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BIPOLAR JUNCTION

TRANSISTORS (BJTs)
Dr Derek Molloy, DCU
What are BJTs?
Two PN junctions joined together is a BJT
Simply known as a transistor!
Bipolar? Current carried by electrons and
holes
Will see FETs (Field Effect Transistors)
BJTs have a higher gain (amplification).
BJTs can supply more current.
FETs are less complex and require less
power.
Production
Example of a bipolar transistor production
Transistor types
So, they are like diodes:
Semiconductor material
Doped p and n regions
Unlike a diode:
3 alternated doped regions p-n-p or n-p-n
Narrow channel between 2 terminals is
controlled by a voltage on a 3
rd
terminal.
Transistor controlled to operate as a switch or a variable resistor
Key element in the design of amplifier
BJT CONFIGURATIONS
BJT PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
A small current flowing in the base-emitter circuit can control the amount of
a much larger current flowing in the collector-emitter circuit
n
p
n
V
BE
+
+
V
CE
Base
Emitter
Collector
b
I
C
I
A Current Amplifier!
Common Emitter Configuration
-
BE diode is reverse biased.
Open circuit, high resistance between
the collector and emitter.
Small current flowing between C-E, I
CEO
BE diode is forward biased.
Closed circuit between
the collector and emitter.
Current flowing between C-E,
BJT PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
SOME CHARACTERISTICS
I
C
V
BE
I
C
I
B
0.7V
Current transfer characteristic
(slightly non-linear)
Current-voltage transfer characteristic
(highly non-linear)
(mA)
( ) A
IF V
CE
is large I
C
I
B
I
C
depends on V
BE
=h
FE
BASICS BJT
I
E
=I
C
+I
B
Numbers for illustration
of measurements only
Not a worked example!
CURRENT GAIN
DC or large signal gain: h
FE
or
Small signal gain: h
fe
B
C
FE
I
I
h =
B
C
B
C
fe
I
I
dI
dI
h
A
A
~ =
For most practical purposes,
h
fe
and h
FE
are considered equal
Voltage Gain is the ratio of output voltage, to input voltage.
Current Gain is the ratio of output current, to input current.
Transconductance is the ratio of output current, to input voltage.
Transimpedance is the ratio of output voltage, to input current.
COMMON EMITTER BIPOLAR AMPLIFIER
V
CC
R
C
R
B
V
i
V
O
B
E
C
h = 100
FE
R = 910k
R = 4.7k
B
C
V = 10V
CC
Input signal between base and emitter.
Output signal between collector and emitter.
Base needs to be biased.
Base-Emitter is forward biased due to R
B
R
B
sets the quiescent (steady-state with no
input signal applied) base I
BQ
, I
CQ
, V
OQ
, V
CEQ
V
BE
=0.7V
V
cc
=10V
R
B
=910kO
R
C
=4.7k O
h
FE
=100
I
V V
R
A
BQ
CC BE
B
=

=

=
10 07
910
102
V V
k
.
.
O

I h I A mA
CQ FE BQ
= = = 100 10 2 102 . .
( ) ( ) V R I V V
C CQ CC OQ
206 . 5 4700 00102 . 0 10 = = =
0V
V
BE
Coupling Capacitor acts as a high-pass filter, allowing AC signal
voltage on to the transistor, while blocking all DC voltage from being
shorted through the AC signal source.
INPUT CHARACTERISTICS
DC input characteristics
AC input impedance
re temperatu room at e 1
40
BE
BE
V
BS
kT
eV
BS B
I e I I ~
|
|
.
|

\
|
~
|
.
|

\
|
h
dV
dI I
ie
BE
B B
= ~
1
40
( ) O
I
C
V
BE
I
C
I
B
0.7V
Current transfer characteristic
(slightly non-linear)
Current-voltage transfer characteristic
(highly non-linear)
(mA)
( )

A
I
B
V
BE
0.7V
I
BS
is a constant determined
by the base characteristics
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
OUTPUT CHARACTERISTICS
Saturation Region:
V
CE
is not large enough, I
C
is
Independent of I
B
and depends on V
CE
.
Active Region:
V
CE
is large enough, I
C
is
independent of V
CE
and depends on I
B
(and the gain).
V
CE
(V)
I
c
(mA)
I
B
(A)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
Saturation region
Active region
For amplification, BJT operates in active region
For switch or digital applications, BJT swings
between saturation (switch on ) and cut-off (switch off)
OPERATING REGION
V
CE
I
c
I
B A: Saturation region
Highly non-linear
B: Maximum of I
c
Damage Transistor
D: Maximum V
CE
Result in Avalanche Breakdown
of the transistor
C: Maximum Power
Dissipation V
CE
and I
c
P = V
CE x
I
c
Operating point placed in the white area
A suitable operating point, I
cmax
/2 to avoid any red zones, close to centre
Maximum swing possible with AC input.
A
B
C
D
VARIATION AROUND THE
QUIESCENT POINT
I
c
I
B
V
CC
i
c
i
B
V
CE
v
C
E
I
B
V
B
V
RC
V
CE
V
out
Avoid: clamping the wave
Operating Point
DC DESIGN PARAMETERS OF A
COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER
b mx
R
V
R
V
R
V V
I
c
cc
c
ce
c
ce cc
c
+ = + =

=
V
CC
R
C
R
B
V
i
V
0
B
E
C
h = 100
FE
R = 910k
R = 4.7k
B
C
V = 10V
CC
The load line graphical method
V
CE
(V)
I
c
(mA)
I
B
(A)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
S
a
t
u
r
a
t
i
o
n

r
e
g
i
o
n
Active region
V
cc
c
R
1

V
CE
1) Chose an operating point (I
C
, V
CE
) and a power rail V
CC
.
Then draw the load line and calculate the slope. R
C
is given by -1/slope.
2) Chose R
C
and V
CC
. Draw a load line through V
CE
= V
CC
with a slope of -1/R
C
.
Then select an operating point somewhere along this load-line.
A
B
A: cut-off B: saturation