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"CONSTITUTIONS JAMES ANDERSON" CONSTITUIES DE JAMES ANDERSON CONSIDERATIONS & ANALYSIS TO FIRST ARTICLE CONSIDERAES & ANLISE AO PRIMEIRO

ARTIGO

I will make some remarks about the first article of the Constitutions of James Anderson, concerning God and Religion. Irei fazer algumas consideraes, sobre o primeiro artigo das Constituies de James Anderson, concernente a Deus e a Religio. "A Mason is obliged, by virtue of his position, to obey the moral law, and well understood the art, will never be a stupid atheist nor an irreligious libertine. Although in ancient times Masons were required in each country to belong to the religion of that country or of that nation, whatever it was, it is now considered more convenient not to have to force him but this Religion in which all men agree, leaving aside his

private opinion, they are good men and true, men of honor and honesty, by whatever denomination or beliefs that can distinguish them, which results in the Masonry becomes the Centre of Union and the means to reconcile a true friendship among people who without it would have remained in constant distance. " Um Maom obrigado, em virtude de sua posio, a obedecer a lei moral; e se compreende bem a Arte, nunca ser um ateu estpido nem um irreligioso libertino. Se bem que nos tempos antigos os Maons estavam obrigados, em cada pas, a pertencer religio do dito pas ou da dita nao, qualquer que fosse, atualmente se tem considerado mais conveniente no obrig-lo seno a esta religio em que todos os homens esto de acordo, deixando de lado sua opinio particular; que sejam homens bons e verdadeiros, homens de honra e probidade, por qualquer denominao ou crenas que possa distingui-los, donde resulta que a Maonaria se converte no Centro de Unio e o meio para conciliar uma verdadeira amizade entre as pessoas que sem ela teriam permanecido em constante distncia. It is interesting to consider the fact that James Anderson had mentioned only atheist and used under very heavy calling him a "stupid atheist" and "irreligious libertine".

JAMES ANDERSON interessante considerar o fato de James Anderson ter mencionado unicamente o ateu e usado termos pesadssimos chamando-o de ateu estpido e irreligioso libertino. Apparently, James Anderson was worried about something more important, which could shake the image of the Grand Lodge of London, newly founded in 1717, and had gone through huge troubles caused by the Grand Master of the Order, elected in 1722, named Philip, Duke of Wharton . Aparentemente, James Anderson estava preocupado com algo mais importante, que poderia abalar a imagem da Grande Loja de Londres, recm fundada em 1717, e que havia passado por enormes dissabores provocados pelo Gro Mestre da Ordem, eleito em 1722, chamado Philip, Duque de Wharton.

PHILIP JAMES WHARTON Going back in time, we know that at that time began to appear in some London clubs closed for the practice of debauchery and were called "Hell Fire Clubs" (clubs flames of hell). Retroagindo no tempo, sabemos que naquela poca comearam a aparecer em Londres certos clubes, fechados, destinados prtica da libertinagem e eram denominados Hell Fire Clubs (clubes das chamas do inferno). Some had statutes, rituals and dignitaries. Knew that atheism was linked to debauchery. Ali, blasphemy was almost mandatory. Normally, both were frequented by men and women and their members sported names of prophets, saints and martyrs. The fashion of Hell Fire Clubs spread with astonishing rapidity, and had taken the form of secret societies "atheists". Alguns tinham estatutos, rituais e dignatrios. Sabia-se que o atesmo estava associado libertinagem. Ali, blasfemar era quase que

obrigatrio. Normalmente, eram frequentados tanto por homens como por mulheres e seus membros ostentavam nomes de profetas, santos e mrtires. A moda dos Hell Fire Clubs se estendeu com rapidez espantosa e haviam tomado a forma de sociedades secretas de ateus. The president of one of these clubs was the young aristocrat, Philip Wharton, elevated to Duke in 1718, calling himself Duke of Wharton. Maybe because of its influence on the nobility, perhaps for political influence, or for any other reason which is unknown, was elected Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of London. It was a bad character, an alcoholic, atheist and libertine tremendously. O presidente de um desses clubes era o jovem aristocrata, Philip de Wharton, elevado a Duque em 1718, denominando-se Duque de Wharton. Talvez por sua influncia na nobreza, talvez por influncia poltica, ou por qualquer outro motivo que desconhecemos, foi eleito Gro Mestre da Grande Loja de Londres. Era um mau carter, alcolatra, ateu e tremendamente libertino. Its management was scandalous and the Duke of Wharton was eventually expelled from 0, Freemasonry, having been his gavel solemnly burned. After years of living crapulosa was dying in Spain, at the age of thirty-three years. Sua gesto foi escandalosa e o Duque de Wharton acabou sendo expulso da 0,Maonaria, tendo sido o seu malhete solenemente queimado. Depois de anos de vida crapulosa, foi morrer na Espanha, com a idade de trinta e trs anos. Why this society open to all religious beliefs, Anderson made an exception only to atheists, who at the time were rare? Por que nessa sociedade aberta a todas as convices religiosas, Anderson fazia exceo somente aos ateus, que na poca, eram raros?

What can be concluded is that when James Anderson wrote the first article of the Bonds, an atheist was thinking of great importance, blasphemous and licentious, and when pointed out "stupid atheist" and "irreligious libertine" was referring to the same person. O que se pode concluir, que quando James Anderson escreveu o primeiro artigo das Obrigaes, estava pensando num ateu de grande importncia, blasfemo e libertino, e quando assinalou ateu estpido e irreligioso libertino estava se referindo uma mesma pessoa. Anderson's contempt for a man who did not believe in God, was more moral than philosophical. It was a precaution against certain types of men to avoid interfering in the proper development of the Grand Lodge of London, recently founded. Undoubtedly, the exclusions of "stupid atheist" and "irreligious libertine" were linked to the recent scandal provoked by the Duke of Wharton. O desprezo de James Anderson por um homem que no acreditava em Deus, era mais moral do que filosfico. Era uma precauo contra determinados tipos de homens, evitando que interferissem no bom desenvolvimento da Grande Loja de Londres, recm-fundada. Sem dvida, as excluses de ateu estpido e libertino irreligioso estavam ligadas ao recente escndalo, provocado pelo Duque de Wharton.

JEAN THEOPHILE DESAGULIERS

However, as stated by Alec Mellor - "The alert was dangerous. If a man so regarded and influential as Desaguliers had not been his Deputy Grand Master, we ask what it would have been the young Grand Lodge under the direction of a Wharton degree that united with the Grand Master of the Hell Fire Clubs. But it was not enough just to have driven the black sheep. It was necessary to think ahead and make it clear that the quality of atheist and libertine was incompatible with Freemasonry. The drafting of constitutions arrived opportunely to this effect. This explains the wording of the first article as well as the indignant term used by Anderson. In other circumstances there would have been no need pejorative adjective. L The article was not an application of principles, but a reaode defense. " Entretanto, como nos diz Alec Mellor O alerta havia sido perigoso. Se um homem to considerado e influente como Desaguliers no tivesse sido seu Deputado Gro Mestre, podemos perguntar em que teria se convertido a jovem Grande Loja sob a direo de um Wharton que unia seu grau de Gro Mestre com os dos Hell Fire Clubs. Mas no bastava somente haver expulsado a ovelha negra. Era preciso pensar no futuro e deixar bem claro que a qualidade de ateu e libertino era incompatvel com a Francomaonaria. A redao das Constituies chegou oportunamente a esse efeito. Assim se explica a redao do primeiro artigo como tambm o indignado termo empregado por Anderson. Em outras condies no haveria sido necessrio nenhum adjetivo pejorativo. O l artigo no era uma petio de princpios, seno uma reao de defesa. * Sergio Roberto Cavalcante is Master Mason (Installed) the jurisdiction of the Most Respectable Grand Lodge of the State of Paraba (CMSB). * Sergio Roberto Cavalcante Mestre Maom (Instalado) da jurisdio da Mui Respeitvel Grande Loja Manica do Estado da Paraba (CMSB).

FONTES DE CONSULTA: Cavalcante, Sergio Antigos Manuscritos: As Origens da Francomaonaria 2011; Oliynk, Anatoli Emulao (Histria, Ritualstica e Rituais); http://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Anderson; http://www.lojamaconica.org.br/constituicoes.htm; http://www.masonic.com.br/trabalho/anderson.htm; http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/history/anderson/1734.pdf;