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Chiew Sing-Ping School of Civil and Environmental Engineering Nanyang Technological University, Singapore

Selected Topics for Verification Material ductility & toughness Basis of design combination of actions Structural analysis imperfections & second-order second order effects Member design beam & column b kli buckling g & buckling g Web bearing Shear buckling & plate girder Hollow section joints

Ductility Requirement

Trend is to use higher grade and better quality steel in modern design codes. EC3 has additional ductility requirements compared dt to BS5950 (CL (CL. 3 3.2.2) 2 2) i in t terms of f stress ratio, elongation and strain ratio. It is okay for hot-rolled steel but will be difficult for steel for cold cold-forming forming and cold-formed cold formed section.

Normal Strength Steel

( fy < 460 N/mm2)

(460 < fy < 700 N/mm2)

fu/fy 1.10

elongation at failure not less than 15% u 15 y ( y is the yield strain, t i y= fy/ E)

fu/fy 1.05 ( EC3-1-12) fu/fy 1.10 ( UK NA to EC3-1-12) elongation g at failure not less than 10% u 15 y

fu fyUpper

S Stress

fyLower

Strain

fu fyUpper

S Stress

fyLower

amount of plastic deformation represented by shaded area under the curve

Strain

Some product standards only have requirements on the nominal yield and tensile strengths, or their minimum values. The stress ratio calculated according to these nominal values cannot comply with the EC3 ductility requirement.

Standard AS1397 AS 1595 EN 10149-2 EN 10326 ISO 4997 Grade G450 G500 G550 CA 500 S 550MC S 600MC S 650MC S 700MC S550GD CH550 Nominal yield strength (MPa) 450 500 550 500 550 600 650 700 550 550 Nominal tensile strength (MPa) 480 520 550 510 600 650 700 750 560 550 Stress ratio 1.07 1.04 1.00 1.02 1.09 1 08 1.08 1.08 1.07 1.02 1 00 1.00

AS 1397: Steel sheet and strip hot-dip zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated AS 1595: Cold-rolled, unalloyed, steel sheet and strip EN 10149-2: Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steel for cold forming EN 10326: Continuously hot-dip coated strip and sheet of structural steels ISO 4997: Cold-reduced carbon steel sheet of structural quality * steel for profile metal decks and purlins

Most standards only have requirements on the range of tensile strength and min. min yield strength only. only It is possible for these steel to face problem with EC3 ductility requirement, for e.g. S355J2H in BS EN10219: fy>355 MPa and 470 MPa<fu<630 MPa due to cold-working.

Stress(MPa) 600.0 500 0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 Elongation(%) Stress(MPa) 600.0 500.0 400.0 300.0 200.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 Elongation(%)

Typical Curve with no distinct Yield Point - gain in yield and loss in ductility due to cold working

Stre ess Rm Rp Rt

Agt

At

Strain

Toughness Requirement

To prevent sudden brittle fracture failure, both adopted a simple i l d deemed-to-satisfy dt ti f d i design approach h by b ensuring the maximum permitted thickness value is satisfied by choosing a steel quality grade with adequate notch toughness, taking into account factors such as service temperature, temperature thickness, thickness steel grade, grade member shape and detail, stress level and strain rate. Unlike BS5950, BS5950 EC3-1-10 EC3 1 10 allows an alternative design for brittle fracture using fracture mechanics in addition to the above. above

Steel Quality Grade JR J0 J2 M,N ML,NL JR J0 J2 M,N ML,NL EC3 (Ed= 0.75 fy) (t) 10 (20)C 55 75 110 135 185 40 60 90 110 155 0C 45 65 95 110 160 35 50 75 90 130 EC3 (Ed = 0.5 fy) (t) 10 (20)C 80 115 155 180 200 65 95 135 155 200 0C 70 95 130 155 200 55 80 110 135 180 BS5950 (Ed )> 0.3 fy) (t) 20C 71 103 148 178 250 50 72 104 124 179 0C 50 71 103 124 178 35 50 72 86 124

S275

S355

Notes: (1) The units for the thickness values are mm. (2) Th The hi highest h t reference f t temperature t th that t EC3 allowed ll d is i 100C. C (3) This comparison is done under generally welded and high stress condition

Load partial factors for ultimate limit state for various load combinations are given in Table 2 of BS5950. Fundamental combination of actions can be determined from Eqns. 6.10, 6.10a or 6.10b of EN1990.

j 1

i >1

Action due to Leading variable prestressing action Non-leading variable actions

(6.10)

Permanent actions

From SS NA of EN1990 0 = 0.5 for the wind load; 0 = 0.7 for the imposed load; G = 1.35 for unfavorable permanent action; Q = 1.50 1 50 f for l leading di or non-leading l di variable i bl action ti .

Combination of Actions

Combination Dead & imposed Dead & wind Dead, imposed & wind Design Action BS5950 1.4Gk + 1.6Qk 1.4Gk + 1.4Wk 1.2Gk + 1.2Qk+ 1.2Wk EN1990 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk 1.35Gk + 1.5Wk 1.35Gk + 1.05Qk+ 1.50Wk or 1.35Gk + 1.50Qk+ 0.75Wk

Gk = permanent action; Qk = imposed variable action; Wk = wind variable action Example: Gk = 20 kN; Qk = 10 kN; Wk = 8 kN Combination Dead & imposed Dead, imposed & wind Design Action BS5950 44.0 kN 45.6 kN EN1990 42.0 kN 49.5 kN or 48.0 kN

Imperfections must always be accounted for in analysis: Global imperfections for frames and bracing systems, such as global initial sway imperfections =0hm in EC3 Local imperfections p for members The effects of local imperfections in members are generally incorporated within the formulae given for buckling resistance for members.

BS5950 uses the notional horizontal force (NHF) concept to allow ll for f frame f imperfection i f ti such h as l lack k of ff frame verticality ti lit

F3

F3

F3

F2

F2

=

F2

F1

F1

F1

1 in i 200 = 0.5% 0 %

EC3 uses the same concept but called it equivalent horizontal force (EHF) to allow for initial sway imperfection (lack of verticality) in frame

Combination of Actions

Combination Dead & imposed D d & wind Dead i d Dead, imposed & wind Design Action BS5950

1.4Gk + 1.6Qk + NHF 1 4Gk + 1.4 1.4 1 4Wk* (no ( NHF) 1.2Gk + 1.2Qk+ 1.2Wk* (no NHF)

EC3

1.35Gk + 1.5Qk + EHF 1 35Gk + 1.5 1.35 1 5Wk + EHF 1.35Gk + 1.05Qk+ 1.50Wk + EHF or 1.35Gk + 1.50Qk+ 0.75Wk+ EHF

In BS5950, minimum Wk is 1% of factored dead load; this is to provide a minimum level of robustness but why no NHF when the wind is blowing?

First-order analysis: Equilibrium equations are written in terms of the geometry of the undeformed structure, geometrical non-linearity not considered y : Equilibrium q equations q are Second-order analysis written in terms of the geometry of the deformed structure, g geometrical non-linearity y considered Elastic analysis: Material properties is assumed to be (and often linear) ) elastic ( Inelastic analysis: Inelastic material properties included in the analysis

First-order, second-order, elastic and inelastic analyses

First order elastic anal analysis sis: excluded e cl ded all nonlinearit nonlinearity, represents conditions under normal service loads very well Second order elastic analysis: Effects of finite deformation considered. It produces good representation of destabilizing influences such as the PP effects First order inelastic analysis: Geometrical nonlinearity ignore but inelastic regions allowed to be form gradually or abruptly (e.g. onset of plastic hinge) Second order inelastic analysis: Both geometrical and material nonlinearity are considered. Enable you to trace the behavior of the structure up to ultimate state and failure

Level of Non-Linearity y

Ref: Figure 8.1 8 1 of Matrix Structural Analysis, Analysis 2nd Edition, Edition William McGuire McGuire, Richard H H. Gallagher and Ronald D D. Ziemian Ziemian, John Wiley & Sons, 2000

BS5950 First-order elastic analysis (initial geometry and influence of deformation ) not considered) First-order plastic analysis (small axial forces & no instability effects) Second-order elastic analysis (can use simplified methods such as amplified moment or sway effective length methods for sway sensitive frames where 4 < cr < 10) Other advanced analyses (generally not covered) EC3 First-order analysis Elastic global analysis Plastic global analysis Using first-order analysis, if: cr 10 for elastic analysis cr 15 for plastic analysis cr = Fcr/Fed, Fcr is the elastic critical g load buckling Second-order analysis (influence of geometrical deformation taken into account) Allowed more advanced analyses

The frame P-big effect is allowed for in BS5950 using either one of the following 2 methods: Amplified sway method - the sway moments are multiplied by an amplification factor factor, or Effective length method - the actual sway effective lengths from the charts in Annex E are used. The column P-small effect is allowed for in BS5950 indirectly through the use of the cross cross-product product terms in more exact method method. Note: Although EC3 also allows amplified sway moment or effective length approach, less guidance is given. Unlike BS5950 which facilitates hand calculations, EC3 focuses on global second-order analysis by computer using geometric stiffness matrix approach approach. .

Simplified method:

Amplified the sway moments

FC m x M x m y M y + + 1 py Z y py Z x PC

In-plane buckling

Exact method:

Moments about minor axis only:

Fc m y M y + M cy Pcy 1 + Fc 1 P cy

In-plane buckling

Fc mLT M LT m y M y + + 1 Pcy Mb pyZ y

Lateral-torsional buckling

m yx M y Fc + 0.5 1 Pcx M cy

Out-of-plane buckling

Fc m x M x + Pcx M cx Fc + 1 0 . 5 Pcx 1

In-plane buckling

m M Fc + 0.5 LT LT 1 Pcy Mb

Out-of-plane buckling

BS5950 Rigorous method: Mb = PbSx for class 1 & 2 Mb = PbZx Mb = PbSx,eff for class 3 Mb = PbZx,eff for class 4 For non-uniform moment or unequal end d moment: t Mx Mb/mLT and Mx Mcx where Pb determined by LT = u v (w)0.5LE/ry EC3 General method:

M b ,Rd = LT Wy

LT = 1 LT + 2 LT

2 LT

fy M1

but

LT

1,0 10

LT = Wy f y M cr

2 LT = 0,51 + LT LT 0,2 + LT

where LT is imperfection factor depending on which buckling curves (Figure 6.4 of EC3)

BS5950 Pc = pcAg Pc = pcsAeff for class 1, 2 & 3 for class 4 EC3

N b , Rd =

N b ,Rd =

Af y M1

A eff f y M1

where the compressive strength pc is is the reduction factor for the relevant based on the strut curve, slenderness buckling mode 1 & design strength py = = L/r r = (I/A)0.5

+ 2

2

but 1,0

2 = 0,51 + 0,2 +

Aeff f y N cr

EC3 offers no formulae and gives no guidance on how to calculate

Ncr and Mcr.

Reference to other Published Documents (PD) is required required.

N cr =

2 EI

Lcr

2

M cr = C1

EI z I w

2

Lcr

L GI T I + EI z Z

2 cr 2

0.5

where h Lcr is i the h effective ff i l length h and d C1 is i the h correction i f factor f for non-uniform and unequal end moments. Unlike BS5950, EC3 does not provides any tables for effective length factors and equivalent uniform moment factors.

BS5950-1 requires two independent checks for web bearing and buckling. However, EC3 presents a single check to deal with these two failure modes for the web subjected to a transverse force. However, unlike BS5950, EC3 does not take unrestrained flange g into account ( (flange g free to sway y or rotate). )

BS5950 W b bearing Web b i : Pbw = (b1 + nk k) tp t yw Web buckling: for unstiffened web & c> 0.7d EC3 Resistance R i t of f web b against i t transverse force in which their compression flange is adequately restrained in the lateral direction:

Px =

25t

(b1 + nk k )d

Pbw

25t

FRd =

Pbw

f yw Leff t w

M1

Px =

e + 0.7d

1.4d

(b1 + nk )d

where Leff ff is the effective length for resistance against transverse force:

Leff ff = f l y

3 tw Fcr = 0.9k F E hw

F =

0 .5

1 .0

0.7d Pxr = Px LE

F =

l y t w f yw Fcr

EC3 has no equations to calculate stiff bearing length except saying the length of stiff bearing on the flange should be taken as the distance over which the applied load is effectively distributed at a slope of 1:1, and Ss should not be larger than hw. (EC3-1-5, clause 6.3.1)

BS5950-1

EC3-1-5

BS 5950-1

Web with depth-to-thickness ratio d/t > 62 is susceptible to shear buckling. Shear buckling resistance Vb of the thin web is taken as the simple shear buckling resistance Vw given by: Vb = Vw = d t qw where d t qw is the depth of the web; is the web thickness is the shear buckling strength of the web

EC3-1-5

should be checked for Web with hw/t greater than resistance to shear buckling. 72

The design resistance for shear buckling is taken as: fyw hw t Vb,Rd = Vbw ,Rd + Vbf ,Rd (5.1) 3M1 in which the contribution from the web and flanges are:

Vbw ,Rd =

Vbf ,Rd =

w fyw hw t 3 M1

bf tf2fyf c M1 M 2 1 Ed M f , Rd

(5.2) (5.3)

Stiffener spacing ratio, a/d (a/hw) = 1, fy = 275 N/mm2

180

0.6275=165

EC3 rigid end post TFA qw (BS5950-2000)TFA EC3 non-rigid end post TFA qcr (BS5950-1990) No TFA 71 61 55.7 28

200 250 300

shear buckling of thin web is allow to occur under the applied shear forces

Tension e s o Field e d Action c o ( (TFA) )

when elastic critical shear buckling resistance is exceeded

Tension field action is mobilized in both BS5950 and EC3 to realize much higher g shear buckling g resistance of the thin web

Hollow section joints can be very flexible because they are unstiffened! Designing unstiffened welded hollow section joints is a skilled task and must be done at member design stage.

Mode E: Overall shear failure of the chord Mode F: Local buckling of the chord walls

Verification

Topic Material D tilit Ductility Toughness BS5950 EC3

M b b Member buckling kli (b (beam & column) l ) Web bearing & buckling Shear buckling & Plate girder Hollow section j joints

BS5950-1 BS5950 1 was last amended in 2008; it will still be adequate and safe for use in the short term. Migrating to EC3 is definite in the long term term. EC3 is more comprehensive but its terminology, symbols b l and d values l are very diff different t and d multiple lti l documents are needed. Re-training is absolutely necessary in view of time g of change g involving g many y frame and magnitude design codes and documents. on the run run . Engineers will have to learn on

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