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for the Delivery of Water from a Water Heater to a Washing System

1

Jayson E. Palomar, Jose Daniel C. Torres, Mesha Lynn T. Ybarola

9/6/13

Table of Contents

Table of Figures

Table of Tables

I. INTRODUCTION

The situation under consideration in this report is the transfer of water from a water heater at a minimum flow rate of 750 L/min to a washing system. The free surface of the water stored in the water heater is 1.20 m above the ground, while the outlet to the water system is 4.65 m above the ground. The horizontal distance between the outlet of the water heater and the outlet to the water system is 3.25 m. The water heater is vented, making the pressure at the free surface of the water atmospheric. The gauge pressure at the outlet to the water system, on the other hand, is 425 kPa. Figure 1 below shows the situation:

A system that would pump water from the water heater to the washing system must be designed. This design includes the following: (1) complete specification of the pump to be used and the pumps location in the system, (2) the type of pipes to be used for the suction and discharge lines and their respective lengths, (3) the piping layout, (4) the necessary valves and fittings, and (5) the actual operating point of the system.

There are a variety of ways to design the system, but the main goal is to have the best design in terms of efficiency, the net positive suction head (to avoid pump cavitation), pump power requirement, and economics.

General Layout of the System

The location of the pump in the pipeline system was first determined reasonably by considering pump priming and cavitation. The length of the suction line was specified, and the length of the discharge line was calculated in accord with the length of the suction line and the specified pathway of the pipes. All the valves and fittings, as well as the type of pipe entrance and exit deemed necessary for the system layout, were then chosen justifiably.

Based on the desired minimum volumetric flow rate, appropriately-sized standard pipes for the suction and discharge lines were specified. Such pipes were chosen in such a way that the resulting velocities at the specified volumetric flow rate are within a reasonable range. Tables for this purpose are found in the literature. (Mott, 2006)

The equation for the TDH on the pump at the desired operating conditions was determined from the Bernoulli equation for turbulent flow with friction taken into account:

2 2 v2 v2 P P1 L 2 v 1 TDH = h s + h v + h f + h p= z 2 z 1 + + 4f + K i + 2 2g D g i=1 i 2g

The Bernoulli equation is already sufficient for the calculation of TDH because the fluid transfer occurring in the system may be approximated as an isothermal process and the fluid in consideration (water) can be accurately treated as an incompressible fluid under the operating temperature of 80C and pressure which is well below its saturation pressure. It is also preliminarily assumed that water will flow turbulently in the design of the pipeline system, thus the kinetic energy correction factor is essentially equal to one. Point 1 is taken to be the free surface of the water reservoir in the water heater and point 2 is taken to be the opening at the end of the discharge line. 6

As seen in the equation for TDH, the Fanning friction factor f and equivalent length and/or K values are needed for the calculation of the friction head hf. Equivalent length values for valves and fittings and K values for the resistances due to pipe entrance and exit may be readily found in literature (Foust, Wenzel, Clump, Maus, & Andersen, 1980). Calculation of the Fanning friction factor is best done with the use of the Churchill equation since this equation satisfactorily represents f over the entire range of Reynolds numbers within the accuracy of the data used to construct the Moody diagram (Churchill, 1977): 8 f =2

( )+

12

( A+ B )

3 2

1 12

A= 2.457 ln

( )

0.9

+0.27

k D

16

B=

37530

16

A pump selection chart was the first chart used in this step of the design procedure in order to find out what type of pump is suitable for the given service. Such a chart is shown in Figure 1:

The boundaries presented in Figure 1 are only approximate. It is important to note that two or more types of pumps may give satisfactory service under the same conditions, and other factors must be considered. Also, if ever the chart shows that a centrifugal pump is to be needed, the speed of the pump need not be exactly the same as that specified in the chart since the actual speed a centrifugal pump varies among manufacturers. However, the speed to be chosen should be close to that specified in the chart for best results. For the pipeline system under consideration, Figure 1 would most likely show that the pump needed is a centrifugal pump running at 3500 revolutions per minute (rpm). Thus, a composite rating chart for a line of centrifugal pumps running at 3500 rpm was then used:

Figure 3. Composite rating chart for a line of centrifugal pumps (Mott, 2006)

After this step, the composite performance chart for the chosen pump was used to determine the nominal impeller diameter. Such a chart is shown in Figure 3:

Figure 4. Composite performance chart for 1.5 x 3 8 centrifugal pump at 3540 rpm (ITT Industries, 2001)

The impeller diameter was chosen such that the resulting capacity at the calculated TDH is greater than and is closest to the desired minimum volumetric flow rate.

Plotting of the System Curve and Determination of the Actual Operating Point

The system curve was then plotted. This was done by varying the flow rate from near zero (since mathematical errors in calculation will be encountered at zero) to about 350 gallons per minute (gpm) and calculating the corresponding TDH for each flow rate. Afterwards, points on the pump performance curve were acquired using Plot Digitizer. These points were then superimposed on the system curve. The intersection of the system curve and the pump rating curve serves as the actual operating point. The

10

coordinates of this intersection were found by modeling the system curve as a quadratic polynomial and the pump performance curve as a cubic polynomial and then analytically determining the real-number solution of the equations of the two curves simultaneously. The formulas used to do this are found in Appendix A. The performance of the pump at the operating curve can be determined by reading from the chart the required power, efficiency, and required net positive suction head (NPSHR).

The actual NPSH is computed using the following formula: NPSH A = P suction P + z1 z pump h f suction v g g

P suction P 1 v 2 v2 = suction 1 ( z pump z 1 ) h f suction g g 2g To ensure that cavitation does not occur, NPSHA should be greater than NPSHR. Redesigning the system has to be done if this condition is not met.

If the sizes of the chosen pipes at the suction and/or discharge lines do not match those of the pump at the suction and/or discharge side, reducers and/or expanders are needed. The operating curve therefore needs to be plotted again after taking into account in the calculations the energy losses due to the reducers/expanders. However, for gradual reducers and expanders, the K-factor is usually significantly less than one, making the added energy loss and thus the effect on the operating point on the pump negligible.

11

Figure 5 above shows the final general layout of the system that will be implemented for the water pumping process. The pump is placed near the source and located below the level of the water stored in the water heater. Its centerline is at ground level. The suction line is a total of 2 m long, and as a consequence of this and the pipe layout, the discharge line is a total of 5.9 m long. Since the outlet of the water heater is under it, a 90-degree standard elbow is first connected to it. The pipe entrance is sharpedged. A fully open conventional gate valve is placed before the pump. A 3-in Schedule 40 steel pipe is used in the suction line. In the discharge line, a fully open conventional swing type check valve is placed after the pump. Beyond the check valve, a fully open butterfly valve is placed. Lastly, two 90-degree standard elbows serve as the remaining connections leading to the end of the pipeline. A 2-in Schedule 40 steel pipe is used in the discharge line. Table 1 below shows the results of the pump design along with the actual TDH and flow rate (capacity) in the system with the specified pump installed:

Table 1. Pump specifications and resulting total dynamic head and flow rate (capacity)

Impeller Speed Impeller Diameter Flow Rate (Capacity) Total Dynamic Head Efficiency Input Power NPSH Required NPSH Allowable

Given the specified flow rate and calculated total dynamic head, there are many possible pumps suitable for the system. Indeed, the calculations show that centrifugal pump with a speed of about 3500 rpm is recommended (refer to Figure 2). Consequently, drawing out information from Figure 3, a 1 1/2 x 3 - 10 pump specifications was picked based on the previously done calculations. However, we deemed it necessary to find other choices besides the one recommended for efficiency purposes. The pump used is similarly sized, but possesses a higher efficiency than the recommended 1 1/2 x 3 - 10. Considering the economic and efficiency factors, we chose to use a 1.5 x 3 - 8 centrifugal pump. Despite having a small impeller diameter, this pump can deliver the minimum required flow rate without cavitation at roughly 62% efficient. If we would increase the impeller diameter to 8, the efficiency would decrease and cost more money. If a 7 impeller diameter was used, the pump would not handle the total dynamic head at the given flow rate. A pump used was from Goulds Pumps Inc. with a model of 3196 STX and made of stainless steel. Since water is the fluid to be used, using this type of pump will not easily corrode. Despite the large intake of water, the pump can withstand the pressure that is delivered to the pump and last for a long time before replacement. The pump is placed near to the source and located below the level of the fluid in the reservoir because this eases the ability of the pump to draw fluid without priming and it should maintain a relatively high pressure at the pump inlet to decrease the probability of creating cavitation in the pump. The other components of the system such as the valves are installed to regulate the flow of fluid into and out of the system. Gate and butterfly valves were used in the suction and the discharge line respectively since they are the most common type of valves and flow of fluid is easily controlled with minimum friction loss. A fully open gate valve is placed in the suction line before the pump to permit the inflow to be shut off when the 13

pump is not in operation and may also facilitate service or replacement of the pump. The butterfly valve can be shut off to isolate the pump for service or replacement and could also be used as well for a modest throttling (purposely adding resistance to the flow to control the amount of fluid delivered) to fine tune the delivery of water. An expander was attached right after the pump since the discharge diameter of the pump is smaller than the diameter of the set discharge line. A check valve was also incorporated after the expander to ensure that no back flow of water occurs which could ultimately affect the pump performance and prevent discharge cavitation. The possible estimated cost of the entire operation is also included. From the manufacturing prices, the following quotation for the equipment to be used are as follows:

Table 2. Equipment Cost

Equipment Conventional swing fully open check valve Fully-open conventional gate valve Fully-open butterfly valve 90-degree standard elbow 3 in Sch 40 pipe 1 in Sch 40 pipe Tube fittings (for 3 in and 1 in)

From Table 2, the cost of the entire proposed system is amounted to $900. However, the estimated cost of the pump was not included since the data needed is not readily available. However, comparing the cost of the pump selected to the other similarly-sized existing pumps, it is relatively cheaper because possesses higher efficiency compared to the other pumps of same price and size and still within the bounds of the desired minimum flow rate. The operating cost is also determined by 20 horsepower needed by the entire system to fully operate. The power required for the system to operate is relatively smaller compared to the existing pumps since the pump selected have higher efficiency and will therefore require lesser among of power to operate. The feasibility of the entire design is attainable financially, so to speak.

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V. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the goals set for creating a system for the water heater-water washing system is met. From the design proposed, an efficiency of 62% is attained with a power requirement of 20 horsepower. An NPSHr of 16 feet is calculate with the minimum capacity of 210 gal/min. All the parameters set to the design is achieved greatly without sacrificing the efficiency nor the manufacturing and operating cost of the proposed design

APPENDICES

Appendix A: General Formula for Roots of a Cubic Equation

For the general cubic equation

a x 3 + b x 2 + cx + d = 0

the general formula for the roots is a follows (Press, Teukolsky, Vetterling, & Flannery, 1992): xk= 1 b + u k C + 0 , k 1,2,3 3a uk C

where u 1= 1, u 2 = 1 + i 3 1 i 3 , u 3= 2 2

0 = b 2 3ac

2 1+ 1 4 3 0 2

1 = 2 b 3 9abc + 27 a 2 d

Table 3. Pipe specifications for the suction and discharge line (Foust, Wenzel, Clump, Maus, & Andersen, 1980)

ID (m) 0.077927

15

2 ID (m) 0.052501 8

Minimum Flow Rate (m3/hr) Minimum Flow Rate (gal/min) Suction line flow area (m2) Discharge line flow area (m2) Suction line velocity (m/s) Discharge line velocity (m/s)

Table 5. L/D values for suction line valves & fittings (Foust, Wenzel, Clump, Maus, & Andersen, 1980)

Suction line valves & fittings Fully-open conventional gate valve 90-degree standard elbow Total suction line L/D

L/D Values 13 30 43

Table 6. L/D values for discharge line valves & fittings (Foust, Wenzel, Clump, Maus, & Andersen, 1980)

Discharge line valves & fittings Conventional swing fully open check valve Fully-open butterfly valve 90-degree standard elbow 90-degree standard elbow Total discharge line L/D

971.8 0.000355

Assumptions

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1. 2 0 0

hs (m) hv (m) hp (m) Re suction A suction B suction friction factor suction Length of suction line (m) Length of discharge line (m) Sharp-edged entrance Sharp-edged exit Expander (discharge side) hf suction (m) Re discharge A discharge B discharge friction factor discharge hf discharge (m) TDH (m) TDH (ft)

3.45 0.003498 21 44.59553 308 559087.2 669 1.39008E +21 1.69974E19 0.004551 452 2 6.1 0.5 1 0.5 0.612909 746 829840.2 201 8.06371E +20 3.06299E22 0.004872 065 13.52047 638 62.18241 742 204.0105 559

*Churchill Equation

*Churchill Equation

(4fLD+K)*((v^2)/2g)

Table 10. Pump performance curve data for 1.5 x 3 8 centrifugal pump with 7.5-in impeller diameter (ITT Industries, 2001)

Capacity (gal/min)

TDH (ft)

17

7.11E-15 6.8069863 13.613973 21.495745 29.55665 36.005375 44.24541 50.15674 56.605465 64.66637 72.72727 80.78818 86.34125 91.71518 97.44738 103.8961 110.70309 116.61442 121.98836 129.33273 136.67711 144.20062 149.03717 156.20242 162.83028 169.81639 177.51903 184.68428 193.10345 199.91043 203.6722 209.22525 216.21138 221.04791 227.67577 234.48276 240.21495 244.87238 249.35065 253.11241 257.05328 261.7107 266.00986 269.7716 272.81683

262.9201 262.74573 262.74573 262.39694 262.0482 261.8738 261.35068 260.8275 260.30438 259.78122 258.73495 258.0374 257.1655 256.1192 255.2473 254.02663 252.28282 251.06215 249.66708 247.57451 245.30754 242.69182 240.948 238.1579 235.54218 232.05453 228.39252 224.55612 220.0222 215.48827 213.57007 209.5593 204.6766 201.18896 196.30627 190.55168 185.84337 181.48383 177.47305 173.81104 170.3234 165.6151 161.08116 156.89601 153.93152

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Flow rate (gal/min) 4.40287E-10 22.01433644 44.02867288 66.04300932 88.05734576 110.0716822 132.0860186 154.1003551 176.1146915 198.129028 220.1433644 242.1577008 264.1720373 286.1863737 308.2007102 330.2150466 352.229383

TDH (ft) 157.629 7017 158.265 0007 160.045 8569 162.955 2137 166.989 8858 172.148 5001 178.430 2926 185.834 7765 194.361 6138 204.010 5559 214.781 4119 226.674 0307 239.688 2892 253.824 0856 269.081 3337 285.459 9599 302.959 9006

Figure 6. Superimposed plot of pump performance curve and system curve with modeled equations and R2 values

a b c d

19

System Curve Pump Performance Curve Equation to be Solved 0 1 C 4.13255E06 4.13255E06 1.94298E06 4.31149E08 0.003501 879

Table 9. Actual flow rate and continuity equation results

Flow Rate (m3/hr) Flow Rate (gal/min) Suction line diameter (m) Discharge line diameter (m) Suction line flow area (m2) Discharge line flow area (m2) Suction line velocity (m/s) Discharge line velocity (m/s)

47.59557 702 209.5570 091 0.077927 2 0.052501 8 0.004769 447 0.002164 902 2.772018 155 6.106970 578

Re suction A suction B suction friction factor - suction Length of suction line (m) Sharp-edged entrance hf suction (m)

*Churchill Equation

(4fLD+K)*((v^2)/2g)

20

inlet pressure head (m) static suction head (m) hvp (m) NPSHA (m) NPSHA (ft)

WORKS CITED

Churchill, S. (1977). Friction factor equation spans all fluid-flow regimes. Chemical Engineering Journal, 91. Foust, A. S., Wenzel, L. A., Clump, C. W., Maus, L., & Andersen, L. B. (1980). Principles of Unit Operations (2nd ed.). Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ITT Industries. (2001). Goulds 3196 Pump Performance Curves. Retrieved from The University of Texas at Austin Web site: http://capsicum.me.utexas.edu/ChE354/files/Goulds_3196/50122.pdf Mott, R. L. (2006). Applied Fluid Dynamics. Pearson Prentice Hall. Poling, B. E., Thomson, G. H., Friend, D. G., Rowley, R. L., Wilding, & Vincent, W. (2008). Physical and Chemical Data. In D. W. Green, & R. H. Perry (Eds.), Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook. United States of America: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Press, W. H., Teukolsky, S. A., Vetterling, W. T., & Flannery, B. P. (1992). Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing (2nd ed., Vol. I). Cambridge, England, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

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