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GUIDELINES IN WRITING A

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Dr. Raquel L. Pasigpasigan

INSTITUTIONAL RESEARCH & DOCUMENTATION OFFICER


San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation Inc.

October , 2007
Thesis Format Guide

GUIDELINES IN WRITING A
RESEARCH PROPOSAL

Students are required to write thesis as one of the


requirements for the completion of their degrees. At the
beginning of the semester, they are expected to come up
with a research proposal.

Selection of a research topic

1. The research topic should be in line with the


curriculum or program of study of the student.

2. The study begins as a problem that the researcher


would like to solve or as a question that he or she
would like to answer.

3. The following criteria for selecting a research topic:


 Originality
 Workability
 Theoretical Value
 Practical Value
 Interest of Researcher

4. The research topic must reflect the variables


/problems of the study.

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Thesis Format Guide

PREPARING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL

The body of the research proposal contains three


main chapters. These are:

Chapter I THE PROBLEM AND


ITS BACKGROUND

Chapter II REVIEW OF
RELATED
LITERATURE

Chapter III RESEARCH


METHODOLOGY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

APPENDICES

Chapter I: The Problem and Its Background

The text ordinarily begins with an introduction


which gives a brief background of the study. It gives
the origin of the problem . It orients the reader what
prompted the researcher to conduct the study. It gives
the rationale or an account describing the circumstances
which suggested the research. Systematic and orderly
presentation of background information related to the
problem, the unresolved issues and social concerns
which may start with the global scenario, then moves
to the national level and finally to the local setting
Theoretical / Conceptual Framework
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From the review of related literature, the


researcher can formulate a tentative scheme for the
research problem. The theoretical framework presents
a broad, general explanation of the relationships
between the concepts of interest in a research study
based on one existing theory. The theoretical
framework outlines the research theory to be verified in
the study.

If there is no existing theory that will fit the


concepts to be studied, the researcher may construct a
conceptual framework to be used in the proposed
research study.

The conceptual framework specifies the key


variables of the study. It describes the aspects selected
from the theoretical framework to become the basis of
the study. The interrelationship among the variables is
usually represented in a diagram.

Statement of the Problem

The problem to be studied must be shown as


one which arose from a situation of professional need
or unresolved difficulties. The reader must be able to
recognize this need. Problems include major and
specific concerns.

 The problem should be stated precisely,


accurately, and clearly.

 The major problem should be stated in the


declarative form.
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 The specific problems are stated in interrogative


form.

Hypotheses

Hypotheses are tentative statements about the


given population. They serve as tentative answers to
one or more research problems, and are subjected to
statistical test.

 When no relationship is expected (null


hypothesis)

There is no relationship between intelligence and


clinical performance among beginning nurses.

* When a relationship is expected (non-


directional hypotheis)

There is a relationship between sleep deprivation


and examination grades among first year nursing
students.

There is a significant difference in the test scores


obtained by full time and working students.

 When a specific relationship is expected


(directional hypothesis )

There is an inverse relationship between sleep


deprivation and examination grades of first year
nursing students.

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Full time students significantly scored higher on


the examinations than working students.

The level of significance usually at p<.01 or p<.05


level is set before testing.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

Limits of the study need to be properly defined.


The scope is expected to indicate a reasonable area of
study which is large enough to be significant but
narrow to permit careful treatment.

The scope of the problem should be stated


specifically. The nature of any subjects to be treated,
their number, the treatments they will receive, any
limitations that exist in the reference population,
instruments or research design should be stated.

Significance of the Study

This part should state the importance of the


problem investigated and the significance of the results.
It should include a statement on the potential
contribution of the research to nursing administration,
nursing service, nursing education ,nursing students and
patients should be discussed. Policy implications for
and other possible uses can also be cited. It should
present an orderly identification of the probable uses of
research and should state specific ways on how the
findings can be used.
Definition of Terms
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Clear definitions should be stated for all


important variables, especially if these are to be
measured by means of specific instruments or a
combination of devices.

This includes conceptual and operational


definitions of important terms as used in the study.

Operational definition can be constructed in terms


of the operations that must be performed to cause the
phenomenon or state being defined to occur.
Example:
Frustration is the state which results when an
individual is blocked from reaching a highly desired
goal which is close to attainment.

Operational definition can be constructed in


terms of what the object or phenomenon being defined
looks like or what constitutes its static properties.
Example:
Teaching effectiveness is defined by the
outcomes that are produced such as student learning
and student satisfaction.

Operational definition can be constructed in


terms of how the particular thing being defined
operates, what it does or what constitutes its dynamic
properties.
Example:
Aggression – behavior of a person blocked from
attaining a goal. It is acting out, fighting or speaking
loudly or abusively.

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Conceptual definition is identifying something in terms


of hypothetical criteria rather than observable
ones. Definitions can be taken from books, dictionary
and encyclopedia.

Chapter II: Review of Related Literature

The initial review provides researchers with a background


for understanding knowledge on a topic and illuminates the
significance of the new study.

Literature review during the initial phase can :

 Help identify a research problem, develop and


refine the research questions;
 Orient the researcher about what has or has not
been done on the problem,
 Determine gaps or inconsistencies in a body of
research;
 Determine the need to replicate a prior study in
a different setting or with a different study
population;
 Identify and develop a new clinical intervention
to test through empirical research;
 Explain or clarify the theoretical rationale of the
problem.
 Identify a suitable design and data collection
methods for the study.

To locate relevant literature for a research


review , utilize information from print resources
such as books, journals, unpublished theses and
dissertations. You may also use the internet.

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Thesis Format Guide

LIST OF METASEARCH AND METACRAWLER


ENGINES

meta http://www.metacrawler.com/
SEARCH THE SEARCH ENGINES

WebCrawler www.webcrawler.com
search.com http://www.search.com
DoGPILE www.dogpile.com

Vivisimo http://vivisimo.com/

Mamma http://mamma.com
Kart OO http://www.kartoo.com/
SurfWax http://www.surfwax.com

ICEROCKET http://www.icerocket.com/

info.com http://www.info.com/
INfoGrid http://www.infogrid.com/
IZito http;//www.izito.com/

 Only research literature which are related in


purpose, method, or findings to the current
study should be included in the review. The
discussion should be in the form of a brief
critical analysis of the purposes, method of the
study, principal findings, and conclusions.

 The review may also point out weaknesses and


strengths of each study.

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Thesis Format Guide

Synthesis

 The section explains how the literature were


reviewed in relation to the problem. Summarize
the review and provide a transition from the past
studies to the present one. The latter should be
shown to relate with or evolved from earlier
work.

Chapter III: Research Methodology

The section on Methodology includes the research


design, the sample, and the data collection procedure,
description of instruments and data analysis procedure,
statistical treatment and analysis.

Research Design
The research design focuses on the overall plan for the
collection of data, including the steps the researcher will
take to minimize biases .

There are two basic categories of research design –


non-experimental and experimental. Non-experimental
designs are meant to answer questions that have to do with
describing things or the characteristics. The key point is
that the investigator is an observer in the study and does not
intervene. Experimental designs are meant to answer
questions about causality.
Some of the most practical and popular designs are
reviewed here.
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Thesis Format Guide

QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH

 NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Researchers collect data w/out making
changes or introducing treatments.

 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Researchers actively introduce an
intervention or treatment

NON-EXPERIMENTAL

 IF YOU WILL COMPARE THE ELIMINATION


PATTERNS OF THE TWO GROUPS OF
PEOPLE WHOSE REGULAR EATING
PATTERNS DIFFERED- SOME TOOK FOODS
THAT STIMULATED BOWEL ELIMINATION
AND OTHERS DID NOT – THERE IS NO
INTERVENTION

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Thesis Format Guide

PEOPLE W/ REGULAR EATING


PATTERNS

TAKING FOOD THAT ARE NOT TAKING


STIMULATED FOOD WHICH
ELIMINATION STIMULATED
ELIMINATION

ELIMINATION PATTERNS ELIMINATION PATTERNS

COMPARE

EXPERIMENTAL

 IFYOU WILL GIVE BRAN FLAKES TO ONE


GROUP OF SUBJECTS AND PRUNE JUICE
TO ANOTHER AND YOU WOULD LIKE TO
DETERMINE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE
TWO METHODS IN FACILITATING
ELIMINATION AMONG ELDERLY PATIENTS.
THE STUDY IS EXPERIMENTAL.

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Thesis Format Guide

ELDERLY PATIENTS

METHOD 1 METHOD 2
BRAN FLAKES PRUNE JUICE

EFFECTIVENESS IN
FACILITATING ELIMINATION

NON-EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH

 EXPOST FACTO Attempts to understand


relationships among phenomena as they
naturally occur, without any researcher
intervention.
 TYPES
RETROSPECTIVE
Some phenomenon existing at present is
linked to other phenomenon that occurred
in the past, before the study was initiated.

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Thesis Format Guide

HYPOTHESIS
There is correlation between the number of cigarettes
smoked and the incidence of lung cancer.

ANTECEDENT BEHAVIORS AND


CONDITIONS

SMOKING HABITS

WITH WITHOUT
LUNG LUNG
CANCER CANCER

Survival Skills of
SJD Successful Board Passers

4.8
Able to read with comprehension
4.69
4.7 4.66

4.6
Able to think critically

4.5
4.44 Able to eliminate the obviously
incorrect alternatives
4.4
4.34

4.3
Able to eliminate alternatives that do
4.25 not agree grammatically with the stem

4.2
Able to identify difference among the
facts & ideas with each group of
4.1
options

4
1

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Thesis Format Guide

PROSPECTIVE DESIGN
Starts with presumed causes and goes
forward in time, longitudinally, to the
presumed effect.

HYPOTHESIS : Incidence of rubella during pregnancy is


related to malformations in the offspring.
PREGNANT WOMEN
THOSE WHO THOSE WHO DID NOT
CONTRACTED RUBELLA CONTRACT RUBELLA
DURING PREGNANCY DURING PREGNANCY

OCCURRENCE OF
CONGENITAL
ANOMALIES

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Thesis Format Guide

 HISTORICAL RESEARCH

 THE SYSTEMATIC COLLECTION AND


EVALUATION OF DATA RELATED TO
PAST OCCURRENCES IN ORDER TO
DESCRIBE CAUSES, EFFECTS OR
TRENDS OF THOSE EVENTS THAT
MAY HELP TO EXPLAIN PRESENT
EVENTS AND ANTICIPATE FUTURE
EVENTS.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

Involves collecting data in order to


test hypothesis or to answer
questions concerning the current
status of the subject of the study.

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Thesis Format Guide

Learning Style of SJDEFI Students

52, 20%

106, 40%

104, 40%

Visual Auditory Kinesthetic

TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY
To obtain information from populations regarding
prevalence, distribution and interrelations of variables
within those populations.
CENSUS SURVEY
When surveys use the entire population
SAMPLE SURVEY
When surveys use samples of individuals

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Thesis Format Guide

Obtained Weighted Means Showing the Frequency


Specific Words were Used by BS Nursing Students

Seco
WORDS First nd Third Fourth WM INTERPRETATION

Hello 3.88 4 4.4 5 4.32 Often

Thank you 4.31 4.4 4.64 5 4.59 Very often


Yes 3.5 3.7 3.87 5 4.02 Often

Please 3.56 3.5 4.15 5 4.05 Often


May I help you 3 3.2 3.52 4 3.43 Sometimes

No 3.37 3.5 3.45 4 3.58 Often

Right away 2.62 3.2 2.82 3 2.91 Sometimes

I love you 2.93 3.1 3.71 5 3.69 Often

Praise God 3.25 3.3 3.63 4 3.55 Often

I am sorry 3.56 3.7 3.87 4 3.78 Often

Goodbye 3.81 3.3 3.23 4 3.59 Often

Thy will be done 2.62 3.3 3.03 3 2.99 Sometimes

Overall WM 3.36 3.51 3.69 4.25 3.7 Often

THE ANTECEDENT
CHARACTERISTICS OF PEOPLE
WHO WERE LATER ABLE TO QUIT
SMOKING

THOSE
one year WHO

SMOKING after WERE


ABLE TO
QUIT

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Thesis Format Guide

Nursing Students’ Professionalism

The researcher investigated the issue when


they were freshmen, every year until they
were in fourth year.

FIRST
FIRST SECOND THIRD FOURTH
YEAR
YEAR YEAR YEAR YEAR

NURSING STUDENTS”
PROFESSIONALISM

NURSING GOV’ T LICENSURE EXAM


Date #of takers Passed SJ Passing% Nat’l %

June 2004 43 34 79.07% 55.73%


June 2003 25 8 32.00% 53%
June 2002 17 10 59% 46%
June 2001 15 8 53% 51%
Dec 2000 13 10 77% 48%
April 2000 20 8 40% 51%
Nov 1999 18 9 50% 48%
May 1999 40 25 63% 51%
Nov 1998 26 17 65% 58%
May 1998 44 32 73% 54%

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Thesis Format Guide

 DESCRIPTIVE STATUS
 THE PURPOSE IS TO DETERMINE
THE PREVAILING CONDITIONS IN A
GROUP OF CASES CHOSEN FOR
STUDY.

 DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
 ITS PURPOSE IS TO DESCRIBE THE
NATURE OF AN OBJECT BY
SEPARATING IT INTO ITS PARTS.

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Thesis Format Guide

Students’ Performance in the


Different Subjects in the MT Government Licensure Exam
September, 2003

64.5 64.17
64
63.5
63
62.5
61.88
62
61.5
61
60.5
Histopahlogic & mT Laws & MT Hematology
Lab.

Students’ Performance in the


Different Subjects in the MT Government Licensure Exam
March, 2004

68
66.27
66
64
62
60
58
58
56
54
52
Hispathology Hematology

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Thesis Format Guide

Needs Assessment

4
3.73
3.5
3.27
3 3.07 3.2

2.5

2
1.73
1.5

0.5

0
The General Tools of Sources of Quantitative Research Qualitative Research Statistical Techniques
Research Researchable Design for Analyzing
Problems Quantitative Data

 DESCRIPTIVE EVALUATIVE
The purpose is to appraise carefully
the worthiness of the current study
The intent is to help people decide
whether the program should be
discarded, replaced, modified,
continued or replicated.

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Thesis Format Guide

Evaluation of Students’ Recollection


SY 2003-2004

4 3.81 3.71 3.78


3.71
3.47
3.29 3.32
3.5 3.2
3.06
3

2.5

1.5

0.5

0
Time Venue Objectives Facilitator Activities Hand-outs Individual Group Food
Participation Interaction

EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LIBRARY IN


THE DELIVERY OF QUALITY SERVICE TO STUDENTS
SY 2004-2005

4.5 4.01
3.6 3.61
4
3.43 3.29
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
1 of the clients.
Library collection supports the needs
Reading apaces are available for the students, faculty and personnel.
The library head andstaff are accommodating.
The procedure for requisition of library materials is well-defined.
The library is open 44 hours a week, no noon break.

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 DESCRIPTIVE-COMPARATIVE
 THE RESEARCHER CONSIDERS TWO
ENTITIES (NOT MANIPULATED) AND
ESTABLISHES A CRITERION DATA
ON THE BASIS OF WHICH HE CAN
COMPARE AND CONCLUDE WHICH
OF THE TWO IS BETTER.

Weighted Means Obtained by Hospital Units


in Terms of Quality of Service for December 2004

5 4.24 4.05 4 3.9 3.87 3.87 3.78 3.74 3.69 3.67


4 3.58
3.29
3
2

1
0

Nursing Service Division Pastoral Care


Medical Social Service Food Service/Dietary
Admitting Housekeeping/Orderly
Maintenance Emergency Service
Cashier Security
Billing Canteen

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 CORRELATIONAL
 TO DETERMINE THE RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN TWO VARIABLES

TRUE EXPERIMENTS

 RESEARCHERS ARE ACTIVE AGENTS


IN TRUE EXPERIMENTS
 PROPERTIES OF AN EXPERIMENTAL
DESIGN
1. MANIPULATION OF
INDEPENDENT VARIABLE
2. CONTROL GROUP
3. RANDOMIZATION

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 MANIPULATION
THE EXPERIMENTER DOES SOMETHING TO
AT LEAST SOME SUBJECTS

 RESEARCH TOPIC:
 BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TACTILE
STIMULATION ON PRETERM BABIES

 HYPOTHESIS:
 GENTLE TOUCH, STROKING AND RUBBING
EQUALLY PROVIDE BENEFICIAL
BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS ON PRE-TERM
BABIES.

WHICH HAS THE MOST BENEFICIAL BEHAVIORAL


EFFECTS ON PRETERM BABIES?

TYPE OF TACTILE STIMULATION

GENTLE TOUCH STROKING RUBBING

BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS ON
PRETERM BABIES

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 CONTROL
THE EXPERIMENTER INTRODUCES
CONTROLS OVER THE EXPERIMENTAL
SITUATION, INCLUDING THE USE OF
THE CONTROL GROUP.

 HOW TO CONTROL EXTRANEOUS VARIABLES


 1. HOLDING THE VARIABLE CONSTANT FOR ALL
GROUPS
 2. MATCHING ON SEX ETC.
 3. USING SUBJECTS AS THEIR OWN CONTROL

 RANDOMIZATION
 ASSIGNMENT IS BY PURE CHANCE

The experimenter assigns subjects to


a control or experimental group on a
random basis

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Thesis Format Guide

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS

AFTER-ONLY DESIGN OR
POSTTEST ONLY DESIGN

Example:
EFFECT OF AN EDUCATIONAL
INTERVENTION RELATING TO
URINARY INCONTINENCE ON THE
SUBSEQUENT HELP-SEEKING
BEHAVIOR OF OLDER ADULTS

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

HELP SEEKING
OLD EDUCATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF
PEOPLE INTERVENTION OLDER PEOPLE
WITH
URINARY
INCONTINENCE

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GENTLE MASSAGE AS AN EFFECTIVE PAIN RELIEF


MEASURE FOR ELDERLY NURSING HOME RESIDENTS

ELDERLY NURSING HOME


RESIDENTS

WITH GENTLE W/OUT GENTLE


MASSAGE MASSAGE

PAIN RELIEF

 BEFORE & AFTER DESIGN OR


PRETEST- POSTTEST DESIGN

EFFECTIVENESS OF CONVECTIVE AIR


FLOW BLANKETS AND CONDUCTIVE
WATER FLOW BLANKETS IN COOLING
CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS WITH FEVER

 BASELINE MEASURE & OUTCOME MEASURE

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CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS


WITH FEVER

BASELINE BASELINE
TEMP TEMP

CONVECTIVE AIR CONVECTIVE WATER


FLOW BLANKET FLOW BLANKET

OUTCOME OUTCOME
TEMP TEMP

QUASI – EXPERIMENTAL
DESIGN

 PROPERTIES OF A QUASI -
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
 1. MANIPULATION OF THE INDEPENDENT
VARIABLE
 2. NO RANDOMIZATION

 3. NO CONTROL GROUP

 4. LIMITED CONTROL OVER EXTRANEOUS


VARIABLES

The Population and Sample of the Study


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Thesis Format Guide

This section describes the population and sample


profiles, sample size, and sampling procedure.

General Types

 Probability sampling
 The sample is selected from the
population by means of some
systematic way in which every element
of the population has a chance of being
included in the sample.

 Simple Random sampling – The researcher


establishes a sampling frame, numbering all
the elements and selecting sample elements.
 Stratified Random Sampling The population
is first divided into two or more strata to
enhance representativeness.
 Cluster Sampling- There is a successive
random sampling units. The unit is large
groupings or clusters.
 Systematic sampling- it involves the
selection of every kth case from a list or
group.

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Non-probability sampling

 The sample is not a proportion of the


population and there is no system in
selecting the sample.

 Convenience sampling / accidental sampling


It is using the most conveniently available
people as study participants. It is subject to
bias because people select themselves or
volunteer in response to notices.
 Quota sampling
The researcher identifies population strata and
determines how many participants are
needed from each stratum.
 Purposive sampling or Judgmental sampling
Based on the belief that researcher’s
knowledge about the population can be used
to hand-pick sample members.

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Getting the sample size


n = N
1 + Ne²
n = sample size
N = population size
e = desired margin of error

Description of the Respondents

 Indicate who will participate in the study, how


many and how will they be selected.
 Include any details which are relevant to the
study (e.g. gender, age, ethnicity, strain,
weight etc.)
 If the subjects were human, what type of
reward or motivation will be used to
encourage them to participate ?

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Thesis Format Guide

Instrumentation

Research instruments are the devices used to collect


data. The instrument facilitates the observation and
measurement of the variables of interest. The type of
instrument used in the study is determined by the data
collection method selected. If physiological data are
sought, some type of physiological instrument is needed. If
observational data are needed to measure the variable of
interest, observational schedule or checklist is called for.
Other instruments include tests, questionnaires and
interview guidelines. Great care should be taken to select
the most appropriate instrument.

A description of the data-gathering tools and their


development: adoption, construction, validation and
administration of instruments are included. Apparatuses,
devices, and laboratory equipment used are also described.
In the case of complex or custom-made equipment, a
drawing or photograph is recommended.

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Thesis Format Guide

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

Describe the research tool . When using a


questionnaire , identify the content area to be
measured .
Indicate the following:
-how it was formulated
-table of specification/how many items
-response mode
-how it will be administered
-scoring & interpretation
-validation and reliability testing
-pilot testing

Data Gathering Procedure

 The procedures followed in conducting the study


should be explained in complete detail. Techniques,
devices, and procedures followed are explained.

There are five important questions to answer in data


collection process:
What data will be collected ?
How will the data be collected ?
Who will collect the data ?
Where will the data be collected ?
When will the data be collected ?

 When using experiments, description should include


instructions given to the participants, the formation

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of groups, the experimental manipulations, and


control features in the design.

 Coding schemes and other techniques to be utilized


in organizing / classifying data are described.

Statistical Treatment

The presentation of the statistical treatment to be


employed should go with the specific problems stipulated
in Chapter 1.

Examples
To describe the profile of the respondents according to
gender, civil status and educational attainment, frequency
and percentage will be utilized.

To determine the difference between the scores obtained


by urban and rural mothers on the knowledge test on wet
nursing, t –test for independent samples will be used.

To determine whether there is a significant difference in the


pre and post test scores obtained by the nursing students in
the clinical area , paired t test will be computed.

To determine whether there is significant difference in the


performance level of the faculty when grouped according to
their educational attainment, analysis of variance will be
employed.

To determine the relationship between college grades and


performance rating among novice nurses , Pearson r will
be employed.

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When using softwares like Microsoft Excel or SPSS,


indicate that data will be treated statistically using the
softwares.

Format of the Research Proposal

Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Background


Introduction or Background
Theoretical Framework
Conceptual Framework
Statement of the Problem
Hypotheses
Scope and Delimitation of the Study
Significance of the Study
Definition of Terms

Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and Studies


Variable 1 Foreign and local literature
Foreign and local studies
Variable 2 Foreign and local literature
Foreign and local studies
Synthesis

Chapter 3 Research Methodology


The Method of Research to be Used
The Population Frame and Sample Size
Description of the Respondents
Instrumentation
Data Gathering Procedure
Statistical Treatment of the Data
Bibliography
Books
Periodicals
Unpublished Thesis & Dissertations
Electronic Source
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Appendices
Request for permission to gather data
Research Tool

Role of the Adviser

1. Assists the researcher in the formulation of his/her


research topic.

2. Monitors his/her advisee in the conduct of the


research to ensure that the procedure/method is
strictly followed.

3. Suggests to the advisee available literature on the


research topic.

4. Assists his/her advisee in the statistical application


and analysis if he/she is capable of doing the
statistical procedures.

5. Reviews the logic and coherence of the research


report, the analysis and interpretation of results as
well as its relevance to the conceptualization of the
research problem.

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Thesis Format Guide

PREPARING THE RESEARCH PROPOSAL


Preliminary Parts

The RESEARCH PROPOSAL is introduced by


preliminary materials which may include the following:

 TITLE PAGE
 APPROVAL SHEET
 TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

1. The title page includes the following information:

 The name of the school and its address;

 The exact title of the paper;

 The degree for which the paper is


presented;

 The full name of the researcher/ s; and

 The month and the year the research


paper is defended.

2. The name and address of the school should be typed


in title case letters, centered on the page and typed
on the 1st single-space line of the paper.

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3. The title page of the paper should be typed in upper


case letters, centered on the page and typed on the
8th single spaces line from top of the paper. The
recommended length for a title is 10 to 12 words.

4. The researcher’ s name should be typed in


uppercase and lowercase letters centered on the
page.

5. The submission statement should follow the


adopted form . The last line of the title page should
be one inch from the bottom of the paper.

6. The title page has no page number although it is


considered the first page of the preliminaries.

7. The title should be as specific and concise as


possible. It should suggest clearly the purpose of
the study. Such phrases as “A Study of,” “An
Investigation of,” or “An Analysis of” are
superfluous. The title should focus on the topic
investigated and the main variable(s) studied.

8. The title should not be stated so broadly that it


seems to provide an answer that cannot be
generalized either from the data gathered of from
the methodology employed. An example of a
broadly stated title is “Effects of Methods on
Student Achievement.” This is too broad

A specific title suggesting what was covered in the


study might be something like this: “Cooperative
Learning Compared to Traditional Approach: Effects
on High School Mathematics Achievement Scores.”

40
Thesis Format Guide

(First line from top of page)

San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation, Inc.


2772-2774 Roxas Boulevard, Pasay City
(7 single spaces from top of page)

ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY OF FRESHMEN AND


SOPHOMORE IN THE NURSING DEPARTMENT IN SAN JUAN
DE DIOS EDUCATIONAL FOUNDATION, INC. SY 2006-2007
(3 single spaces)

A Thesis Proposal
Presented to the Faculty of the College of Nursing
(3 single spaces)

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirement for the


Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing
(3 single spaces)

Magday, Jamssen A.
Achacoso, Justin Carlo S.
Cuneta, Reina A.
Dela Cruz, Mary Chloe S.
Detorio, Shiela Mae A.
Ilano, Maria Catherine S.

41
Thesis Format Guide

(last line from bottom


of page) October 15, 2006
Approval Sheet

The approval sheet immediately follows the title


page. It generally contains a statement of acceptance of the
research report.

1. The approval sheet should contain the signatures of


the following: the research adviser and the dean of
the college.

2. The phrase “Approval Sheet” is centered and bold


in capital letters on the 8th single-space line from the
top of the paper.

3. The statement of acceptance is typed in the usual


indented form.

4. The page number appears at least 1 inch (2.54 cm.)


from the right hand edge of the page, in the space
between the top edge of the paper and what should
be the first line of the text.

(For approval sheet, please see sample.)

42
Thesis Format Guide

APPROVAL SHEET

This thesis proposal entitled

ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY OF FRESHMEN AND


SOPHOMORE IN THE NURSING DEPARTMENT IN
SAN JUAN DE DIOS EDUCATIONAL
FOUNDATION, INC. SY 2006-2007
(3 single spaces)

Magday, Jamssen A.
Achacoso, Justin Carlo S.
Cuneta, Reina A.
Dela Cruz, Mary Chloe S.
Detorio, Shiela Mae A.
Ilano, Maria Catherine S.

In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science


in Nursing has been examined and is recommended for acceptance .

RAQUEL L. PASIGPASIGAN
Adviser

Accepted in partial fulfillment for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in


Nursing.

August 12 , 2007 MA. ELIZABETH S. GREGORI, RN,MAN


Dean, College of Nursing

43
Thesis Format Guide

Table of Contents

1. The table of contents lists the preliminary parts, the


chapter title along with the subdivisions of the
body of the report, and the supplementary materials
in the appendix.

2. The term “Table of Contents” should appear in


capital letters, centered and bold on the 8th single-
spaced line from the top of the paper.

3. The preliminary parts are listed first, after these,


the word “Chapter” is typed flush on the left-hand
margin; the word “Page”, flush with the right-hand
margin. Each of these terms has only the first letter
capitalized.

4. The chapter number, in Arabic numeral, should be


typed first followed by the chapter title.

5. The first chapter should be listed in a double space


below the word “Chapter”. The wording,
capitalization and punctuation of titles and
headings should be exactly the same as they are in
the text.

6. The page number should be aligned below the


letter “e” of the word “page”.

7. A chapter in the table of contents should not extend


beyond the right-hand margin . If it is more than
one line in length, typed single space and the carry-

44
Thesis Format Guide

over should begin immediately below the first letter


of the title.

8. Heading of subdivisions within chapters should


appear in the table of contents beginning one
double-space below the first letter of the chapter
title.

45
Thesis Format Guide

CRITERIA FOR RATING A RESEARCH PROPOSAL

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING 30pts

 Introduction
1. Provides rationale & significance of the
topic
2. Provides the background of the study

 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework


1. Appropriate
2. Problem coherently & systematically
integrated

 Statement of the Problem


1. Researchable, clear, concise, empirical

 Significance of the Study


1. Clearly discussed and supported

 Scope
1. Coverage clear and properly defined

 Definition of Terms
1. Necessary terms defined
2. Clear conceptual and operational definition

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 25pts

 Succinct overview of relevant research is provided

46
Thesis Format Guide

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 25pts

 Research Design
1. Choice of design is fully described
2. Appropriate to problem

 Population Frame & Sample


1. Clearly described and appropriate

 Research Instrument / s
1. Clearly described
2. Correctly utilized

 Data Gathering Procedure


1. Clearly described and correctly implemented

 Statistical Treatment
1. Appropriate and clearly explained

BIBLIOGRAPHY 10PTS

APPENDICES 10 PTS

47