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ETNOGRAFI EROPA Review Artikel Toward an Anthropology of European CommunitiesJeremy Bossevain dan One Europe or Many, Reflections on Becoming

European-Ray Hudson Arita Nugraheni Aprilia Rejeki Saraswati Nur Alim Auli Reza Atmam 11/318526/SA/16055 11/313712/SA/15818 11/311888/SA/15739 11/318478/SA/16011

Toward an Anthropology of European Communities-Jeremy Bossevain Current social development in Europe are increasing the total number of its constituent communities. In 1970, they defends their identity in growing political, economic, and symbolic activity within and between them. It made a change in theoretical interest where the social and anthropology they go down to earth for knowing political and economic themes from a historical prespective focused on power relations and a little attention to ritual or symbolic activities. In 1980, many studies were concered with the analysis of symbolism and symbolic behavior. It no doubt has much to do with the charisma and power of leading anthropologist who had largely given up fieldwork to focus on myth, ritual, pollution, and the Bible by Strauss, Leach, Douglas, Greetz and Turner. There were a marked change in patterns of economic activity tht has challenged the dominant position of West Europe manufacturers. The increasing technology, Eropa manufacturers were obliged to produce more specialized, higher-quality products. These development have resulted in the emergence in Western Europe of an improverished under class of structurally under employed, many of whom are forming loose communitiesand developing distinctive subculture. Increasing of industrialization and immigration in Europe has escalate

ethnic unrest and overt racism. This phenomenon could have happen because of some elements. Rural and urban migrants was another type of migration that creates strain between established and outsider groups. During the 1950s and 1960s the rural poor moved to cities in search of better prospect for living, while the urbanites began buying the rural cottages for vacation need. Not only in development of economic, Tourism was being a significant element within increasing the total number of outsider movements. Another trend charateristic of today and likely to continue into the future is a romantic longing for an

idealized past. Nostalgia was being commoditized, so heritage and museums has became an industry. According to the recent economic and political upheavals in eastern Europe and increasing of standard living in western Europe have combinned to increase ethnic and class heterogenity. This situation has developed various categories of new others like unemployed homeless locals, migrant labourers political refugees, and tourism into established communities.

Europe or Many, Reflections on Becoming European-Ray Hudson A question starting this article,what is the meaning of being Europe? with the context about the European Unions rapid growth, especially regarding to process of the growth and the transformation of geo-political maps after 1989 as an ideological competition between east and western European countries that continued with separation of Uni Soviet and conflicts in Balkans which the incident made a impression that Europe is a unsafe area. Related to re-defining Europe, Ray Hudson in this article will explaining about which criteria that can be used to defining Europe, European and Europeaness and substantively where is the internal and external border of Europe? There is five things which is needed to consider concerned to these questions: Transformation of the geo-political maps in the last 50 years and the criteria that be used in The emergence of homogenic politic-economical space as a part of expanding Europe Transformation of govermental system resulting the establishment of European Union that challenging the national states authority A question about European singular and plural identity, likely related to the emergence of the European community is not limited to a particular country Legacy of the division within Europe between NATO in 1951, Germany, France, Italy and Benelux countries has establishing European coal and steel community to expand the development of Europe after the world war. Next, In 1957 European economic community have established as a trading organization which is developed to European Union that organize the politic and economical cooperation. In the process of, European Union not only

increasing the quantitive of member state, but also actively build the relationship with many aspects each other. Including the development aid and foreign investment. In addition there is also a variety tradings with the countries outside Europe, especially the countries of former colonies of France,Netherlands and England that impacting on increasing the diversity of population in Europe. Open relationship betweet those countries impacting to the diversities of European society because the influx of people from various region to European countries. There is a record that in Europe, the number of asylum seekers from Balkan,Asia,Africa and Middle East are increasing at 1970 until 1980 (Williams 1996). Although in 1990 the number of asylum seekers is decreasing rapidly. This. Growth of diversity have a important role to how the boundaries of Europe was contained. One conception of a singular European identity would see it constructed through a process analogus to that involved in creation of national identities in the 19th and 20th centuries. Whereas, the member state of the EU have clearly become de facto multi-ethnic and multi-cultural societies. Constructing identity around such dimension allows the emergence of various comunities of interest in discontinuous spaces within Europe and beyond. Such communities are defined and organized more through network structures than within contiguous structure of bounded teritories. This further complicates the processes of culture hybridity in identity formation. Seen from this perspective, creating Europe becomes a project of integration based upon not only multiple senses of territorial identification but also the celebration of multiple and mixed identities of self. Participation in NATO in particular and the widespread presence of U.S. military forces in Western Europe is also tied to political moves supra nationalism in Europe in a complex manner to the global ambitions of the United States. One model for the future will be in many ways trying to emulate

the United States as the neo - liberal and society. It will be centered on the single European imagination, the economy, government and civil society re-territorialized in the EU scale, and with a single general and European identity and the identity of the single European interests.Multiculturalism is often perceived threatening, both by dominant and
dominated social groups, leading to a retreat into quite sophisticated imaginaries of difference, homeland and tradition to preserve ethnic and national identity.