673 views

Uploaded by Yoshua Yang

Sika FRP design program manual

- Seminario Online ACI 440.2R-08.pdf
- HB 305-2008 Design Handbook for RC Structures Retrofitted With FRP and Metal Plates- Beams and Slabs
- Sika Carbodur Calculation Software User Guide
- Frp Piping Design Manual - Sep-06
- Design Guide FRP
- (ACI 440_3R-12) Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete and Masonry Structures
- Applications & Mechanical Properties of FRP
- FRP Design Guide 06
- 40 - FRP Reinforcement in RC Structures_0
- FRP-Strengthened RC Structures by J. G. Teng
- FRP Lamella ACI User Manual
- FRP Strengthened Structures
- ISIS Manual - FRP Concrete Reinforcement
- FRP Strengthening-What Designers Need to Know
- Dynamics of Structure Chopra 1995
- Beam Desing for Strength and Stifness
- E7-Instrucciones Uso Programa Fib
- Blast resistance of FRP composites and polymer
- EN-1504 NITTTR
- API 570 Part 2 - Pipe Design

You are on page 1of 10

page 1 of 10

The aim of this software is to assist the user in calculating the FRP dimensions required to provide (a) flexural strengthening incl. bond check, (b) shear strengthening and (c) confinement. These three topics are treated in the guideline, which present the theoretical basis of the calculations. The equations used in this programme are given in the fib Bulletin No. 14, July 2001: "Design and use of Externally Bonded FRP Reinforcement for RC Structures". The following part is explained exactly in the help function of the design software, incl. the formulas used for calculation and input data.

1. Flexural strengthening

Reinforced concrete elements, such as beams, slabs and columns, may be strengthened in flexure through the use of FRP composites epoxy-bonded to their tension zones, with the direction of fibres parallel to that of high tensile stresses (member axis). The calculations described address both the Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and the Serviceability Limit State (SLS).

Input:

Sika Services AG Corporate Construction, Tffenwies 16, CH-8048 Zrich Tel: +41 1 436 46 40, Fax: +41 1 436 46 86, Web: www.sika.com

Version: 11/2002

page 2 of 10

The calculations are based on the assumption that one of the following two desirable failure modes govern the behaviour: (a) (b) following yielding of the internal tension steel reinforcement the concrete crushes in the compression zone; following yielding of the internal tension steel reinforcement the FRP reaches a limiting strain, f,lim, (this is a simplified way to treat debonding of the FRP in areas where flexure dominates the response, e.g. mid-span of simply supported beams).

The first step in the calculations is to find the initial strain, 0, that develops in the extreme fibre of the cross section when the strengthening operations take place. This strain is the result of a moment M0 (service moment) acting at the critical cross section during strengthening (e.g. due to the self-weight of the structure), and may be calculated based on equilibrium of internal forces and moments.

Sika Services AG Corporate Construction, Tffenwies 16, CH-8048 Zrich Tel: +41 1 436 46 40, Fax: +41 1 436 46 86, Web: www.sika.com

Version: 11/2002

page 3 of 10

For the SLS (Serviceability Limit State), the analysis of the critical cross section is performed, according to EC2, for the two possible load combinations: Rare load, Quasi-permanent load.

For the case of Rare Load the calculations are performed as in the case of the ULS, with the following modifications: (a) 0.85fcd is replaced by fck; (b) Mrd is replaced by the acting moment (under the rare load combination) Mser,r (c) fyd (the tension steel stress) is replaced by fs1; (d) the stress limitations are fs1 <= 0.8fyk (for steel) and c <= 0.6fck, where the stress in the concrete is given by the following stress-strain relationship of concrete (for c less than 0.002):

c 2

0.002

c

f ck

c =

0.002

For the case of Quasi-permanent Load the calculations are performed as in the case of the ULS, with the following modifications: (a) 0.85fcd is replaced by fck; (b) Mrd is replaced by the acting moment (under the quasi-permanent load combination) Mser,q-p; (c) fyd (the tension steel stress) is replaced by fs1; (d) c is replaced by c/(1+), where is the creep coefficient; (e) the stress limitations are fs1 <= 0.8fyk (for steel) and c <= 0.45fck, where the stress in the concrete is calculated with c replaced by c/(1+).

Sika Services AG Corporate Construction, Tffenwies 16, CH-8048 Zrich Tel: +41 1 436 46 40, Fax: +41 1 436 46 86, Web: www.sika.com

Version: 11/2002

page 4 of 10

Bond check

For user-defined dimensions of the FRP cross section geometry (n strips of width bf and thickness tf placed in m layers, n/m should be an integer if m > 1) the programme calculates the maximum force, Nbd,max, that can be carried by the total number of strips, and the associated bond length, lbd,max, before debonding of the external reinforcement initiates at the ends (anchorage zone).

At each cross section (say A), equilibrium and strain compatibility equations yield the tensile force Nfd,A carried by each strip. If this force does not exceed Nbd,max, then the bond check is verified, that is failure of the anchorage is not expected, provided that the appropriate bond length lbd will be available. The bond length corresponding to Nfd,A is calculated. It was mentioned above that Nfd,A is the tensile force carried by the FRP. This is calculated by multiplying the cross sectional area Af by the product of elastic modulus times strain, Eff, where f results through cross section equilibrium and compatibility. The equations in this case are identical to those used in the ULS, with the provision that the tensile steel reinforcement may not be yielding. Hence the same formulas used for the ULS apply, with: (a) Mrd replaced by the design value of the bending moment acting at section A, Msd,A (b) fyd replaced by fsd1; (c) o taken approximately equal to that corresponding to Mo, times the reduction factor (Msd,A/Msd). This implies the assumption that the bending moment during strengthening at cross section A, Mo,A , is equal to Mo (acting at the critical section) reduced by the factor Msd,A/Msd (note that Msd is acting at the critical section).

Version: 11/2002

page 5 of 10

2. Shear strengthening

Shear strengthening of RC members using FRP may be provided by bonding the external reinforcement with the principal fibre direction as parallel as practically possible to that of maximum principal tensile stresses, so that the effectiveness of FRP is maximised. For the most common case of structural members subjected to lateral loads, the maximum principal stress trajectories in the shear-critical zones form an angle with the member axis that may be taken roughly equal to 45. However, it is normally more practical to attach the external FRP reinforcement with the principal fibre direction perpendicular to the member axis.

Examples of shear strengthening with: (a) closed (properly anchored) jackets (b) discrete strips anchored in the compression zone (c) open jackets.

The option Closed jacket or Open jacket is selected, depending on the type of strengthening system used. Shear strengthening of columns where all four sides are accessible is typically of the closed-type. Moreover, shear strengthening of T-beams with mechanical anchorage systems that ensure perfect anchorage of the FRP in the compression zone may be considered of the closed-type too. This is the case, for instance, with the CarboShear elements, if sufficient anchorage length is available through the slab. For these particular elements, if the anchorage length is less than 300 mm, it is recommended to take a solution, calculated by linear interpolation between Closed jacket and Open jacket, that is to run the programme for both cases and adopt the value by linear interpolation. Consult also the technical datasheet and design recommendation of this product. Closed jackets or properly anchored strips are always preferable compared with open jackets, as in the latter case the FRP is debonding prematurely and is, therefore, of reduced effectiveness. The external FRP reinforcement may be treated in analogy to the internal steel (accepting that the FRP carries only normal stresses in the principal FRP material direction), assuming that at the ultimate limit state in shear (concrete diagonal tension) the FRP develops an effective strain in the principal material direction, f,e which is, in general, less than the tensile failure strain, fu. The effective strain depends on the degree of FRP debonding when the shear capacity of the RC is reached, that is on the type of anchorage (properly anchored FRP, e.g. closed jackets, versus poorly anchored FRP, i.e. open jackets). Hence, the shear capacity of a strengthened element may be calculated according to Eurocode 2.

Version: 11/2002

page 6 of 10

Input:

Vfd is the contribution of FRP to the members shear capacity. Ef is the elastic modulus of FRP, b is the width of the cross section, d is the static (or effective) depth, is the angle between the principal FRP fibre orientation and the longitudinal axis of the member, fd,e is the design value of the effective FRP strain and f is the FRP reinforcement ratio, equal to (2tf/b)sin for continuously bonded FRP of thickness tf, or (2tf/b)(bf/sf) for FRP reinforcement in the form of strips or sheets of width bf (perpendicular to the fibre orientation) at a spacing sf (axis to axis of strips along the member axis).

In the above, fcm is the mean compressive strength of concrete in N/mm2, Ef is taken in kN/mm2, k is a constant relating the characteristic to the mean value of the effective FRP strain (default: k = 0.8) and f is the FRP material safety factor. The f factor depends on the type of FRP material as well as on the failure mode governing shear design. The first term (described in eqs. (1.3.3a), (1.3.3b) and (1.3.4) in the help function) corresponds to FRP fracture (when the members shear capacity is reached), hence the use of f,f (= 1.20 for CFRP, 1.25 for AFRP, 1.30 for GFRP), the second term in eq. (1.3.3 of help function) corresponds to FRP debonding, hence the use of f,b (= 1.30), and the last term is

Version: 11/2002

page 7 of 10

taken (with f,l = 1.25) if it is desired to limit the FRP strain in order to maintain the integrity of concrete and secure activation of the aggregate interlock mechanism. It should be noted that these FRP material factors may be changed through Options. The thickness of FRP required to provide a shear resistance equal to Vfd will be calculated.

After the input of the effective thickness of the FRP layer, the number of layers and the effective reinforcing shear capacity can be calculated.

Version: 11/2002

page 8 of 10

3. Confinement

The main objectives of confinement are: (a) to enhance concrete strength and deformation capacities, (b) to provide lateral support to the longitudinal reinforcement and (c) to prevent the concrete cover from spalling. In case of circular columns, these goals can be achieved by applying external FRP jackets, either continuously all over the surface or discontinuously as strips. In the case of rectangular columns, the confinement can be provided with rectangular-shaped reinforcement, with corners rounded before application. Note that rectangular confining reinforcement is less effective (but still possible) as the confinement action is mostly located at the corners and a significant jacket thickness needs to be used between corners to restrain lateral dilation and rebar buckling. The stress-strain response of FRP-confined concrete is illustrated schematically in the following picture:

The figure displays a nearly bilinear response with a sharp softening and a transition zone at a stress level that is near the strength of unconfined concrete, fco. After this stress the tangent stiffness changes a little, until the concrete reaches its ultimate strength fcc when the jacket reaches tensile failure at a stress ff,e and a corresponding strain fu,e, which is, in general, less than the uni-axial tensile strength fu. This reduction is attributed to several reasons, including: (a) (b) the tri-axial state of stress in the FRP (due to axial loading and confining action, but also due to bending, e.g. at corners of low radius); and the quality of execution (potential local ineffectiveness of some fibres due to misalignment, and over-stressing of others; damaged fibres at sharp corners or local protrusions etc).

Version: 11/2002

page 9 of 10

Input:

Mean strength after strengthening fcc: This is the value of the strength of FRP-confined concrete corresponding to the FRP jacket of thickness tf. Ultimate axial strain after strengthening cu: This is the value of the ultimate axial strain of FRP-confined concrete corresponding to the FRP jacket of thickness tf.

The total required thickness tf of the FRP jacket is provided. Upon completion of the solution process, the Results window provides the following:

Version: 11/2002

page 10 of 10

For details please consult the help function of the design software or the fib document. Reto Clnin Clenin.reto@ch.sika.com

- Seminario Online ACI 440.2R-08.pdfUploaded byCarlos Andrés Arrate Letelier
- HB 305-2008 Design Handbook for RC Structures Retrofitted With FRP and Metal Plates- Beams and SlabsUploaded bySAI Global - APAC
- Sika Carbodur Calculation Software User GuideUploaded byGan Chin Phang
- Frp Piping Design Manual - Sep-06Uploaded bySabir Nasim
- Design Guide FRPUploaded byLisandra Camacho
- (ACI 440_3R-12) Guide Test Methods for Fiber-Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) for Reinforcing or Strengthening Concrete and Masonry StructuresUploaded byAnonymous 5exSer
- Applications & Mechanical Properties of FRPUploaded byAhmedHassen7
- FRP Design Guide 06Uploaded byK Fink
- 40 - FRP Reinforcement in RC Structures_0Uploaded byFernando Aduriz
- FRP-Strengthened RC Structures by J. G. TengUploaded byanshul_bansal_23
- FRP Lamella ACI User ManualUploaded byThanit Thanadirek
- FRP Strengthened StructuresUploaded bysamitauseef
- ISIS Manual - FRP Concrete ReinforcementUploaded bymenumorut173012
- FRP Strengthening-What Designers Need to KnowUploaded byProfessor Dr. Nabeel Al-Bayati-Consultant Engineer
- Dynamics of Structure Chopra 1995Uploaded bylmc_12036596
- Beam Desing for Strength and StifnessUploaded bySantosh Kumar
- E7-Instrucciones Uso Programa FibUploaded byprufino2
- Blast resistance of FRP composites and polymerUploaded byafcis
- EN-1504 NITTTRUploaded bydevinderchawla
- API 570 Part 2 - Pipe DesignUploaded bypeach5
- allen_christine_l_201005_mast.pdf;jsessionid=2325F9C24B924580D977DEB282C8712AUploaded bySylvester Mokgokone Rakgate
- Kevlar composite jurnalUploaded byJakbrother 28
- Manual Para El Calculo de Frc-mapeiUploaded byJames Clayton
- FRP Lamella V3 Manual EngUploaded byNaida Ademovic
- Compressive Behavior of Concrete Confined With GFRP TubesUploaded byFredesvinda Tuesta Ortiz
- FRPUploaded byAlvaroCondoriGarnica
- PermaComposites_CorrosionWhitepaper_March2014Uploaded byPermaStruct
- CAE REPORT.docxUploaded bySahil Choudhury
- ENG_2014061117130220Uploaded bysuryavinu
- Evaluation of Ductility and Load Carrying Capacity in RC Beam-Column in Exterior Joints Enhanced with FRPUploaded byAmin Mojiri

- Design of Foundations for EarthquakeUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Performance Criteria for Tremie Concrete in Deep FoundationUploaded byYoshua Yang
- JL-82-January-February Creep Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Structures Using Creep-Transformed Section Properties.pdfUploaded byking123321
- Updating HEC-18 Pier Scour Eqt for Non-cohesive Soils (Report)Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- HO 009 Djerriwarrh Bridge (1)Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- HO 009 Djerriwarrh Bridge (1)Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- NCHRP Report 507 Updated Table 29 and Fig 47Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- AS2209 -1994 Timber - Poles for Overhead LinesUploaded byYoshua Yang
- QRM Barrier Specification -Road RailinterfaceUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Aashto Mash Scoh-3Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- RTA Bridge Technical Direction BTD2009 - Design of Sign StructuresUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Compressive Strength Prediction of PC Concrete - New Model (2014)Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- Road Design Note 0607 Performance Safety Barrier Treatments at Bridge ApproachesUploaded byYoshua Yang
- State of Practice for the Design of Socketed Piles in RockUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Djerriwarrh_Bridge Study StatementUploaded byYoshua Yang
- U-Slab Assessment Tool (Examples)Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS.pdfUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Calculation of AISC_PryingActionUploaded byYoshua Yang
- NCHRP Report 507Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- Standard Penetration Test Method.pdfUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Evaluation of steel in old RC structures.pdfUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Section 5 SPTUploaded bydisassociated
- Outreach (outlines)Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- Effect of elastomeric bearing modeling parameters on the seismis design of RC highway bridge .pdfUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Foundation Analysis and DesignUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Hudson's Precast Concrete Box Culvert Catalogue 2011Uploaded byYoshua Yang
- Behavior and Design of Reinforced Concrete.pdfUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Correlationship between SPT and soil properties.pdfUploaded byYoshua Yang
- Analysis of Large Truck CollisionsUploaded byYoshua Yang

- Science TermsUploaded byarvindranganathan
- Applications of Advanced Electromagnetics Components and Systems 3642447511Uploaded byRovick Tarife
- KorpelaSolutionManual (1)Uploaded bysebastian
- TYCE SimLab ProblemSet-IUploaded bythakker
- GUIA DE DISEÑO SELECCION DE MOTORES Y HUSILLOS.pdfUploaded byJorgeGonzález
- Momentum equation for fluidUploaded byDuaa Gadoraa
- VI. 07. Synchronous machine.pdfUploaded byDesi Hertiani
- Elementary MagUploaded byTriển Nguyễn Công
- 1-16(1)Uploaded byFrank Pineda
- B-Ed Annual SystemUploaded byRabia Sajjad
- Hydraulic and PneumaticUploaded bydark_follower
- Solucionario Circuitos Sadiku Cap 3Uploaded byBränn Felicis
- AP Physics 1 Syllabus 15-16Uploaded byJoric Magusara
- Report.pdfUploaded byLusthya Resita Z
- Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures Using ANSYS Nonlinear Concrete ModelUploaded byprohithgandhi
- eth-9039-01Uploaded byAnonymous SlyvspdB
- NanoTechnology.pptxUploaded byyashwanth kumar ponugupati
- Simple StressUploaded byRaven Shade
- 11.M. Kamruzzaman _Final PaperUploaded byiiste
- Insulation Analysis Using Insulation TestersUploaded bydksaxena_in7962
- Analysis of Surface Thermal Behavior of Work Rolls In Hot Rolling Process for Various Cooling TechniquesUploaded byIRJET Journal
- chap02Uploaded bymarihomenon
- MAT514note5Uploaded bySHareduwan KasiHmuddin
- IRJET-Finite Element Analysis of Engine Mounting BracketUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Economic Effects of Technical and Non Technical Losses in Nigeria Power Transmission SystemUploaded byInternational Organization of Scientific Research (IOSR)
- Seek Simplicity, And Distrust It. -Alfred North WhiteheadUploaded bysnehith
- Well Test -gerami.pdfUploaded bytahermoh
- Project Open Flow ChannelUploaded byKin Hamzah
- lecture4-1-091220221600-phpapp02.pptUploaded byAnonymous dkML2wzU
- 07 CST ElementsUploaded bysimalaravi