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1.

1.1.
1.1.1. m n
m n
a11 a12 a1n
a

21 a 22 a 2 n .

a m1 a m 2 a mn
A, B, C .

aij , i 1,... m, j 1,... n .

ai1 , ai 2 ,ain i 1,... m i - .

a1 j , a2 j ,anj

aij i - -

j 1,... n - .

. :

i 1,m; j 1,n.

A aij

1.1.1.
1
A
2

3
22,
1

C e 2
0

sin

4 32,
6

19 0
4

B 4 2 7 33,
3 5 3 12
0,3

D ln 2 31.
1


.
.
n
n

. trA aii .
i 1

B .
2, B 3.
11 . 1 n

. A a1 , a2 ,an ,

b1

m 1, .. B
bm
.

1.2.
1.2.1. B

.

m n

A aij B bij
:

aij bij

i 1,m;

j 1,n.

1.2.1. :

0 3
1
A 1 2 0 ,

2 3 1
2


cos
sin 2
2

3
o
D 2
2 sin
2

1

ln 3
sin 4
e

1 0 3
B
,
1 2 0

tg ln e
4

55
5

ln 1
C
tg
4

e0
,
2 ln e

e ln 3

0 1
H
,
1 2

1 0
F
.
1 2

: ,
B .
, :
ln 1
e 0 0 1

C
H
tg 4 2 ln e 1 2

cos
e ln 3

sin 2
2
0 3
1

D 2o
2 sin
tg ln e = 1 2 0 A .

2
4

3 1

55
sin
ln
5
2

e3

1.2.2. a, b c B :

a b 2

B 2b 3 .
a
a

1
c

A b
c a ,
a b
1

: B :
a b 1, c 2
b 2b, c a 3 . a 1, b 0, c 2.
a b a, a 1

1.3.
1.3.1. B m n .
B C m n ,
B .


C a b ,

A aij B bij C :
ij

ij

i 1,m;

j 1, n.


:
:
+ B = B +
:
(+ B )+ C =+( B + C )
1.3.1.

A 1
0,2
7

D2
5

0 3

2 0 ,
3 1

1 0 3
B
,
1 2 0

2 56

C 1 24 ,
8 7

6 25

32 19
94 5

3 1 8
H
,
3 12 53

1 0
F
.
1 2

,
.

: D , B H . :
6 28
8
4 1 11

A D 3
30 19 ; B H
.
2 10 53

4,8 91 6
1.3.2. D
11 10 13

H 21 22 20 , (+ D )+ H =+( D + H ).
2 15 9
1.3.2. m n
.
n
, ,
I.

.
1.3.3. 2, 3,
3.
0
2 0
1 0 0
0 0

D 0 1 0 .
, E 0 1 0 ,
O

0 0
0 0
0 0 1
5
1.3.3.

. , A aij

A aij aij .
(-1) - +(-)=-+=
.
:
- B =+(- B ).
1 0 3
1.3.4. 3B B
:
1 2 0

1 0 3 3 0 9
: 3B 3

1 2 0 3 6 0
1. :

(+ B )= +,

(+)=+,

()=(),

1=.

1.3.4. :
O
a11
a11 a12 a1n
a

a 22
a 22
a2n
21

a nn
a nn
a n1 a n 2
O
. (
.
, .

1.4.
1.4.1. m n B n
p . AB B C m p :
cij ai1b1 j ai 2b2 j ainbnj ,
i 1,2,... m, j 1,2,...... p.

AB
B AB .
.

5 7
2 0
1.4.1. A
B
.

9 13
1 2
AB .
2 7 0 13 10 14
2 0 5 7 2 5 0 9

: AB

1 2 9 13 1 5 2 9 1 7 2 13 23 19
1 3 0
1 4
1.4.2. C
D
.

8 1 5
1 9
CD .
: C 2 3 , D 2 2 ,
CD .

1.4.3. AB
0 3
1
3 5 1

A 0 3 1 B 4 1 2 .
1 2 1
4 1 2
0 3 18 7
3 5 1 1

AB 0 3 1 4 1 2 11 1
4 1 2 1 2 1 10 5
:
0 3 3 5 1 15
2
1

BA 4 1 2 0 3 1 4 19
1 2 1 4 1 2 7
2
.

18
7
12
5
9
1

BA

AB BA .

1.4.1. , B C AB BC
, (B)C (BC) :
(B)C = (BC).
.

1 1
1 2
0 3
1.4.4. : A
, B
C

.
1 0
1 2
1 4
ABC AB C .
2 11
3 0
,
BC

: AB

5 1 .
2 5

13 2
ABC

7 2
ABC AB C .
13 2
AB C

7 2
1.4.2. , B C :
(B+C)=B+C(
)
(B+C)=B+C (
)
(B)=()B=(B), .
.
:
m n . Em A A, AE n A .
EA AE A.

B B=0, A 0, B 0.
B=B B=C.

0 0
1 0
1.4.5. A
B

.
0 1
0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0
: AB

O.
0 1 0 0 0 0
1.4.6. ;

1 0 1
1 0
0 1

A 2 0 2, B 1 0 i C 0 1 . B C.
0 1 1
0 1
1 0
1 0 1 1
AB 2 0 2 1
0 1 1 0
:
1 0 1 0
AC 2 0 2 0
0 1 1 1

0 1 1

0 = 2 2
1 1 1
AB AC B C.
1 1 1
1 2 2

0 1 1

1.5 .
1.5.1. m n :
a11 a12 a1n
a
a 22 a 2n
21

,
=

a m1 a m2 a mn

a11 a 21 a m1
a

12 a 22 a m2
T

,
A

a1n a 2 n a nm
n m .
,
.

1.5.1. :
3 0 1
3 1

A 1 0 1 B 0 0 .
2 0 0
1 1
3 1 2
3 0 1
T
: A 0 0 0 B T
.
1 0 1

1 1 0
: :

AT T A ,

AB T B T A T .

AT AT ,

A B T A T B T ,

1.5.2.

A A T ,

A A

AA A A E ,

A2 E ,
A k 1 A

. A 2 A .

A k O .

1.5.3.

A A T ,

A A T ,
A T A E ,
A T A AA T .

1.5.2.

:
1 2 2
1 2 6
0 1 0
1

A 2 1 2 , B 3 2
9 i C 0 0 1 .
3
2 2 1
2
0 0 0
0 3
:
) , ;
) B B T , B BT , B
;
) B 2 ;
) C 3 .

1 2 2
1
: ) A 2 1 2 A A ,
3
2 2 1
T

1 2 2 1 2 2
9 0 0
1 1
1

AA 2 1 2 2 1 2 0 9 0 E A ,
3 3
9
2 2 1 2 2 1
0 0 9
T

AA AAT E .
1 2 6 1 3 2 2 - 5 - 4
T
B B 3 2
9 + 2 2
0 = - 5 4 9 ,
)
2
0 3 6 9 3 - 4 9 6

1 8
0

B B 1 0
9 .
8 9 0
T

) B 2 B3 B .

5 6 6 1 2 6 1 2 6
B B B 9 10 9 3 2
9 3 2
9 .
4 4 3 2
0 3 2
0 3
3

) C 3 O :

0 0 1 0 1 1
C C C 0 0 0 0 0 1 O .
0 0 0 0 0 0
3

1.5.3. :
1 i 2 3i 2 i
0 1 i 3 i
1 i 2 2i

0
1
1 H 1 i
i .
A
, B 3i

i 3i
0
1
3 i i
i
2i
2
) A ;
) AB A B .
) B B T , B B T .
) ?
) ?

1 i 2 3i 2 i
0
1 ,
) B 3i
1
i
2i
1 i 2 3i 2 i
1 i 2 2i
2 8i 3 i 1 3i
AB
3i
0
1
,

i 3i
3 3i
3
6 i
0

1
i
2i
2 8i 3 i 1 3i
.
AB
3
6 i
3 3i

1 i 2 2i
) A
.
i 3i
0

1 i 2 3i 2 i
1 i 2 2i
2 8i 3 i 1 3i
AB
3i
0
1
.

i 3i
3 3i
3
6 i
0

1
i
2i
)

B B T , B B T

B BT

1 2
2 6i 3 i
1 i 2 3i 2 i 1 i 3i

B B 3i
0
1 2 3i 0 i 2 6i
0
1 i C
1
i
2i 2 i 1 2i 3 i 1 i
0
:
2 6i 3 i
2

T
C 2 6i
0
1 i C B B T .
3 i 1 i
0
T

1 2i
2
1 i
1 i 2 3i 2 i 1 i 3i

B B 3i
0
1 2 3i 0 i 2
0 1 i D ,
1
i
2i 2 i 1 2i 1 i 1 i
4i
2i 2 1 i
T
D 2
0
1 i D B B T .
1 i 1 i 4i
T

0 1 i 3 i
1
i H ,
) H H 1 i
3 i i
2

10

0 1 i 3 i 0 1 i 3 i 12 . .
H H 1 i
1
i 1 i
1
i . . . E
3 i i
2 3 i i
2 . . .
.
H

1 20
1 i 2 3i 2 i 1 i 3i

BB T 3i
0
1 2 3i 0 i .
1
i
2i 2 i 1 2i .

1 1 i 2 3i 2 i 12
1 i 3i

T
B B 2 3i 0 i 3i
0
1 .
2 i 1 2i 1
i
2i .
.

. .
. . .
. .
. .
. . ,
. .

1.5.4.
,
.
1.5.5. ( )
:
1) i- - (): Ri R j ; K i K j
2) - () c : R j cR j ; K j cK j
3) i- () c- - () i - :
Ri Ri cR j ; K i K i cK j .
1.5.4. ,
:
1 3 0 1
0
1 2 5

2 4 2 0 , ) A 4 1 6 .
) A 2
4 4 8
6 3 4
4 1
: )
1 3 0 1 R R 2
0
1
2

A 2
2 4 2 0 0
4 4 8
4
4 1
1
1 2 1 0 R R 4R 1 1
R1 R1 1
2
3
3
1
0

3
0
1

0 1

4 4 8
0 0
4 1
11

4 2 0
3 0 1
4 8
4 1
2
1

2 1 0
3 0 1 .
0
0 1

R R 4R
5 R R R 1 2 5
1 2 5 R2 R2 6 R1 1 2
3
3
1
3
3
2

) A 4 1 6 0 9 26 0 9 26 .
6 3 4
0 9 26
0 0
0

1.1.

2 1
A 1 0
3 2

0 1
B 2 7
1 1

1 0 2 3
C
. 2, 3-B C.
0 1 1 2
1 4
2
2

: 2A 2 1 0 2 0 ,
3 2 6 4
1 0
1 6
2
2

3 A B 3 1 0 2 7 1 7 ,
3 2 1 1 10 5

A32 C24 AC

3 4

, :

1
2
3
1 0 2

A C 1 0

0 1 1 2

3 2

2 1 1 0
1 1 0 0
3 1 0

2 0 11
1 0 0 1

2 1 0

2 2 1 1
2 2 1 1

3 2 2 1

2 3 1 2
1 3 0 2
3 3 2 2

2 1 3 4
1 0 - 2 - 3.
3 - 2 - 4 - 5
2 1
1.2. f A f x x 2 5x 3 A
.
3 3
1 0
: f A A2 5 A 3E E
.
0 1

12

5
7
A2 A A

15 12
5 10 5 3 0 0 0
7
f A

.
15 12 15 15 0 3 0 0
3 2
1.3. A
.
4 1
: .
x x
3x 2 x3 3x2 2 x4
3x 4 x2 2 x1 x2
AX XA, X 1 2 , AX 1
, XA 1

.
x3 x4
4 x1 x3 4 x2 x4
3x3 4 x4 2 x3 x4
:

3x1 2 x3 3x1 4 x2 x3 2 x2
3x2 2 x4 2 x1 x2 x2 x1 x4

4 x1 x3 3x3 4 x4 x3 2x1 x4

4 x2 x4 2 x3 x4 x3 2 x2
x1, x1 x4 ,2x1 x4 , x4 .

x1
x1 x4

X
.
x4
2x1 x4

a b c
1.4. A 0 a d , a, b, c d
0 0 a
.
) B =+B ;
) B n , n N
) () An , n N.
0 b c
: ) B A aE 0 0 d ,
0 0 0
0 0 bd
2
) B 0 0 0 , B 3 O B n O za n 3.
0 0 0
n
n
n
) An aE B a n k E n k B k a n E n na n 1E n 1B
k 0 k

13

n n2 n2 2
a E B B n
2

E n E, n N i B n O za n 3 .
n
An a n E na n 1EB a n 2 EB 2 ,
2

n
0 0 a n 2bd
0 0 na n 1b na n 1c
2


n
n 1
a
0 0
0
na d 0 0
0

0 a 0
0
0 0 0
0

n
na n 1b na n 1c a n 2bd
2

n
.
a
na n 1d

n
0
a

a n

An 0
0

n
a

1 0
n
1.5. n N i A
A
1
1

: n 1, A E 1 A E E A E A ,
n k .. :
1 0
0 0 1 0
Ak
k

.
0 1
1 0 k 1
, n k 1 :
1 0 1 0 1
A k 1 A k A

k 1 1 1 k 1
:
0
1
E k 1 A E
.
k 1 1

E n A E .

0
,
1

An E n A E , n N .

1 1 0
1.6. A , n N, ako A 0 1 1 .
0 0 1
1 2 1
1 3 3
1 4 6

2
3
2
4
: A A A 0 1 2, A A A 0 1 3, A 0 1 4 .
0 0 1
0 0 1
0 0 1
n
2
3
4
n!

1, 3, 6 .
k k! n k !
2
2
2
n

14

n k 1 Ak 1

1 k 1

0
1
0
0


k
k 1
2

k 1 0
1 0

k
1 k
2

Ak 0 1 k , k 2 .
0 0 1

k 1

k 1
2
1
k 1 ,
0
1

k
k k k 1
k
n N.
2
2 1 2
1.7.

a b
A

c d
n

a b
x a d x ad bc 0.
.
c a
a 2 bc ab bd
: A2
; A2 a d A ad bc E O
2
ac cd bc d
2

0 0 0
ab bd ad bc

,
2
ad bc 0 0
ad d 0
OO
d a : x 2 a a x a 2 bc 0 ,
A2 a 2 bc E O .
,
A2 a 2 bc E , A3 a 2 bc A
a 2 bc ab bd a 2 ad

2
ac cd bc d ac cd

A4 a 2 bc E , A5 a 2 bc A
:
a 2 bc k E , n 2k
n
A
.
k
a 2 bc A , n 2k 1

1 0 0
2 1 1

1.8. A 0 3 0, B 0 1 1 .
0 0 2
0 0 3
:

15

) ;
) BB ;
) B B
aii .
) C, .
:
)

1 0 0
AA 0 9 0 ,
0 0 4

4 3 6
2 1 1

BB 0 1 4 , ) AB 0
3 3
0 0 9
0
0
6

c12 3c12
c13 2c13
c11 c12 c13 c11 3c12 2c13
3c21 c21
AC 3c21 3c22 3c23 c21 3c22 2c23 CA
)

3c23 2c23
2c31 2c32 2c33 c31 3c32 2c33
2c31 c31

2c32 3c32
i j , i j
, C 3- .
1.9. A i B . A ,
B T AB .
: A AT .

: BT AB

BT AT BT

AB T

BT AT

BT AB .

1.10. :
, .
: 1) , AT A AAT E .
A2 AA AAT E , ;
2) , AAT AA A2 E
3) ,
o

A AE AAAT A2 AT EAT AT .

1.11.
.
: B . :

16

AB T AB BT AT AB BT AT AB BT EB BT B E ,
, B .
1.12. . (-)(+)=.
.
: . :

E AE A E A A A2 E E O .
, (-)(+)=. A2 E O
.
1.13. . AA T , A T A .
.
a1
a
2
: A ,


a n
AT a1 a2 an .

a1 2

aa
T
AA 2 1

a n a1

AAT a1 a2 an
.
2

a1a 2 a1a n

2
a2
a2 an
n n ,


2
an a2 a n
.

1.14. B n B .
T

A BA .

: B T B. A T BA
T

A BA .

17

AT B T A T

A T BA ,

2.
2.1. n
a11 a12 a1n
a
a22 a 2 n
A 21
,

a n1 an 2 ann
det :
a11 a12 a1n

det A

a21

a22 a2 n

an1


an 2 ann

det A 1 a1k1 a2k2 ankn . k1 , k 2 ,k n


k

1,2,n , k1 , k 2 ,k n .

1 3 0
2.1. D 2 1 1 .
3 1 3
:
det D 11 3 3 3 1 2 1 0 3 1 0 3 2 3 111 3 9 18 1 7
:
1. det A det AT
2. ()
( ) detA=0.
3.
( ) .
4. ()
( )
det=0.
5.
() ()
.
6. (),
.
7. det(B)= detdetB.
2.2. aij
Aij 1 M ij , . aij +1 -1
i j

aij .

18

,
i j
- - , 1 .
-
.


2.1.
1 3 2 1
2 2 1 2

A
1 1 3 1

2 2 1 1
a) ,
b) ,
,
) .
: )
1 3
2 2
det A
1 1
2 2

) det A

) det A

1
2

2
1

1
2

2 1

3 1
1 1
3 2
2 1

1 1 3
2 2 1
1 3 2
2 2 1
1 1 3
2 2 1

2 2 1

1 1 3 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3
2 1 1
2 1 1
2 2 1
2 2 1
2

15 63 24 0 24
1
1 3
2
1
R2 R2 2 R1
4 3 0
2 R3 R3 R1 0 4 3 0

4
5
2
1 R4 R4 2 R1 0 4
5
2
4 3 3
1
0 4 3 3
1
1 3
2
1
1 3
R2 R2 2 R1
2 R3 R3 R1 0 4 3 0 R3 R3 R4 0 4

1 R4 R4 2 R1 0 4
5
2 R4 R4 R2 0 0
1
0 4 3 3
0 0

84 36 24 24

2
3

1
0

2
0

2
3

2.2. :

1
0
1
1 4 0
A
1 0 1

0 1 1

0
0
1

19

0 1 1
2 0 1
B
3 1 0

1 1 2

1
0
.
1

24

det A,det B ,det AB


det A det B det AB .
:
,
:
1 1
0 0
4 0 0
1 0 0
1 4 0 0
2
3
det A
1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 12 3 15 ,
1 0 1 1
1 1 2
0 1 2
0 1 1 2
,
:
0 1 1 1
2 0 1
0 1 1
2 0 1 0
5
7
det B
1 3 1 0 1 2 0 1 5 .
3 1 0 1
1 1 2
1 1 2
1 1 2 0
B :
0 0 0 1 1 1 2 1 2 1
1 1
1 4 0 0 2 0 1 0 8
1 3 1

.
AB

1 0 1 1 3 1 0 1 4
1 1 0

0 1 1 2 1 1 2 0 3 3 3 1
,
2 1 2 1
10 0 5 0
2 0 1 0
R1 R1 R2
R2 R2 R4
8
1 3 1
8 1 3 1
11 2 0
0
det AB
5

4
1 1 0
4 1 1 0
4
1
1
0
3 3 3 1
3 3 3 1
3 3
3 1
2 1 0
11 2 0

4 2 0
R1 R1 R3
5 11 2 0
5
4 1 1 0 2 4 1 1
3 3 3 1
3 3 3

det AB 75 15 5 det A det B .
0
0

15 0 0 0
R1 R1 R 2
5 11 2 0 0
5
30 75

0
1 1 0
2 4
2
1
3
3 3 1

0
0

12541 12541 12541


2.3. B 12551 12541 45726 .
23841 23841 23842

20

:
12541 12541 12541

0 12541
0
12541 0
det B 12551 12541 45726
10 12541 33185 10
125410 .
K3 K3 K 2
23841 1
23841 23841 23842
0 23841
1
K1 K1 K 2

2.4.
2 4

1 1 1 1

7 3 0
4 9 2

5
1

1 0

1
1

1 1 1
1 1 1

1 1

2 5 0 1 3
1
0 3 7 2
) 3 1 0 5 5
2
6 4 1 2
0 3 1 2 3

3 3 4 1 0
2 1 1 3 2
) 1 1 2 1 1 .
5 0 5 2 1
3 2 2 2 2

2.5. n
:
1 1
1 0
) 1 1

1
1
0

1 1 1

1 2 3
1
) 1

0
2

1
1
1 )

2 2 2
5 4 5
5 5 6

2
5
5

7 2 2
2 7 2
) 2 2 7

2
2
2

1 3 5
1 0 5
) 1 3 0

5 5 5

2n

2 2 2

1 3 5

3
0

n
1
n ) 1

1/ 2 0
0 1/ 3
0

0
0

2
5

5
2

1/ n

2n 1
2n 1
2n 1
0

2
2

2
2

2.6.
,
n :

a0

a1

a2

x x
) 0 x

0
x

an

0
0

2
) 3

21

1 2
0 1
0

0
3

0
0

3.
3.1.

a11 a12
a
a22
A 21

a n1 an 2

a1n
a 2 n
.

ann
Aij () aij
,
A11 A21 An1
A
A22 An 2
12

adjA

A1n A2 n Ann
.
1 2 1
3.1. A 1 1 1
2 1 2
.
: :
1
11 1 1
2 1 2
A11 1
1,
A21 1
5,
1 2
1 2

A31 1

31

2 1
3,
1 1

A12 1

1 1
4,
2 2

A22 1

1 1
4,
2 2

A32 1

1 1
0,
1 1

A13 1

1 1
3,
2 1

A23 1

1 2
3,
2 1

A33 1

1 2
3.
1 1

1 2

1 3

2 2

23

3 2

3 3

1 5 3
adjA 4
4 0 .
3 3 3
3.1.
A adjA adjA A det A E .
3.2. ()
B B=B=.
3.3. B B=B=
A 1 .
3.4.
.

22

3.2.
.
3.3. det0.
A 1
:
1
A1
adjA.
det A
.

: A1
A 1 .
A 1 .
AB 1 B 1 A1

A.

A A
1 T

T 1

4 7
3.2. B
.
5 9
: , ..
4 7
1 0 B .
. det B
5 9
a b
B 1
. BB 1 E B 1 B .

c d
4a 5b 7a 9b
4a 7c 4b 7d
BB 1
E
B 1B

4c 5d 7c 9d
5a 9c 5b 9d
1 5b

a 4
1 5b

4
a

5
b

1
a 9

4
7 1 5b 9b 0

b 7
7 a 9b 0

7 35b 36b 0

c 5 d
c 5
4c 5d 0
c 5d

d 4
7c 9d 1

4
4
35d 36d 4
5d
7
9d 1
4

9 7
B 1
.
5 4

3.3. :

23

1 4 3 5
1 2 0
3 10 9 12
.
) A 1 0 2 , ) B
2 6 7 8
1 1 0

1 2 5 6
: ) .
1 2 0
1
det A 1 0 2 2 0 A1
adjA .
det A
1 1 0
2
0
0
11 0
3 1 2
2 1 2
A11 1
A31 1
A21 1
2,
4,
0,
1 0
0 2
1 0
A12 1

1 2

1 2
2,
1 0

A22 1

2 2

1 0
0,
1 0

A32 1

3 2

1 0
2
1 2

1 0
2
3 3 1
23 1 2
A33 1
A23 1
1,
2.
1,
1 0
1 1
1 1
:
2 0 4
1
1
A 2 0 2 .
2
1 1 2
)
.
B .
A13 1

1 3

det B

10

12

1 4 3 5 1
3 10 9 12 0

2 6 7 8 0

1 2 5 6 0

108 0 B .

0 0 0
3
5 1 0
1 4
R2 R2 3 R1

R3 R3 2 R1
1 0 0
0 2 0 3 3 1

0 1 0 R4 R4 R1 0 2 1 2 2 0

0 0 1
0 6 2 11 1 0

3 1 5 2
1 0
0 2 0 3 3 1

0 0
1
1 1 1

0 0 2 2 8 3
24

0 0
0 0 R1 R1 3 R3
1 0 R4
R4 2 R3

0 1

0 0
R1 R1 2 R2
0 0 R3 R3 R2
1 0 R4
R4 3 R2

0 1

1 0
0 2

0 0

0 0
1
0

0 4 8
0 3 3
1
0

1
4

0 0 0
1 0 32
0 1
0 0

1
0

1
1

3 0 R1 R1 R4
1
R R
0 0 2 2 2
1 1 1 0 R 1 R
4 4 4
6 1
2 1

14
32

1
3 2

5
1

6
1 2
1
14

1
0

1
3
R R R
0 2 2 2 4
1
0 R3
R3 R4

1 2 1 4

0 0 0 14
1 0 0 15 4

6
1
1
7 8 3 4 3 8
.
0 1 0 5 2 5 4 1 2 1 4

0 0 1 3 2 1 4
12
14

6
1
1
14
15 4 7 8 3 4 3 8
.
B 1
5 2 5 4 1 2 1 4

12
14
3 2 1 4
3.4. B
A S 1 BS .
: A B
A B B A ,
A B B C A C .


3.1. :
1 1 0 1
0 0 3
2 0 1
2 1 1 2

.
A 0 2
4 , B 2 0 0 ,
C
3 3 1 2
1 5 0
3 1 0

1 1 2 2
: : det A 6 0 A 1 :

25

1
0
20 15 6
0
1
1

1
A 4 3 0 . det B 2 0 B 0
3 2
6
2
2 0 0
2 2 0
C
:
1

1 1 0 1
2 1 1 2

3 3 1 2

1 1 2 2

1 0 0 0
1 1
R2 R2 2 R1

0 1 0 0 R3 R3 3 R1 0 1
0 0 1 0 R4
0
R4 R1 0

0 0 0 1
0 0

1 0
0 1

0 0

0 0
1 0 0 2 2 1
0 1 0 1 1 1

0 0 1 0 4 0

0 0 0 1 7 0

1
1

1
0

1 1
2 1

1 1 3
0 1 7
1 0
1 0 R1 R1 2 R4
1 1 R2
R2 R4

2 1

1 0 0 0
2 1 0 0 R1R1 R2
1 1 3 0 1 0 R4
R4 2 R2

2 1 1 0 0 1
0
1

1
0

0
R1 R1 R3
0 R2 R2 R3
1 0 R4
R4 R3

2 1
0 0 0 12 1
1 0 0 6 1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

4
7

2
1
.
0 1 1

0 2 1
3
1

3.2. : ) , )
x 1 0 0
3 x 2 0
?
A
0 2 x 3

0 0 1 x
: )
.
x 1 0 0
x 2 0 3 2 0
3 x 2 0
det A
x2 x 3 0 x 3 ,
0 2 x 3
0 1 x 0 1 x
0 0 1 x

det A x x3 3x 4 x 3x2 9 x4 10 x2 9 .
det A 0 x 1 x 1 x 3 x 3 .
) ()
.
x 1 x 1 x 3 x 3 .

26

1 2
1 3 3
0

3.3. A 1 3 4 B 1 0 3 .
1 4 3
2 3 0
AX B YA B .
: A 1 (
, ), A 1
7 3 3
1
1
1
1 :
X A B, Y BA . A 1 0
1 1
0
1 2 9 16
7 3 3 0

X A 1 B 1 0
1 1 0 3 2 4
1 1
0 2 3 4 1 1
1 2 7 3 3 3
0
Y BA 1 1 0 3 1 0
1 10
2 3 4 1 1
0 11

5
2
1
2 1
6 3 .
6 3

0 1 1
3.4. A 1 0 1 .
1 1 0
p q , p 0, q 0 B pE qA
B2 E . BX A .
p q q
: B pE qA q p q
q q p
p 2 2q 2

B2 E .. B 2 2 pq q 2
2 pq q 2

2 pq q 2
p 2 2q 2
2 pq q 2

2 pq q 2 1 0 0

2 pq q 2 0 1 0 E ,
p 2 2q 2 0 0 1

2
2

p 2q 0
p q :
.
2

2 pq q 0
2 p q 0 q 2 p

p 0, q 0 2
1
2 . B
p 8 p2 1 9 p2 1 p , q

3
3

1 2 2
1
B 2 1 2 . B:
3
2 2 1

det B 1 0 ,
27

B , B2 E .
BB E BB 1 B B 1 . :
4 1 1
1
1
1
B
BX A X B A 1 4 1 .
3
1 1 4

3.5. X :
2 6
1 2 0
0
1 1 1 X 4 2 2 X .

3 1 1
3 7 3
: AX B X AX X B
A E X B . - :

0 2 0
A E 1 0 1 , det A E 6 0 A E 1 :
3 1 0
1 0 2
1
1
A E 3 0 0.
6
1 6 2

, A E

A E X

B X A E B , :
1

1 2 0
X 0 1 3 .
3 0 2
3.6. :

x1 3x 2 2 x 4 1
2 x 4 x 2 x x 3

1
2
3
4
.

7
x

3
x

3
x

2
1
2
3
4

3x1 x 2 4 x3 3
:
:
3
0
2 x1 1
1
2 4 2 1 x 3

2 AX B .
1 7 3 3 x3 2


0 x4 3
3 1 4

28

14
40 23
67
1
2
0
1
1
det A 10 0 X A1 B . A1
.
10 50 10 30 20

30 10 20 10
x1 4
x 1
2 x1 4, x2 1, x3 4 i x4 1 .
x3 4

x4 1
a b
3.7. A

b a
a, b R
) A S A 1 A 1 S
) A S A A1 O .
: ) A S , det A a 2 b2 .
a 2 b2 0 a 0 b 0 .
1 a b
A1 2
S.
a b 2 b a

1 a 3 ab 2 a a 2b b3 b 0 0

a 2 b 2 a 2b b3 b a 3 ab 2 a 0 0
a 0 b 0 a 0
a0
a 3 ab 2 a 0
aa 2 b 2 1 0

2
3
2
2
2
b

1
b

b a bb 0
b
b


0 1 0 1
1 0 i 1 0 .

A A1 O

3.8. . :
1
1
a) det A1 det A
.
det A
b) det A1 BA det B .
1
: ) 1 det E det AA 1 det A det A1 det A1
.
det A
1
) det A1 BA det A1 det B det A det A det B det A det B .

3.9.
Ak E . , A1 Ak 1 .

29

: .
k
1 det E det Ak det A det A k 1 0. A 1 .
Ak E A 1 :
A1 Ak 1 .
2 5 4
2 0 1

3.10. : A 0 5 8 i B 1 3 3 .
3 15 1
2 5 5
) AB E B 2
) ) A n .
: ) det B 1 0 B 1 .
:
R2 1
R2 2 R1 1
3 3 0 1 0 RR2
3
3 0 1 0
2 0 1 1 0 0 RR1
R3 2 R1
2 R3
3
1 3 3 0 1 0
2 5 5 0 0 1
0 1 1 0 2 1

2 5 5 0 0 1
2 0 1 1 0 0
0 6 5 1 2 0

R1 R1 3 R2
R3 R3 6 R2
R2 R2

1 0 0 0 5 3 R R R 1 0 0 0 5 3
0 1 1 0 2 1 2 2 3 0 1 0 1 8 5 .

0 0 1 1 10 6
0 0 1 1 10 6

0 5 3
B 1 8 5 AB E B 2
1 10 6
1

2 5 4
B A 0 5 8 B 1 B .
3 15 1
1

) , :
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
k
An B B 1 B n k B 1 B n k B k B n 2 k .
k 0 k
k 0 k
k 0 k

3.11.
A2k O . E A.
:

A2k O A2k 1 O .

E E O
E A 2 k 1

E AE A A .

E A E A A 2 k
2 k 1

30

C D CD E , D C 1.

E A1 E A A2k 1
.. - .
3.12. B .
+B -B .
: B AAT E BB T E .
+B -B
.
:
T
det A Bdet A B det A B det A B det AT BT det A B
det AT A BT A AT B BT B det E BT A AT B E
det BT A AT B .
X BT A AT B .

det X det X T det B T A AT B

det A B B A det B
T

A AT B

.
det E det X det X
B
. det E
-1 . det X det X

det X det A Bdet A B 0


.
3.13. B. A n B n .
:
A S 1 BS .

A n S 1 BS
1

S BSS
BS S BS

S B S S B S S BS S 1
BB

B S S 1 B n S

n
1

3.14. H AH . HAH 1
.
: A S 1 H 1 AH S . :

A S 1 H 1 AH S S 1 H 1 H 1 H A H 1 H HS H 2 S
.

31

HAH
1

H S
2

4.
4.1. m n .
min(m, n)
.
4.1. :
2 1
1
1 3 2
.
A
1 0
1

0
0
0
: ,
1 1

.
0 0
4.2.

.

rangA.
.
.

.

4.3.
.
4.1. .
4.2. .
1 0 0 0
4.2. A 0 0 0 0 .
0 2 3 4
:
:
1 0
A 0 0
0 2

0 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 0 2 3 4 rang=2.

3 4 0 0 0 0

32


4.1. :

5 3 1 2
10 13 5 21

) B
2 4 0 7

1 2 4 5
: ) det A 0
( <3).

2 3 7
) A 8 4 12
6 5 13

8
16
.
1

R2 4 R1 1
3
7 R3 R3 1 R2 1 3
7
2 3 7 K1 1 K1 1 3 7 RR2
R3 3 R1
3
2
2

A 8 4 12 4 4 12
0 8 16 0 8 16 .
6 5 13
3 5 13
0 4 8
0 0
0

2 ,
2.
)
4
5
6
5 3 1 2 8
1 2 4 5 6
1 2
R2 10R1
10 13 5 21 16 R1 R4 10 13 5 21 16 RR32

R3 2 R1

0 7 35 29 44
B
2 4 0 7 1 2 4 0 7 1 R4
0
8 3 11
R4 5 R1 0

1 2 4 5 6
5 3 1 2 8
0 7 19 23 22

2 4
0
1 4 5

4.2. A 3
1
7 .

5 10
0
2
3
0
:
2 4 R3 R3 3R2 1 4
5
0
1
R3 R3 11 / 2 R2
1 4 5 R R 2 R 0 2

4
0
5
2

5
R3 R3 5 / 2 R2
0 11 22
0
A 3
1
7 R2 R2

R3 R3 5 / 2 R2
5 10 R1 R2
0
0 5 10
0

2
0 5 10
0
3
0

.
4.3.

33

4 5
2 4
0 0

0 0
0 0

1 2
1 5
1 2 X 1 5,

X.
a b
: X
.
c d
a 2c 1
1 2c 5 2d
, X
c d

d
b 2d 5
c
. X .. det X 0 d 5c ,
; ( ). d=-5c, X
1 2c 5 1 2c
X
, X .
5c
c

X c=0
.

a 0 a
4.4. X 0 b 0 . X 2 X .
c 0 c
X.
: X 2 X O
X2 X :
a 2 ac a 0
2
.
b b 0
c 2 ac c 0

b b =1 b =0.
a c a c 1 0 .

a 0 a
=c, X X 0 b 0
a 0 a
rang X=2 b =1; 0 ;
rangX=1 b =1; =0,
rangX =0 = b =0.
1 c 0 1 c
0
=1-c X X 0 b
c
0
c
rang X =2 b =1; rang X =1 b =0.
X c=0
.

34

5.

5.1. A [aij ] . E A (

A E ) A ,
k ( ) det( E A) n -
.
n
n 1
n
k ( ) (a11 a22 ... ann ) ... (1) det A

trA a11 a22 ... ann

5.1.
.

:
det( E A) det( E C 1 B C ) det( C 1 C C 1 B C )

det(C 1 ( C B C )) det(C 1 ( E B) C ) det C 1 det( E B) det C


1
det( E B) det C 1 det C det( E _ B) det(C
C ) det( E B)

5.2 A k ( ) det( E A)
.
A .
k ( ) k (A)
.

5.1.
x3 3 x 2 2 x 5
A3 3 A2 2 A 5 E

(-): k ( )
A , k ( A) 0 , A k (A) .
5.3: k ( ) A .
1 ,
A .
:
.
A
.

35

5.2. k ( ) ( 1) ( 3) 2 ,
k ( )
, ( 1), ( 3), ( 1), ( 1)( 3), ( 3), ( 1)( 3) 2 .
( 1)( 3).
5.1. A B , A B .
!

5.1. -
5.2. - -
m n

a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1


a 21 x1 a 22 x 2 ... a 2 n x n b2

.....................................................
.....................................................

a m1 x1 a m 2 x 2 ... a mn x n bm

..... (1)

(1) A X B

a11
a
A 21

a m1

a12
a 22

am2

b1
x1
a1n
b
x
2

2
a2n
;B . ; X .

.
a mn
bm
x n
m1
n1

A (1).
C , :
a11 a12 . . a1n b1
a

21 a 22 . . a 2 n b2
C .
. . . .
.

. . . .
.
.
a m1 a m 2 . . a mn bm
n - ( x1 , x2 ,..., xn )
x1 , x2 ,..., xn .

36

k - k1 , k 2 ,..., k p
- , k - C
k1 , k 2 ,..., k p - C .
,
.
(-): (1)
. (rangA=rangC)
n (1),
-
1 n rangA rangC
.
2 rangA rangC n
3 rangA rangC

b j 0 , j 1, n , .
- : x1 x2 ... xn 0
?
1) rang( A) n ( )
2) rang( A) n
det A 0 m n .

A X X , A [aij ] , , X - .
( E A) X 0 X ,
det( E A) 0
( -).
1 , 2 ,..., n ()
, X 1 , X 2 ,...., X n .
5.1.1. ,
1 3
A
.
4 2
: det( E A) 0 , 2 3 10 0 , 1 2, 2 5 ,
1 2 :

37

3x1 3x 2 0
3 3 x1 0
,,
(1 E A) X 1 0 ..
, ,

4 4 x 2 0
4 x1 4 x 2 0
1
x1 = - , x2 = , X 1 ,
1
3 / 4

5
:
X

2
2
1 ,

5.1.2
0 0 2
A 1 2 1 , 1 / 2 2, 3 1 ,
1 0 3
2 0 2 x1 0
1 / 2 2 : 1 0 1 x 2 0 , 1 = - , 2 = , 3 = ,
1 0 1 x3 0
s s 0
1
1 0
0

X t 0 t s 0 t 1 , X 1 0 , X 2 1 .
s s 0
1
1 0
0
0
2 x1 0
1
2
3 1 : 1 1 1 x 2 0 , 1 = - 2, 2 = , 3 = , X 3 1 .
1 0 2 x3 0
1
X
, N
X .
P ()
A , P 1 A P
D (
()
).
. D .
5.2 D
Ak P D k P 1 , N

1 3
1
3 / 4
5.1.3 A
, 1 2, 2 5 , X 1 , X 2

4 2
1
1

38

1 3 / 4
2 0
1 4 3
P 1 A P
P
P 1

1
7 4 4
1
0 5
5.1.4
0 0
A 1 2
1 0
1 0
P 0 1
1 0

2
1 ,
3

1 / 2 2, 3

2
1 0

1
1 , P 1 1
1 0
1

1
0

X 1 0 , X 2 1 ,
1,
1
0
2
2 0 0

1
1 , P AP 0 2 0 D .
0 0 1
1

39

2
X 3 1 ,
1