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FUNDAMENTALS OF PARAGRAPH WRITING 1. Topic Sentence- A paragraph sentence that covers the whole ideas of the very paragraph.

There has to be s single focus in each paragraph. 2. Controlling ideas- Ideas or evidences that support or control the topic sentence. All controlling ideas reflect back to the topic sentence. 3. Transitions or Hooking words- Hookers or connectors that bind controlling ideas together to make them coherent in particular and the whole paragraph on the whole. 4. Punch Lines- Concluding sentence of the paragraph that reflects topic sentence and also forecasts the topic sentence of the second paragraph. 5. Use correct tense and appropriate verbs or words. 6. Avoid verbosity. 7. Dont use more than 18 words in one sentence.

8. Dont use passive sentences. 9. See that collection of ideas, expression of ideas, coherence of ideas, and development of ideas are in proper order. 10. Edit once before you submit it or leave it or go

to another section. Topic Sentence What is the topic sentence? The topic sentence is the first sentence in a paragraph.

What does it do? It introduces the main idea of the paragraph.

How do I write one? Summarize the main idea of your paragraph. Indicate to the reader what your paragraph will be about.

Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by welltrained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Supporting Details What are supporting sentences? They come after the topic sentence, making up the body of a paragraph.

What do they do? They give details to develop and support the main idea of the paragraph. How do I write them? You should give supporting facts, details, and examples. Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by welltrained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

Closing Sentence What is the closing sentence? The closing sentence is the last sentence in a paragraph.

What does it do? It restates the main idea of your paragraph.

How do I write one? Restate the main idea of the paragraph using different words.

Example: There are three reasons why Canada is one of the best countries in the world. First, Canada has an excellent health care system. All Canadians have access to medical

services at a reasonable price. Second, Canada has a high standard of education. Students are taught by welltrained teachers and are encouraged to continue studying at university. Finally, Canada's cities are clean and efficiently managed. Canadian cities have many parks and lots of space for people to live. As a result, Canada is a desirable place to live.

SAMPLE PARAGRAPH For a (neo) idealist, the sovereign nation-state is not just a political state, but also a social state. Indeed, government is the formal institutional expression of social relations within a state. If state is organized in a good way, then it can organize its domestic social relations so that moral progress can occur within it. What is a good form of state organization for a (neo) idealist, and how can this good form of state

organization enable moral progress in its domestic society? For a (neo) idealist, the best form of governmental organization is democracy. Democracy is the best form of organization because it is the least restrictive on its people. It is the least repressive. It is the form of governance that most encourages freedom of expression among its people. Democracy is government by the people. So, the voice of any democratic sovereign nation-state is really the collective voice of the people.