGURATION FM500


SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN OPEN SHORT SHORT H43533-1 3.3K OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN

NOTES:

DZ802 1N966B 16V

4 1

FM1
OPEN SHORT SHORT SHORT OPEN SHORT SHORT OPEN OPEN H43608-1 3.3K OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN

FM30
OPEN SHORT SHORT SHORT OPEN SHORT SHORT OPEN OPEN H43395-5 3.3K OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN

FM100
OPEN SHORT SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT H43533-1 3.3K OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN

FM250
OPEN SHORT SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT H43533-1 3.3K OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN

EURO
OPEN SHORT SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT H43533-1 5.11K 1% OPEN OPEN OPEN OPEN

HARRIS M1
OPEN SHORT OPEN OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT OPEN SHORT H43533-1 3.3K INSTALLED INSTALLED INSTALLED INSTALLED

HARRIS M2
SHORT OPEN OPEN SHORT OPEN OPEN SHORT SHORT H43533-1 3.3K INSTALLED INSTALLED INSTALLED INSTALLED

UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED: 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% TOL. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS.

R814 22.0K

Q802 MPSA56

REF DES
L802 R811 R827 R828 DZ806 DZ807

APPROVALS DWN CHK CM PE


DW 09-30-03

INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. 25166 LEER DRIVE ELKHART, IN. 46514 574-262-8900 Error : logo3A.jpg file not found. WWW.IREC1.COM

IREC
DWG . NO .
SCALE : NONE
7

DW DP

09-30-03 09-30-03

TITLE:
SIZE

SCH, FM POWER REGULATOR


REV.
A

PWB_REV.G C10582-2 PWB_100969-1


B_L_SHT1_A.DOT REV. A

UNCONTROLLED UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
2 3

THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. AND ARE NOT TO BE REPRODUCED, COPIED OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
4 5

DISTRIBUTION
FILENAME:

200915-SCH
PROJ NO. 533
8

C
SHEET

200915-SCH
6

1 OF 1

6 - 20

FM30/FM100/FM250 User's Manual

DWG. NO. 200915-SCH

C804 .01 C803

R817A 100 1

* Z4

REV.

U801

DZ801

C812 1/50V

D802 1N4148

C 7527-2_6 HDR

1.0K

1N966B 16V

* Z1

*DZ806

* R827

R808 1.0K

1 2 3 4 5 6

R20
R19

Illustration 613 Power Amplifier (Add 1100 to component designators for schematic reference)

620

FM500 User's Manual

C909

L904 23.2uH

L903 10.4uH R900 MRF 137 C905 10PF L902

U900
9 8

THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC. AND SHALL NOT BE REPRODUCED, COPIED, OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.

CROWN INTERNATIONAL, INC.


1718 WEST MISHAWAKA ROAD ELKHART, IN. 46517 PHONE (219) 294-8000

680PF C908 27PF C907 5PF C910 36PF C906 36PF

C903 0.01

CA2832 7 5 3

T900 J2

FM500 P.A.
R900 51 DRAWN CHECKED JFL 7-12-96 ME NONE R103 1001771A.SCM EE PE NEXT ASM: APPROVED BY : SUPERSEDES E.C. DWG. NO. PROJ # FILENAME: REV DO NOT SCALE PRINT

C900 R903 4.7K 0.01 L900 33uH R904 51 R905 10K C904 0.01 R902 2.7 5W C901 0.01 R901 51

SCALE

RF DRIVER BD
C902 0.01 D900 1N753A 6.2V

100177

NOTES : _______ _______ 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

J3

J5

2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED.

C1126 0.1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 J1 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72

R1101 15K DZ1110 1N4735 6.2V R1110 10K R1120 2.7K C1110 0.01 C1121 0.01 DISC

L1121 50NH C1122 0.01 DISC

TEMP SENSE LM35DZ 1 2 3 C1132

R1111 10K POT V C1111 0.01 R1112 5.6 2W R1116 10K T1111P C1112 0.01 R1117 24 3W T11S C1114 0.01 C1115 0.01 C1138 0.068 C1123 0.01 C1124 0.01 C1113 0.01 C1125 60PF R1113 5.6 2W L1122 50NH

0.1

Q1101 BLF278

C1127 0.1

C1128 0.1

C1133 0.1

C1134 0.1

C1135 0.1

C1136 0.1

C1137 0.1

R1119 200 3W

C1116 27PF

T1121

R1114 5.6 2W

R1115 5.6 2W

PA INPUT BD
L1124A

PA OUTPUT BD
L1125A

C1129 L1123 L1124B DZ1110 1N4735 6.2V ZENER R1111 10K POT V C1111 0.01 R1112 5.6 2W R1116 10K T1111P C1112 0.01 R1117 24 3W T11S C1114 0.01 C1115 0.01 C1138 0.068 C1123 0.01 C1124 0.01 T1121 R1113 5.6 2W Q1101 BLF278 L1122 50NH R1110 10K R1120 2.7K C1110 0.01 R1101 15K C1121 0.01 DISC L1121 50NH C1122 0.01 DISC 0.1 L1125B J2 L1126

C1131 0.1

C1130 0.1

C1113 0.01 C1125 60PF

_ _ _

B1

+
B2

R1119 200 3W

C1116 27PF

+
B3

R1114 5.6 2W

R1115 5.6 2W

PA INPUT BD

PA OUTPUT BD

FM500 POWER AMPLIFIER Reference Drawings 621

Illustration 614 RF Output Filter (Add 1200 to component designators for schematic reference)
622 FM500 User's Manual

P10421-9

(455MHz)

(195MHz)

(176MHz)

(252MHz)

C1202 1.35PF RF IN L1202 90.5NH C1201 15.4PF C1203 40.9PF

C1204 7.1PF

C1206 9.3PF

C1208 5.13PF

R1202 * 75

C1211 47PF NP0

R1203 10

RF OUT

L1201 250NH

L1203 94.1NH C1205 38.9PF

L1204 87.5NH C1207 37.7PF

L1205 77.9NH C1209 14.1PF

C1209A 2PF C1219 47PF SM R1204 10 R1205 * 75

C1201A 10PF

C1217 3.5PF

HD1201 1 2 3 Approx. 7V RMS with 200W RF in. D1201 1N6263 R1206 1K C1213 .001

C1212 47PF NP0

D1202 1N6263

R1209 1K C1215 .01 R E F L F W D

C1218 47PF SM

R1201 100

RF MONITOR

R1207 100K

C1214 .01

R1208 20K

C1216 .001

INDUCTORS L1201 L1202 L1203 L1204 L1205

I.D. 0.25" 0.5" 0.5" 0.5" 0.4375"

TURNS 14 3 3 3 3

LENGTH 0.7" 0.6" 0.5" 0.7" 0.6"

GUAGE #17 #12 #12 #12 #12

R1210 10K RFV D1203 1N6263 R1211 100K

C1220 .01 1 2 3 4 5 HD1202 HEADER 5

EXACT COIL LENGTHS ARE FACTORY-SET.

* IF NECESSARY, SELECT R1202 FOR SWR READING OF 1.1 OR BETTER WITH 50-OHM LOAD. R1205 = R1202 R1202,R1203,C1211,D1202,C1216 ON UNDERSIDE OF CIRCUIT BOARD.

NOTES : _______ _______ 1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4W, 5% UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED. 3. C1201-1209A,1217 are circuit board pads.

103209

RF OUTPUT FILTER & REFLECTOMETER

Reference Drawings

623

Reference Drawings

6 - 25

E . C . N.
264
F

REV
M N O P

REVISION HISTORY DESCRIPTION


PRODUCTION RELEASE XU1 WAS 200479-TERM-10 PWB CHG'D TO REV. C PWB CHG'D TO REV. D

DATE
12-10-03 01-29-04 06-14-04 03-22-05

DWN
DW DW DW DW

APPROVALS CHK CM
DW DW DW DW

PE
DP MH DP DP
F

ADDED TO PWB (200922-PWB-D IN LOCATION SHOWN, AND DEPICTED ON COMPONENT MAP.

279 316 361

C23 .01

C24 .01 R5

L6 OPEN

C4 OPEN

OPEN

XU1 MHW6342T
IN GND GND N/C VCC N/C GND GND OUT

R18 0

C7 0.01

R7 OPEN

C8 OPEN

L4 10.4uH Q1 BLF245 T1
G S D

L5 23.2uH

C15 680pF

J2 RF OUT

J1 RF IN

D1 OPEN C1
1 3 2

D2 OPEN
1 2

C5 22 R6 OPEN R17 51 C6 0.01

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

.01

R2 OPEN C2 OPEN

R4 OPEN R3 OPEN

R1 OPEN

C3 .01

L2 OPEN

L3

C10 10pF

C11 36pF

C12 36pF

C13 5pF

C14 27pF P

VR1 OPEN
1 D GND Vin Vout 3 +5V

C18 OPEN R16 OPEN R8 *


+24VDC

FOR FM100 AND FM250: 18V FOR FM500: 20V FOR FM30: FEED POINT FROM PWR. REGULATOR PWB.

J3
1

L7 OPEN R9 51 1/2W C16 0.01 J4


1 3 2 8

R11 4.7K R12 OPEN R10 10K C20 OPEN D3 1N753A 6.2V
T

RT1 2.7K NTC OPEN R13 OPEN C17 0.01


C

U2A
1

5 6

U2B
7

C19 OPEN
B

OPEN
4

OPEN NOTE: UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED:

R14 OPEN R15 OPEN

R8 POWER LEVEL CONFIGURATION


FM30 OPEN FM100 FM250 FM500 3 OHM 5W 3 OHM 5W 2.7 OHM 5W

1. ALL RESISTORS ARE IN OHMS, 1/4 WATT +/- 5% TOL. 2. ALL CAPACITORS ARE IN MICROFARADS.

APPROVALS
J5
1 A

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TITLE:
SIZE

UNCONTROLLED UNLESS OTHERWISE MARKED IN RED INK BY CM AS A CONTROLLED COPY, COPIES OF THESE DOCUMENTS INCLUDING ASSOCIATED ELECTRONIC REPRODUCTIONS ARE FOR REFERENCE ONLY.
1 2 3

THESE DRAWINGS AND SPECIFICATIONS ARE THE PROPERTY OF INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. AND ARE NOT TO BE REPRODUCED, COPIED OR USED AS THE BASIS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR SALE OF APPARATUS OR DEVICES WITHOUT PERMISSION.
4 5

DWN CHK CM PE

DW DW DP

08-28-03 10-30-03 10-30-03

INTERNATIONAL RADIO AND ELECTRONICS CORP. 25166 LEER DRIVE ELKHART, IN. 46514 574-262-8900 WWW.IREC1.COM

FM RF DRIVER
DWG . NO . REV.
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DISTRIBUTION
FILENAME: 6

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SCALE : NONE
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B_L_SHT1_A.DOT REV. A

6 - 26

FM30/FM100/FM250 User's Manual

DWG. NO. Q43310-4

L1 33uH

C9 OPEN FOR FM30: 20VDC INPUT APPLIED HERE.

C21 OPEN

REV.

C22 OPEN

Mother Board
Metering Board
HD504 J 403
Ribbon

Voltage Regulator Board


V+ Temp Gnd

P1 Unreg
6 5 4 3 2 1

FM500 CHASSIS WIRING


FM500 Chassis Wiring C.Donner 2-23-98 CROWN BROADCAST

HD505
HD 502

Ribbon Cable

HD561
Ribbon

6 5 4 3 2 1

3 2 1

HD503

HD701
6 5 4 3 2 1

HD702

J 602

J 601

Display Board

Reflectometer Feed-Thru

HD1202
RF Out

RF In
P807

1 2 3 4 5 6

P803

P802

P801

RF Output Filter & Reflectometer Board

P806

P804

P808

P805

Power Amp Interconnect Board


Driver input

J1 Back view
1 2 4 5 6 8 9 37 38 40 41 42 44 45 46 47

Left Power Regulator Board

Ribbon Cable

P1

BNC

P3

P3

Header
DC Bus
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Socket
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6

PA 1 DC Input Driver DC Input

12 13 14 15

Temp Sensor

Inner Fan Outer Fans

Power Transformer
RED / WHT BLU / WHT

17 18 19 20 22 23 24 25

52 53 54 55 56 57

PA 2 DC Input

DC Bus
62 63 64 65 67 68 69 71 72

120 VAC

57 VAC

28 29

P806

P804 P805

P803

P802

P801

P807

RED WHT / BLK WHT


20 VAC 57 VAC

Bridge Rectifier

PA RF Output

P2

BNC

31 32 33 35 36

P808

Right Power Regulator Board


On

100 VAC

BLK

BLU BRN / WHT


12.5 VAC

BRN

Carrier Switch
Off

A
Gnd

D
A
Gnd

Red

Blk P5

Red/Wht

Brn Brn/Wht Blk/Wht 120V 240V

Wht

S1A

S1B

On
Red Blk

P4

100V 220V

P1

Fan

D
P7

AC Power Switch
Off

P6

AC Input, Fuse, & Filter

AC Distribution Board

*Jumpered for 120VAC


FM500 User's Manual

CHASSIS WIRING 626

Illustration 616 Receiver Board

Reference Drawings

627

Receiver

628

FM500 User's Manual

Section 7Service and Support


We understand that you may need various levels of support or that the product could require servicing at some point in time. This section provides information for both of these scenarios.

Service and Support

71

7.1 Service
The product warranty (see opposite page) outlines our responsibility for defective products. Before returning a product for repair or replacement (our choice), call our Customer Service department using the following telephone number: (866) 262-8917 Our Customer Service Representative will give you further instructions regarding the return of your product. Use the original shipping carton or a new one obtained from Crown. Place shipping spacers between the slide-out power amplifier assembly and the back panel. Please fill out the Factory Service Instructions sheet (page 75) and include it with your returned product.

7.2 24Hour Support


In most instances, what you need to know about your product can be found in this manual. There are times when you may need more in-depth information or even emergency-type information. We provide 24hour technical assistance on your product via a toll telephone call. For emergency help or detailed technical assistance, call (866) 262-8917 You may be required to leave a message at this number but your call will be returned promptly from our on-call technician.

7.3 Spare Parts


To obtain spare parts, call Crown Broadcast Sales at the following number. (866) 262-8917 You may also write to the following address: Service Manger International Radio and Electronics Company, Inc. 25166 Leer Drive Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A. 46514-5425

72

FM500 User's Manual

Three-Year Limited Warranty


North America Only SUMMARY OF WARRANTY We, Crown Broadcast, a business unit of International Radio and Electronics Company, Inc., 25166 Leer Drive, Elkhart, Indiana 465152000 warrant to the ORIGINAL PURCHASER of a NEW Crown Broadcast product, for a period of three (3) years from the date of purchase by the original purchaser (the warranty period) that the new Crown Broadcast product is free of defects in materials and workmanship and will meet or exceed all advertised specifications for such a product. This warranty does not extend to any subsequent purchaser or user, and automatically terminates upon sale or other disposition of our product. ITEMS EXCLUDED FROM THIS CROWN BROADCAST We are not responsible for product failure caused by misuse, accident, or neglect. This warranty does not extend to any product on which the serial number has been defaced, altered, or removed. It does not cover damage to loads or any other products or accessories resulting from Crown Broadcast product failure. It does not cover defects or damage caused by use of unauthorized modifications, accessories, parts, or service. WHAT WE WILL DO We will remedy any defect, in material or workmanship (except as excluded), in our sole discretion, by repair, replacement, or refund. If a refund is elected, then you must make the defective or malfunctioning component available to us free and clear of all liens or other encumbrances. The refund will be equal to the actual purchase price, not including interest, insurance, closing costs, and other finance charges less a reasonable depreciation on the product from the date of original purchase. Warranty work can only be performed at our authorized service centers or at our factory. Expenses in remedying the defect will be borne by Crown Broadcast, including two-way surface freight shipping costs within the United States. (Purchaser must bear the expense of shipping the product between any foreign country and the port of entry in the United States and all taxes, duties, and other customs fee(s) for such foreign shipments.) HOW TO OBTAIN WARRANTY SERVICE You must notify us of your need for warranty service not later than ninety (90) days after the expiration of the warranty period. We will give you an authorization to return the product for service. All components must be shipped in a factory pack or equivalent which, if needed, may be obtained from us for a nominal charge. Corrective actions will be taken within a reasonable time of the date of receipt of the defective product by us. If the repairs made by us are not satisfactory, notify us immediately. DISCLAIMER OF CONSEQUENTIAL AND INCIDENTAL DAMAGES You are not entitled to recover from us any consequential or incidental damages resulting from any defect in our product. This includes any damage to another product or products resulting from such a defect. WARRANTY ALTERATIONS No person has the authority to enlarge, amend, or modify this warranty. The warranty is not extended by the length of time for which you are deprived of the use of the product. Repairs and replacement parts are provided under the terms of this warranty shall carry only the unexpired portion of this warranty. DESIGN CHANGES We reserve the right to change the design of any product from time to time without notice and with no obligation to make corresponding changes in products previously manufactured. LEGAL REMEDIES OF PURCHASER There is no warranty which extends beyond the terms hereof. This written warranty is given in lieu of any oral or implied warranties not contained herein. We disclaim all implied warranties, including without limitation any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No action to enforce this warranty shall be commenced later than ninety (90) days after expiration of the warranty period. Crown Broadcast, International and Radio Company, Inc. 25166 Leer Drive, P.O. Box 2000, Elkhart, Indiana 465152000

Revised August 2001

Service and Support

73

Notes:

74

FM500 User's Manual

Factory Service Instructions


To obtain factory service, complete the bottom half of this page, include it with the unit, and ship to: International Radio and Electronics Company, Inc. 25166 Leer Drive Elkhart, Indiana, U.S.A. 46514-5425

For units in warranty (within 3 years of purchase from any authorized Crown Dealer): We pay for ground UPS shipments from anywhere in the continental U.S. and Federal Express Second Day service from Hawaii and Alaska to the factory and back to you. Expedited service/shipment is available for an additional charge. You may ship freight collect (COD for cost of freight) or forward your receipt for shipping charges which we will reimburse. We do not cover any charges for shipping outside the U.S. or any of the expenses involved in clearing customs. If you have any questions about your Crown Broadcast product, please contact Crown Broadcast Customer Service at: Telecphon: (574) 262-8900 Fax: (574) 262-5399 Name: Shipping Address: Phone Number: Model: Serial Number: Fax: Purchase Date: Nature of the Problem
(Describe the conditions that existed when the problem occurred and what attempts were made to correct it.)

Company:

Other equipment in your system: If warranty has expired, payment will be: Card Number: Cash/Check VISA Please Quote before servicing Exp. Date: Signature: Mastercard COD

Service and Support

75

Appendix Transmitter Output Efficiency

FM500 User's Manual

Appendix1

Transmitter efficiency output


RF Power Output Efficiency-FM500

PADC Volts 51.3 48.3 45.5 42.7 39.4 36.0 33.0 29.6 25.4 21.1

PADC Amps 13.91 13.29 12.74 12.14 11.46 10.68 10.00 9.25 8.28 7.29

RF Power 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100

Efficiency 77% 78% 77% 77% 78% 78% 76% 73% 71% 65%

Power measurements were made at 97.1 MHz. Voltage and current measurements were taken from the unit's built-in metering. The accuracy of the internal metering is better than 2%. Return loss of the RF load was greater than -34dB at test frequency.

Appendix2

FM500 User's Manual

A B C

Glossary
The following pages define terms and abbreviations used throughout this manual.

Glossary

G1

A B C
AF Audio Frequency; the frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz in the electromagnetic spectrum. Automatic Level Control Amplitude Modulation; the process of impressing information on a radio-frequency signal by varying its amplitude. The range of frequencies available for signalling. Binary-Coded Decimal; a digital system that uses binary codes to represent decimal digits. Beat Frequency Oscillator A bayonet locking connector for miniature coax; said to be short for Bayonet-Neill-Concelman. As used in the FM transmitter, refers to the entire audio spectrum as opposed to the spectrum influenced by the pre-emphasis; also called "Wideband." A continuous signal which is modulated with a second, information-carrying signal. In FM broadcasting, this term generally refers to the interaction between the main (L+R) and the subcarrier (LR) signals as opposed to "separation" which generally refers to leakage between left (L) and right (R) channels. A high average of modulation over time. The amount by which the carrier frequency changes either side of the center frequency. Dual In-line Pins; term used to describe a pin arrangement. The unwanted changes in signal wave shape that occur during transmission between two points. Digital Panel Meter Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory Electrostatic Discharge; a discharge that is potentially destructive to sensitive electronic components.
FM500 User's Manual

ALC AM

bandwidth BCD

BFO BNC

broadband

carrier

crosstalk

density (program) deviation

DIP

distortion

DPM EPROM ESD

G2

exciter

FET frequency synthesizer

(1) A circuit that supplies the initial oscillator used in the driver stage. (2) A transmitter configuration which excludes stereo generation and audio processing. Field-Effect Transistor A circuit that generates precise frequency signals by means of a single crystal oscillator in conjunction with frequency dividers and multipliers. Frequency Modulation; the process of impressing information on a radio signal by varying its frequency.

FM

FSK

Frequency Shift Keying; an FM technique for shifting the frequency of the main carrier at a Morse code rate. Used in the on-air identification of frequencies. The process of reducing the gain of a given amplifier. Undesirable energy at integral multiples of a desired, fundamental frequency. Hight Frequency; Frequencies in the 3.0 to 30.0 MHz range. Frequencies affected by the pre-emphasis. Input/Output Light-Emitting Diode The process by which a carrier is varied to represent an information-carrying signal. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor; a voltage-controlled device with high input impedance due to its electrically isolated gate. A transmission within a localized geographic area (ranging from a single room to a several kilometers). Power Amplifier

gain reduction

harmonics

HF

Highband I/O LED modulation

MOSFET

nearcast

PA

Glossary

G3

A B C
PAI PAV pilot pre-emphasis Power Amplifier Current Power Amplifier Voltage A 19kHz signal used for stereo transmissions. The deliberate accentuation of the higher audio frequencies; made possible by a high-pass filter. The procedure and/or circuits used to modify incoming audio to make it suitable for transmission. An option which adds incoming RF capability to an existing transmitter. See also "Translator." Radio Frequency; (1) A specific portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between audiofrequency and the infrared portion. (2) A frequency useful for radio transmission (roughly 10 kHz and 100,000 MHz). Subsidiary Communications Authorization; see "subcarrier." Signal to Noise Unintended signals present on the transmission output terminal. A tolerance or measure of how well a component, circuit, or system maintains constant operating conditions over a period of time. See "pilot." The amount of left-channel information that bleeds into the right channel (or vice versa). A carrier signal which operates at a lower frequency than the main carrier frequency and which modulates the main carrier. The process used to hold back or stop certain frequencies.

processing

receiver

RF

SCA

S/N spurious products

stability

stereo pilot stereo separation

subcarrier

suppression

G4

FM500 User's Manual

SWR

Standing-Wave Ratio; on a transmission line, the ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum voltage or maximum current to the minimum current; also the ratio of load impedance to intended (50 ohms) load impedance. Total Harmonic Distortion A transmitter designed to internally change an FM signal from one frequency to another for retransmission. Used in conjunction with terrestrial-fed networks. A transmitter equipped with an FSK ID option for rebroadcasting a satellite-fed signal. Voltage Standing-Wave Ratio; see "SWR." See "broadband." Voltage-Controlled Oscillator

THD translator

satellator

VSWR Wideband VCO

Glossary

G5

Index
Symbols
19kHz level adjustment 53 phase adjustment 53 bias set 56 booster transmitter use 14 broadband. See audio: broadband bypass audio processor 212, 49

A
AC. See power: input ALC 33, 38, 48 altitude operating range 18 amperes PA DC 33, 38 amplifier reference drawings 20 RF 413 bias set 56 antenna 29 mismatch 33 applications 13 audio broadband 35 distortion 59 frequency 59 high 35 input connectors 43 input level 35 monitor connections 212, 45 performance 57 pre-emphasized 35 processing 35, 49 wide 35 audio processor 36 adjustments 52 board location 43 bypass 211, 212, 49 circuit description 43 indicators 35 input 35 reference drawings 64

C
cables audio input 210 carrier 49, 58 automatic turnoff 213, 38, 56, 5 10 frequency 58, 510 carrier switch 34, 55 Channel. See frequency channel. See frequency main 510 main into sub 510 sub into main 510 chassis circuit 413 circuit boards audio processor 43, 64 display 14 metering 10 motherboard 12 power regulator 18 RF exciter 8 stereo generator 45, 6 voltage regulator 16 circuits chassis 413 display 410 metering 48 motherboard 49 part numbering 42 power regulator 412 RF exciter 46 stereo generator 44 voltage regulator 411 components numbering 42 composite input 211 input connection 211 output

B
backup transmitter use 14 bandwidth RF 58 battery. See power: input Bessel nulls 59

Index1

adjustment 53 connectors audio input 210 audio monitoring 212 composite in 211 remote I/O 211, 213 RF input 29 RF output 29 RF output monitoring 29 SCA In 211 XLR 211, 43 cooling fan 32 control 49 coverage area 14 crosstalk 17 measurements 59 current limit PA 55

D
DC. See power: input de-emphasis 212, 52, 57 jumpers 212 delay program failure to carrier turnoff 2 13, 56 dimensions 18 DIP socket 210, 49 display circuit description 410 front panel 32, 35, 37 modulation calibration 56 display board reference drawings 14 distortion 17 audio 59 harmonic 45

temperature 38 FCC guidelines 18, 58, 510 filter RF output 22 frequency carrier 58, 510 measurement 54 pilot 58 receiver 27 response 59 selection 25, 54 receiver 27 samples 26 synthesizer 510 frequency synthesizer. See RF exciter adjustments 54 front panel display modulation calibration 56 FSK 15, 16 measurement 54

G
gain control 35 gain reduction 44 gain switches input 36

H
harmonic distortion 45 harmonics 58 heatsink 38 highband 35 processing 44 humidity operating range 18

I
I/O connector 12, 213 pinout 213 indicators audio processor 35 fault 38, 410 highband 35 LED 35, 37, 410 pilot 35 wideband 35, 56 input audio connections 210 composite 211 fault 38 gain switches 35 program fault 213 SCA connection 211

E
emissions 58 exciter. See RF exciter configuration 14

F
fan control 49 fault indicators 410 input 38 lock 38 power 38 servicing 38 SWR 38

Index2

FM500 User's Manual

L
labels 110 LEDs 35, 410 line voltage 23 lock status 47 lock fault 38

M
metering 12 circuit description 48 metering board adjustments 55 location 48, 415 reference drawings 10 modulation 211, 35, 53, 57, 58 calibration 56 compensator 26 display 35 percentage 35, 59 monitor audio 212, 45 mono operation 211, 36 motherboard circuit description 49 reference drawings 12 multimeter 37 front panel 33

N
networks satellite-fed 16 terrestrial-fed 15 noise 17, 38 measurements 59

pilot indicator 35 power AC supply 413 AC voltage selection 23 amplifier reference drawings 20 fault 38 input 18, 23 FCC guidelines 510 output 13, 17, 58 display 37 output filter 414 regulator circuit description 412 RF 33, 37 RF amplifier 413 transformer 413 power regulator board reference drawings 18 power switch 34 pre-emphasis 17, 44, 52, 57 curve 212 networks 43 processing audio 212, 35 control 36 control setting 32 highband 35, 44 processor audio bypass 212 program failure 213, 510 program source 210, 36

R
receiver frequency selection 27 option 15 specifications 19 reflectometer 414, 22 regulatory approvals 18 remote control 12 remote I/O connector 213 pinout 213 remote operation 213 repair warranty 73

O
operating environment 18, 22 options 13, 14, 16 output power 17, 37 display 37 output filter 414

P
part numbering 42 parts spares 72 performance checklist 57 tests 510 pilot frequency 58

Index3

R (continued)
RF amplifier 413 bias set 56 bandwidth 18, 58 exciter 25, 211 board location 25, 46 circuit description 46 reference drawings 8 input 15, 29 output 12, 15, 17, 33, 37 impedance 17 output filter 414, 22 tuning 27

SWR 37 calibrate 55 fault 38 SWR fault 49 synchronization 411 synthesizer. See RF exciter

T
temperature fault 38, 49 operating range 18, 510 PA 33, 38 test point voltage 38 tests performance 57, 510 time-out program input failure 213 transformer 413 translator transmitter use 15

S
safety 110 satellator transmitter use 16 SCA 15 input connection 211 sensitivity monaural 19 stereo 19 separation stereo 17 stereo generator 53 service warranty 73 Service Instructions 75 specifications receiver 19 transmitter 17 stand-alone transmitter use 14 stereo separation 17, 59 stereo generator 12, 212 adjustments 53 board location 45 bypassing 211 circuit description 44 reference drawings 6 subcarrier 510 38kHz 510 suppression subcarrier 17 switches carrier 32, 34, 55 input gain 35, 36 Normal-Bypass 212, 49 power 34 receiver 27 stereo-mono 32, 36

V
VCO 46 voltage AC selection 23 voltage regulator 38 adjustments 56 circuit description 411 reference drawings 16 voltage selection 23 voltmeter display 38 volts PA DC 33, 38 VSWR 12, 29

W
Warranty 73 weight 18 wideband 35, 56

X
XLR connectors 210

Index4

FM500 User's Manual