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Cells

Unit 2.1 An Introduction to Cells

objective

2.1.1 Outline the cell theory. 2.1.2 Discuss the evidence for the cell theory. 2.1.3 State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life. 2.1.4 Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, using the appropriate SI unit.

2.1.5 Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of known magnification.

2.1.6
2.1.7 2.1.8

Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size.
State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties. Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others. State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways. Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells.

2.1.9

2.1.10

2.1.1 Out line the cell theory

The Cell Theory

Who developed the cell theory? Matthias Schleiden (1838): concluded that all plants are composed of cells Theodor Schwann (1839): concluded that all animals are composed of cells Rudolph Virchow (1855): determined that cells come only from other cells

2.1.1 Out line the cell theory

The Cell Theory

What is the cell theory? 1. All living things are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are organisms basic units of structure and function 3. Cells come only from pre-existing cells

Evidence for the cell theory


Microscopes:

2.1.2 Discuss the evidence for cell theory

nothing smaller than a cell can survive independently

Functions of Life

2.1.2 State that unicellular organisms carry out all functions of life

Functions of Life

2.1.3 State that unicellular organisms carry out all functions of life

Cell Diversity
Size Shape Internal Organization

2.1.3
State that unicellular organisms carry out all of the functions of life.

2.1.4
Compare relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells, sing appropriate SI units

Cell DiversitySize

2.1.4
Smallest Cells:

Cell Diversity- Size


Biggest Cells: Longest Cells: 6 inches long, 5 inches wide, 3 pounds

Ostrich Egg

2.1.5

Cells and Sizes

Magnification = size of image divided by the size of the specimen

2.1.6

Surface Area to Volume Ratio


SA = 6lw V = lwh
SA = 6 mm2 V = 1 mm3 SA/V = 6:1

SA = 24 mm2 V = 8 mm3 SA/V = 3:1

V increases faster than SA

SA = 96 mm2 V = 64 mm3 SA/V = 1.5:1

Cell Diversity- Shape


Cells differ widely in shape. Most cells are roughly cuboidal or spherical.

2.1.7

Multi-cellular organisms show emergent properties


Emergent properties arise from the interaction of the component parts - the whole is greater than the sum of the parts'.

2.1.8

Cells Differentiate

2.1.9 2.1.10

Stem cells : What they are and therapeutic uses


Totipotent stem cells can become any cell in the human body & placenta. Pluripotent stem cells make any differentiated cell in the body (but probably not those of the placenta). Multipotent stem cells can only differentiate into a limited number of types.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l Wfw5en2MEM&feature=related

The idea that all living things are composed of cells and that all cells come from other cells defines:

A) central dogma. B) the laws of inheritance. C) organelle theory. D) cell theory. E) inheritance of acquired characteristics.

As cell size increases, the

A) volume and surface area decrease. B) volume increases faster than the surface area. C) surface area increases faster than the volume. D) surface area and volume increase at the same rate. E) None of the choices are correct.

Which one of the following cells would have the greatest surface-tovolume ratio?

A) bacterium B) human red blood cell C) human muscle cell D) frog egg E) ostrich egg

TOK: Where do you stand in the debate about the nature of stem cell research?

Drawings in IB Biology