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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

About 150 years back, Euler [1] made some analytical studies on the static stability behaviour of isotropic and homogeneous columns. Many did not appreciate it, as the sizes of the structural components were basically proportioned based on strength criteria. The strength of materials available during that time was quite less and hence the sizes used to be quite high, as can be seen in many ancient structures. As the sizes were quite large, stability was not a problem of those days. But with the developments in the materials science and technology, the strengths of materials have increased exponentially and the structural components started becoming slender and therefore technologists started giving importance towards the stability criteria. The theory of dynamic instability has gained importance with the development of aircraft technology. The aircraft is prone to a wide variety of aeroelastic and aerodynamics forces. In the early days of analysis, the aircraft was modelled as an assembly of beams and columns. In 1952, the flutter instability behaviour of an isotropic and homogeneous cantilever column subjected to a static tip follower force was studied by Beck [1] and later the column was named as Becks column. He has proved that the columns subjected to certain type of static external loads can cause violent vibrations resulting in dynamic instability. Therefore it is necessary, now to classify the system of forces considering the instability aspect of the structures. That is the forces, which cause instability, are classified as (i) nonfollower force and (ii) follower force. Non-follower forces are those forces, which do not depend on the configuration of the structural system at any given instant of time. These forces cause the structure to loose stability by buckling or divergence (eg. Eulers column). However upon the action of configuration dependent follower forces, the structure may loose stability either by divergence or by flutter [1] (eg. Becks column). So far, the attention of researchers was mainly on column-like isotropic structures with prismatic cross-sections subjected to either follower or nonfollower forces. Prof. David Roy lance of MIT (USA) [2] has given in detail the various aspects of the formulation of a variety of instability problems. A dynamic stability analysis has gained much importance after this study. Owing to its importance in many and diverse fields of technology and engineering, the elastic stability of non-conservatively loaded structures has been the subject of a large

Department of Civil Engineering, PDA College of Engineering, Gulbarga 14

Flutter Analysis of Winged Cantilever Pipe conveying Newtonian Fluids Literature Review

number of investigations, beginning with Becks classical paper. The physical origins of non-conservative forces have been discussed by Herrmann [3], where various experimental studies of the subject were also reported. Literature review covering the periods before 1967 and 1975 is given by Bolotin and Sugiyama respectively [4,5]. Recent books by Huseyin [6] and Leipholz [7] provide up-to-date treatment of the elastic stability of non-conservative systems. Instability is said to occur when a small initial perturbation given to a structure can grow with time. In the context of linear instability analysis, it is sufficient to consider only the perturbations which are harmonic in time, since any dynamic disturbance can be decomposed into a series of harmonic functions (modes) through the Fourier expansion. The governing differential equation for the perturbation and the associated boundary conditions make all the nodes trivial except those with frequencies that satisfy the characteristic equation. These frequencies are called characteristic frequencies and instability can be equivalently defined as the existence of a pair of purely imaginary or truly complex (nonzero real part) conjugate characteristic frequencies. For conservative systems, the frequencies can only be either real or purely imaginary; therefore, the lowest frequency has to pass through the value of zero as the equilibrium changes from stable to unstable. When the frequency is zero, the governing differential equations and the boundary conditions reduces to those for the classical adjacent equilibrium analysis. This argument is exactly the justification of the adjacent equilibrium theory (also called the Euler method), which states that an equilibrium state is unstable if there is another possible equilibrium configuration in an indefinitely small neighbourhood of the one under consideration. For conservative system, the energy method has also been used to determine the instability point. It has been shown by Pearson [8] that these two methods are completely equivalent. The phenomenon can be characterised as divergence instability or a static bifurcation of the equilibrium state. For non-conservative systems, the frequencies can be either real or complex. Therefore, when instability occurs, the lowest frequency can pass through the origin, as for the conservative systems, or two frequencies can approach each other, coincide, and then become complex conjugate. The latter situation is defined as flutter instability, and the load at which the two frequencies coincide is defined as the flutter load. If the flutter load is exceeded, then the perturbation will grow exponentially with time. The situation where one frequency passes through zero is similar to the one for

Department of Civil Engineering, PDA College of Engineering, Gulbarga 15

Flutter Analysis of Winged Cantilever Pipe conveying Newtonian Fluids Literature Review

conservative systems, and the adjacent equilibrium method can still be used, even though the problem is non-conservative. This observation has been pointed out by Herrmann and Bungay [9] as follows: The breakdown of the Euler method is not a necessary consequence of non-conservativeness of the loading, a situation also noticed by Kounadis [10]. Leipholz [11], Walker [12,13], Inman [14], and Inman and Olsen [15] have established the condition for a non-conservative system to have only the divergence instability. This subclass of non-conservative systems, which was defined as conservative systems of the second kind by Leipholz, can still be analysed by the adjacent equilibrium method. The importance of the static and dynamic instability problems has been highlighted in works mentioned above. The fundamental works were mainly on isotropic and homogeneous materials. However, the present day trend is to use either of the materials to achieve high strength to weight ratio. These materials are generally, isotropic. Many research studies have been carried out on the vibration of a pipe conveying fluid. Amabili, Pellicano, and Paidoussis [57] investigated the non-linear dynamic instability of simply supported, circular/cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Manabe, Tosaka, and Honma [58] discussed the dynamic stability of a flow conveying pipe with two lumped masses by using domain decomposition boundary element method. Amabili, Pellicano, and Paidoussis [59] investigated the response of a shell conveying fluid to harmonic excitation, in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies for different flow velocities. Yih-Hwang and Chih-Liang [60] studied the vibration control of Timoshenko pipes conveying fluid. Excessive vibration in this flow induced vibration problem was suppressed via an active feedback control scheme. Nawaf M. Bou-Rabee [61] examined the stability of a tubular cantilever conveying fluid in a multiparameter space based on non-linear beam theory. Lee and Chung [62] presented a new non-linear model of a straight pipe conveying fluid for vibration analysis when the pipe is fixed at both ends. Using the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the nonlinear Lagrange strain theory, from the extended Hamiltons principle the coupled non-linear equations of motion for the longitudinal and transverse displacements are derived. These equations of motion are discretized by using the Galerkin method. Reddy and Wang [63] derived equations of motion governing the deformation of fluid-conveying beams using the kinematic assumptions of the (a) Euler- Bernoulli

Department of Civil Engineering, PDA College of Engineering, Gulbarga 16

Flutter Analysis of Winged Cantilever Pipe conveying Newtonian Fluids Literature Review

and (b) Timoshenko beam theories. The formulation accounts for geometric nonlinearity in the Von Karman sense and contributions of fluid velocity to the kinetic energy as well as to the body forces. Finite element models of the resulting non-linear equations of motion were also presented. Kuiper and Metrikine [64] proved analytically the stability of a clamped-pinned pipe conveying fluid at a low speed. A tensioned Euler-Bernoulli beam in combination with a plug flow model was used as a model. The stability was studied employing a D-decomposition method. Langre and Paidoussis [65] considered the stability of a thin flexible cylinder considered as a beam, when subjected to axial flow and fixed at the upstream end only. 2.1 Flutter Instability of Components Sufficient literature is available on the static stability and vibration behaviour of layered composites. However, the literature pertaining to the flutter instability behaviour is limited. Recently, attention has been devoted to the stability of structures subjected to the combined action of both non-conservative and conservative forces [3, 9, 16-20]. Such a system can exhibit both flutter and divergence instability, depending on the relative magnitudes of the tangential and axial components of the forces action on the system. These investigations revealed many interesting features of non-conservative stability problems involving the transition of the system from divergence to flutter and suggested possible ways of stabilising a structure by the application of compressive or tensile follower forces. The papers [3, 9, 16-24] exclusively dealt with one-dimensional problems, among which special attention was devoted to the continuous case, i.e. that comprising beams, columns, and circular plates [3, 9, 16-24]. In fact, studies on the flutter instability of two-dimensional undamped structures have been rather scarce. Petterson [25] and Farshad [26] studied the stability of plates under sub-tangential follower loads. Leipholz [27-29] studied a simply supported plate under a distributed tangential load, and a plate simply supported on three sides and free on the fourth, where a tangential edge load acts. In these two cases, the plates lose their stability only by divergence. Flutter instability was observed for clamped-free plates with two opposite edges simply supported and under follower force acting at the free edge [30]. Using Liapunovs second method, Leipholz [31-33] investigated the asymptotic stability of damped plates.

Department of Civil Engineering, PDA College of Engineering, Gulbarga 17

Flutter Analysis of Winged Cantilever Pipe conveying Newtonian Fluids Literature Review

Apart from the structural aspects, the column-like structures are expected to perform many other functions. For instance, a pipe can act as column or beam component in a structure apart from functioning as a conduit to convey fluid. The structural systems in which the fluids are conveyed are categorised as self excited damped systems. Dynamics of a system of articulated pipes conveying fluid was first studied by Benjamin theoretically [34] and experimentally [35]. Flutter of cantilever continuous pipes conveying fluid was investigated by Gregory and Paidoussis theoretically [36] and experimentally [37]. So far a significant amount of literature has been published on the dynamic stability of continuous pipes conveying fluid (for example, see Ref. [38] by Sallstrom). A complete survey of the topics has been compiled in book form by Paidoussis [39]. Paidoussis [40] has examined the flutter behaviour of pipes with additional mass at the tip of the pipe. Essentially, the problems encountered in the stability analysis of pipes are complex eigenvalue problems. Though the system is continuous many a times it is difficult to solve the problem by classical approach. Thus the structure is to be discretised into number of elements, which results into a set of simultaneous partial, homogeneous governing differential equations of motion. The extraction of eigenvalues is tedious exercise. An attempt has been made to identify the critical flutter behaviour of pipes using the eigenvalue branches by Ryu et al [41]. Fernandez et al [42] have studied the linear stability behaviour of fluid-structure interaction with transpiration. A semi analytical approach to obtain the proper orthogonal modes is described for the non-linear oscillation of an isotropic circular cantilevered pipe conveying fluid by Sarkar et al [43]. Some interesting studies have been carried out by researchers on isotropic circular pipes conveying ideal fluid [44 49]. The literature review reveals that the material of the pipe considered in the earlier investigations were mainly elastic in nature. However with the introduction of polymers in the manufacture of pipes, the material is no longer elastic. Hence the effect of visco-elasticity on the stability behaviour of pipes is to be accounted for. Further, it is often a necessary criterion in the design to alter the stability characteristics of the pipe depending on the nature of the fluid being conveyed.

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