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T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II

Page 1




Cable Splicing - Part 1


Edition II





Copyright MMVII

T&D PowerSkills, LLC
5501-A John Eskew Blvd.
Alexandria, LA 71303
866-880-1380

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof
must not be reproduced in any form without the
written permission of T&D PowerSkills, LLC.

Printed in the United States of America





T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 2

T&D PowerSkills
General Guidelines for Students


This training unit is composed of a DVD and associated Student Manual. The DVD contains one
Course. The course is divided into Lessons, where each Lesson consists of a number of Topics.
The number of Lessons and Topics will vary with each course.



Recommended Sequence of Instruction

1. After the instructors introductory remarks, read the segment objectives found in the block at
the beginning of the first segment.
2. Briefly discuss the segment objectives with the instructor and other class members.
3. View the first segment of the DVD.
4. Read the text segment that corresponds to the first segment of the DVD.
5. Answer the questions at the end of the text segment. Check your answers with the correct
answers provided by the instructor.
6. Participate in a class discussion of the material just covered. Ask any questions you might
have concerning the material in the DVD and the text, and note any additional information
given by the instructor.
7. Before proceeding, be sure you understand the concepts presented in this segment.
8. Work through all segments in this manner.
9. A Course Test covering all the material will be administered by the instructor upon
completion of the unit.
10. Additional instruction and testing may be provided, at the instructors discretion.


OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot


OSHA Regulations, primarily in 1926.955, 1910.269 and 1910.268 will be used in conjunction
with this training unit. Where applicable, regulations will be highlighted and placed in a box like
this. Instructors and students are expected to review the current OSHA Regulations to
familiarize the student with the safety requirements expected by USDOL OSHA, specifically as
they relate to the topic being discussed. This information is an important part of this training
unit.


This T&D PowerSkills workbook is designed to be
used in conjunction with the associated training DVD/video.

T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 3



Field Performance Field Performance Field Performance Field Performance Requirements Requirements Requirements Requirements (FPR)



NAME: _____________________________ #___________

Complete

Incomplete
SECTION: Underground Residential Distribution

UNIT(S): Cable Splicing Part 1
VG = Very Good
ACC = Acceptable
NI = Needs Improvement
NA = Not Able to Complete
on this Crew

REQUIREMENTS SUPERVISOR SIGN-OFF
VG ACC NI NA
SEGMENT 1 TYPES OF ELECTRICAL URD CABLE


1.1 Can identify the major parts of a primary cable .



SEGMENT 2 VOLTAGE STRESS AND STRESS RELIEF


2.1 Can explain what voltage stress is


2.2 Can explain how a layered cable design helps to counteract the
effects of voltage stress .


2.3 Can explain how a layered cable design helps to provide for the
relief of static charges



SEGMENT 3 CABLE PREPARATION


3.1 Can demonstrate one method of preparing primary cable for a tape
splice .


3.2 Can identify equipment and how it can be used to prepare primary
cable for a tape splice .





___________________________ ___________________________

_______________
Employees Signature Supervisors Signature

Date
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 4

Performance Notes: ____________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________















1910.269(a)(2)(vii) as of July, 2006:

The employer shall certify that each employee has received the training required by paragraph
(a)(2) of this section. This certification shall be made when the employee demonstrates
proficiency in the work practices involved and shall be maintained for the duration of the
employees employment.

Note: Employment records that indicate that an employee has received the required training are
an acceptable means of meeting this requirement.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 5


TABLE OF COTETS
Section Title Page

1.1 Electrical Cable


6
1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief 12

1.2.1 Voltage Stress 12

1.2.2 Stress Relief 16

1.2.3 Other Cable Design Considerations


16
1.3 Cable Preparation 18

1.3.1 General Considerations 18

1.3.2 Preparation for a Tape Splice 19


OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot
1910.269 (c) Job Briefing (as of ovember, 2006)
The employer shall ensure that the employee in charge conducts a job briefing with employees involved
before they start each job. The briefing shall cover at least the following subjects: hazards associated
with the job, work procedures involved, special precautions, energy source controls, and personal
protective equipment requirements.
1. umber of briefings. If the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive and
similar, at least one job briefing shall be conducted before the start of the first job of each day or shift.
Additional job briefings shall be held if significant changes, which might affect the safety of the employees,
occur during the course of the work.
2. Extent of briefing. A brief discussion is satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employee, by
virtue of training and experience, can reasonably be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the
job. A more extensive discussion shall be conducted:
(i) if the work is complicated or particularly hazardous, or
(ii) if the employee cannot be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.

T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 6

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIOS
Figure Title Page

1.1-1. Stranded Aluminum Conductor 6

1.1-2. Secondary Cable Insulation 7

1.1-3. Primary Cable Layers 8

1.1-4. Primary Cable Without a Jacket


10
1.2-1. Voltage Stress Lines 13

1.2-2. Conductor Shield Layer and Stress Lines 14

1.2-3. Insulation Shield Layer and Evenly Distributed Stress Lines 15

1.2-4. Concentric Wire Shielding


16
1.3-1. Cable Ends Overlapped 19

1.3-2. Workman Measuring from Center Line 20

1.3-3. Concentric Wires Twisted Out of the Way 21

1.3-4. Workman Making Final Cable Cut with a Cable Cutter 22

1.3-5. Removing the Insulation Shield Layer 23

1.3-6. Nylon String Used to Help Remove Primary Insulation
and Conductor Shield Layers
24

1.3-7. Tapering Primary Insulation 25

T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1


Cable splicing is the process of joining two cable ends together while maintaining the cables
original design characteristics. Properly made splices are essential in keeping T&D systems
reliable. This training unit focuses on several aspects of cable splicing, including cable design
and cable splicing procedures and techniques.

1.1 Electrical Cable



OBJECTIVE:

Identify the major parts of a primary cable.




In simple terms, a cable is a conductor that is enclosed in a layer of insulation. A conductor is a
material that provides an easy path for the flow of electrical current. For example, the conductors
shown in Figure 1.1-1 are stranded aluminum wire. Conductors are commonly made of
aluminum or copper. The insulation around a conductor is a material that strongly resists the flow
of electrical current.


Figure 1.1-1. Stranded Aluminum Conductor



A Conductor-Stranded Aluminum B Filled Strand-Semiconducting Material
C Strand Screen-Extruded Semiconducting EPR D Insulation-Okoguard
E Insulation Screen-Extruded Semiconducting EPR F Concentric Conductor-Bare Copper Wires
G Encapsulating Jacket-Okolene with Extruded ID Stripes
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.1 Electrical Cable (continued)


Insulation thickness is an important part of cable design. Normally, there is a relationship
between the amount of voltage a cable can handle and the amount of insulation necessary to
safely contain that voltage. With secondary cable (Figure 1.1-2), this relationship can generally
be maintained by applying a standard insulation thickness that is sufficient to handle the entire
range of secondary voltages.


Figure 1.1-2. Secondary Cable Insulation



T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.1 Electrical Cable (continued)


The relationship between voltage and insulation thickness cannot be as easily maintained at
higher distribution voltages. For primary distribution voltages, the amount of insulation required
would make the cables too thick and bulky. To overcome this problem, different layers are added
to primary cables to improve the efficiency of the cables insulation. The primary cable layers
illustrated in Figure 1.1-3 are typical of the additional layers that can be found on primary cable.
Figure 1.1-3 shows a conductor shield, primary insulation, an insulation shield, a metallic shield,
and a jacket. Primary cable generally has some or all of these layers.


Figure 1.1-3. Primary Cable Layers



T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.1 Electrical Cable (continued)


The conductor represented in Figure 1.1-3 is a stranded copper wire. A conductor may be either
stranded or solid. Stranded conductors are commonly used because of their flexibility. Solid
conductors are rarely used in URD applications.

Directly over the conductor is the conductor shield. The conductor shield is a layer of
semiconductive material that encloses the conductor and helps to give it a uniformly round shape.
Semiconductive material is material with properties that fall somewhere between those of a true
conductor and those of an insulator. Semiconductive materials are commonly used in the form of
conductive tapes, paints, and rubber or graphite compounds.

The primary insulation surrounds the conductor shield. The high insulating properties of the
primary insulation help to keep the energized conductor isolated from ground and from other
conductors. The most common types of primary insulation for URD applications are cross-linked
polyethylene (XLP) and ethyl-propylene rubber (EPR).

The insulation shield surrounds the primary insulation. The insulation shield is made of a
semiconductive material similar to that used for the conductor shield.

The metallic shield layer is a layer of conducting material that surrounds the insulation shield.
The metallic shield is usually made of copper or aluminum, in the form of either concentric wires
or metallic taped ribbon.

The cable jacket, or sheath, is the outermost layer in Figure 1.1-3. Its main purpose is to protect
the cable from the environment. The cable jacket is usually made of a non-conductive material
such as plastic or rubber.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.1 Electrical Cable (continued)


Primary cable is manufactured in a number of designs, using some or all of the layers shown in
Figure 1.1-3. The designs used vary from company to company, depending on system
requirements and company policies. For example, some companies use primary cable that does
not have a jacket. An example of this type of cable is shown in Figure 1.1-4.


Figure 1.1-4. Primary Cable Without a Jacket


Unshielded Primary
Conductor Cable
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.1 Electrical Cable (continued)


Questions

1.1-1. True or False. A cable may be defined as a conductor enclosed in insulation.


1.1-2. Conductors are generally made of either (a) _______________ or (b)
_______________.


1.1-3. Stranded conductors are used more frequently than _______________ conductors
because they are more flexible.


1.1-4. True or False. The type of insulation known as EPR is also known as cross- linked
polyethylene.


1.1-5. Identify the indicated layers of the cable shown below.
a. ______________________________
b. ______________________________
c. ______________________________
d. ______________________________
e. ______________________________
f. ______________________________


T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 13

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1 (continued)

1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief

URD cables are designed with different layers of insulation as a means of offsetting the effects of
normal operation. Two of these effects are voltage stress and the buildup of static charges.



OBJECTIVES:

Explain what voltage stress is.
Explain how a layered cable design helps to counteract the effects
of voltage stress.
Explain how a layered cable design helps to provide for the relief
of static charges.




1.2.1 Voltage Stress

Voltage stress is stress on a cable's insulation caused by the application of voltage to the
conductor. If the voltage on the conductor is higher than the insulating property of the insulation,
the insulation may become overstressed, which can result in insulation failure. If insulation fails,
the cable cannot isolate the voltage applied to it, and repair or replacement may be required.

OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot
1910.269p (a) (2) (as of ovember, 2006):
Training.

(i) Employees shall be trained in and familiar with the safety-related work practices, safety
procedures, and other safety requirements in this section that pertain to their respective job
assignments. Employees shall also be trained in and familiar with any other safety practices,
including applicable emergency procedures (such as pole top and manhole rescue), that are
not specifically addressed by this section but that are related to their work and are necessary
for their safety. (ii) Qualified employees shall also be trained and competent in: (A) The
skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric
equipment, (B) The skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of
exposed live parts, (C) The minimum approach distances specified in this section
corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified employee will be exposed, and (D) The
proper use of special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and
shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized parts of
electric equipment. ote: For the purposes of this section, a person must have this training in
order to be considered a qualified person.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 14


CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief (continued)


Figure 1.2-1 illustrates a single cable with a stranded conductor. When voltage is applied, the
cables insulation is stressed, as indicated by the lines radiating outward from the conductor. The
stress lines radiate almost straight down at the bottom of the cable, and they bend downward
towards ground near the top of the cable. Because the conductor is stranded, its shape is not
uniform, and there are high and low points from which the lines radiate. Normally, voltage stress
concentrates in areas such as the high points, where insulation is not as thick.


Figure 1.2-1. Voltage Stress Lines





Notes: _______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 15

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief (continued)


A layered cable design helps reduce the effects of voltage stress on a cable's insulation. For
example, as illustrated in Figure 1.2-2, a conductor shield layer provides a uniform thickness of
insulation around the conductor. This layer of semiconductive material helps reduce areas of
stress concentration, but it does not eliminate voltage stress. As indicated in Figure 1.2-2, the
stress lines are now concentrated toward the bottom of the conductor, in the area of insulation
that is closest to ground.


Figure 1.2-2. Conductor Shield Layer and Stress Lines



T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief (continued)


To deal with the problem of stress concentration in the area of insulation near the bottom of the
conductor, a semiconductive insulation shield layer (Figure 1.2-3) is added over the primary
insulation to provide a uniform ground around the primary insulation. This uniform ground
evenly distributes the lines of stress through the primary insulation.


Figure 1.2-3. Insulation Shield Layer and Evenly Distributed Stress Lines





1.2.2 Stress Relief


When a conductor is energized, a small amount of leakage current flows through the cable
insulation. This leakage current can cause the buildup of a static charge on the semiconductive
insulation shield layer.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 17

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief (continued)


To provide for the relief of static charge buildup, a metallic shield layer, sometimes in the form
of concentric wire shielding (Figure 1.2-4), is added. The metallic shield layer is grounded, and is
in direct contact with the semiconductive insulation shield layer beneath it. Leakage current is
dissipated through the metallic shield to ground before any serious static charge buildup can
occur.


Figure 1.2-4. Concentric Wire Shielding




1.2.3 Other Cable Design Considerations


In addition to reducing voltage stress concentration and relieving static charge buildup, cables are
designed to deal with other factors. For example, the semiconductive and metallic shield layers
help keep the electrical field of the conductor within the limits of the cable.

If grounded properly, the cable's design helps to reduce the shock hazard to personnel who may
come into contact with the cable. In addition, the design keeps the conductor from getting any
electrostatically induced voltage from other electrical cables or from other energized sources in
the area.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 18

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.2 Voltage Stress and Stress Relief (continued)


Questions

1.2-1. Circle the correct answer.
Voltage stress
a. Is stress on a cable's insulation caused by the application of voltage to the
conductor
b. If strong enough, can result in insulation failure
c. Is a consideration in cable design
d. All of the above


1.2-2. A cable's semiconductive insulation shield layer helps to reduce areas of
_________________________________________


1.2-3 When a conductor is energized, a small amount of leakage current is produced,
causing a ________________ charge buildup on the cable's semiconductive
insulation shield layer.


1.2-4. True or False. The problem of static charge buildup can be dealt with by adding a
metallic shield layer directly over the semiconductive insulation shield layer and
then grounding the metallic shield layer.


1.2-5. Circle the correct answer.
A primary cable's design works to
a. Keep the conductor's electrical field within the limits of the cable
b. Help reduce the shock hazard to personnel who may contact the cable
c. Keep the cable from being affected by electrostatically induced voltages from
other cables or energized sources in the area
d. All of the above


Notes: _______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 19


CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1 (continued)


1.3 Cable Preparation


Cable splicing is the process of joining two cable ends together, while maintaining the cable's
original design characteristics. Cable splicing is done routinely when damaged cable is repaired
or existing cable is extended. Cable splicing can be accomplished in a number of different ways.
Regardless of the specific method that is used, however, an important first step is preparing the
cable for splicing.



OBJECTIVES:

Describe one method of preparing primary cable for a tape splice.
Identify equipment that can be used to prepare primary cable for a tape splice.




1.3.1 General Considerations


Primary cable is prepared for splicing by removing the individual cable layers, one at a time. As
each layer is removed, care must be taken to avoid nicking or damaging the layers below it.
Damage to one of the layers can weaken it, thus defeating the purpose of the splice. Care must
also be taken to keep the splice area clean. Dirt and other contaminants can create a conductive
path, which can make the splice weak or ineffective.

The way that a cable is prepared for a splice depends on several factors, including the cable
design, the type of insulation, and the type of splice to be made. To ensure that the cable is
prepared correctly for a particular splice, a specific set of directions for that splice should be
followed.

The example that follows is based on a typical set of directions for preparing a single-conductor
primary cable for a tape splice. It is assumed that the cable has been properly de-energized,
grounded, and tested for dead.

T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 20

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)


1.3.2 Preparation for a Tape Splice

The first step in preparing for the splice is "training," or moving, the cable into its final position
at the job site. One reason that training is done is to provide additional space in the work area. In
a vault, for example, additional space may be obtained by training cables along a wall rather than
allowing them to hang free. Training is also done to increase cable slack, and thus to reduce
mechanical strain. Most cable splices are not designed to support a mechanical strain. Finally,
training helps to keep the cable from being moved after it is cut. If the cable is moved after it is
cut, the conductor strands can become uneven, which can result in a weak point in the splice.

The next major step in preparing for a splice is cutting the cable ends. Before the cable ends are
cut, the splice area is cleaned with cable cleaner and a clean cloth to remove contaminants such
as dirt, wax, or pulling compounds. The cables to be spliced are then overlapped (Figure 1.3-1),
and a mark is made at the center line of the splice area on each cable. Overlapping the ends is
necessary to provide enough of the concentric wires to be spliced later.


Figure 1.3-1. Cable Ends Overlapped


T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)


The first layer to be cut in this example is the jacket. According to the directions for this splice, a
measurement is taken from the center line (Figure 1.3-2) to indicate where the jacket will be cut.
The jacket is then lightly scored to indicate this point. As this is done, care should be taken not to
damage the concentric wires under the cable jacket.


Figure 1.3-2. Workman Measuring from Center Line


T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)

Next, a single strand of the concentric wire is stripped back to the mark on the jacket. As the wire
is stripped back, it cuts through the jacket. The jacket is then peeled back carefully and removed.
The loose concentric wires are folded back to the cable jacket and twisted together out of the way
(Figure 1.3-3).


Figure 1.3-3. Concentric Wires Twisted Out of the Way



Concentric Wires
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)

Since the jacket has been removed, the original mark that was made on the jacket no longer
exists. Therefore, the next step is to take another measurement for the cable's center line so that
the final cable cut can be made. The cable is then cut on the center line with a cable cutter
(Figure 1.3-4) or a hacksaw.


Figure 1.3-4. Cable Cutter





OSHA Regulations Snap-Shot
1910.138 (as of January, 2007)
Hand protection.

(a) General requirements. Employers shall select and require employees to use appropriate hand protection when
employees' hands are exposed to hazards such as those from skin absorption of harmful substances; severe cuts or
lacerations; severe abrasions; punctures; chemical burns; thermal burns; and harmful temperature extremes.
(b) Selection. Employers shall base the selection of the appropriate hand protection on an evaluation of the
performance characteristics of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present,
duration of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 24


CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)

The remaining preparation steps involve the removal of each of the remaining cable layers.
Precise measurements must be made, and the splice directions must be followed carefully during
these steps. Each cable layer is cut at a specific distance from the cable end. These distances are
given in the splice directions. The workman must be exact in making the measurements to avoid
having to start the splice over or replace the entire length of cable.

The first layer to be removed is the insulation shield. Specially designed tools or a knife may be
used, depending on company procedures. If a knife is used, the insulation shield is scored lightly
at the mark, to a depth of about half of its thickness. The knife is then used to make a similar
score to the end of the cable, creating a weak point in the insulation shield layer. The layer is
removed by pulling and breaking it at the weak point (Figure 1.3-5). During this step, care must
be taken not to score or nick the primary insulation beneath the insulation shield.


Figure 1.3-5. Removing the Insulation Shield Layer



Cables Insulation
Shield Layer
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
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CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)

The next layers to be removed are the primary insulation and conductor shield layers. Several
methods and tools may be used for this step. For example, after the required distance has been
measured, a knife may be used to cut halfway through the primary insulation and then down to
the end. The cut creates a weak point in the insulation. The insulation can then be removed by
pulling and breaking it at the weak point.

With XLP and EPR insulation, a nylon string (Figure 1.3-6) may be used. The string is used to
make a circular cut through both the insulation and the conductor shield layers without damaging
the conductor. A knife is then used to cut down to the end of the cable, and the insulation is
removed.

Figure 1.3-6. ylon String Used to Help Remove Primary Insulation
and Conductor Shield Layers




As an alternative to using a knife or a nylon string, specially designed tools may be used to
remove the primary insulation and conductor shield layers. Regardless of the method used,
however, the conductor shield layer and the insulation layer should both be removed without
damaging the conductor.
Nylon String
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 26

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)

The final step in preparing a cable for splicing is tapering, or penciling, the cable ends. Tapering
is the process of forming a pencil-like slope at the end of a cable's insulation. It accomplishes
two things: (1) it provides for a smooth transition between the primary insulation and the
insulation that will be applied to the splice area, and (2) it helps the insulation applied to the
splice area withstand voltage stress, by ensuring that there are no voids in the insulation.

Tapering can be done with specially designed tools or with a knife. If a knife is used, a protective
layer of tape should be placed over the conductor (Figure 1.3-7) to protect it from being nicked.
The knife is used to cut the primary insulation to the desired slope.


Figure 1.3-7. Tapering Primary Insulation






After both cable ends have been prepared by the steps described in this section, the conductor is
ready to be spliced.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 27

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
1.3 Cable Preparation (continued)

Questions

1.3-1. Cable splicing is the process of joining two cable ends together while maintaining
the cable's original __________________.


1.3-2. True or False. Preparing a cable to be spliced involves removing most of the
individual layers, one at a time.


1.3-3. When a cable is being prepared for splicing, care must be taken not to
__________________ the layer below the one being removed.


1.3-4. A clean splice area is important for cable splicing because dirt and other
contaminants can create a __________________, which can make the splice weak
or ineffective.


1.3-5. To ensure that a particular splice is prepared correctly, a specific set of
__________________ for that splice should be followed.


1.3-6. Circle the correct answer.
Tapering, or penciling, primary insulation
a. Provides for a smooth transition between the primary insulation and the
insulation that will be applied to the splice area
b. Guards against conductor damage
c. Helps the insulation applied to the splice area to withstand voltage stress, by
ensuring that there are no voids in the insulation
d. All of the above
e. Only a and c

Notes: _______________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________________

T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 28


GLOSSARY

This glossary contains terms pertinent to the study of cable splicing. The meanings of the terms
are given in that context.
CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
Glossary

Cold shrink splice - A type of secondary splice in which a rubber tube is shrunk
over a cable connector by pulling a tab extending from the
tube.

Compression connector - A metal connector that is secured by compressing, or crimping.

Concentric wires - A layer of metallic wires used as a system neutral (primary or
secondary cable) or to bleed off excess static charges (primary
cable only).

Conductor - A material that allows the flow of electricity; a metal wire, in
the center of an electrical cable, through which current flows.

Conductor shield - A layer of semiconductive material directly over a cable
conductor; helps to give a stranded conductor a more
uniformly round shape.

Copper shielding tape - Tape applied over the insulation shield layer of some primary
tape splices to provide added stress relief properties.

Dies - Compression tool sizing inserts; allow a hydraulic or
mechanical press to be used with different-sized connectors.

Grounding eye - A connection point for a single concentric wire on a premolded
slip-on primary splice; used to ensure contact between the
concentric wire and insulation shield layers of the splice.

Heat shrink splice - A splice that uses tubes that shrink and adhere to a cable when
they are heated.

Hydraulic press - A compression device that uses hydraulic pressure to crimp a
connector onto a conductor.

Insulation layer - The layer of insulating material directly over a primary cables
conductor shield layer.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 29

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
Glossary (continued)


Insulation shield - A layer of semiconductive shielding placed over primary
cable insulation.

Insulator - A material that is a poor conductor of electricity.

Jacket - The outermost layer of some primary cables; protects the
layers beneath it from the environment.

Leakage current - A small amount of current flow through a cable's primary
insulation layer; produced when a primary cable is
energized.

Mechanical press - A compression device that uses the mechanical advantage of
its handles to crimp a connector onto a conductor.

Metallic shield - Conducting material in direct contact with the insulation
shield; designed to alleviate excessive static charge buildup
and/or act as a system neutral.

"O" rings - The rubber "O"-shaped rings that fit under an insulating
tube to help form a water-tight seal in a rolling ring seal
secondary splice.

Penciling - The process of tapering the ends of cable insulation during
the splice preparation process.

Rolling ring seal splice

- A secondary splice that uses rubber "0" rings and an
insulating tube to form a water-tight seal.

Semiconductor - A material with properties that fall somewhere between
those of a true conductor and those of a true insulator.

Slip-on splice - A primary cable splice that uses a premolded insulating tube
that slips over a compression connector, restoring the
cable's design characteristics.

Splice kit - A ready-made kit containing all or most of the materials
necessary to install a splice.
T&D PowerSkills Lineman Training Edition II
Page 30

CABLE SPLICIG - Part 1
Glossary (continued)


Splicing - The process of joining two cable ends together while
maintaining the cable's original design characteristics.

Split bolt - A mechanical connector consisting of a slotted, threaded
nut and bolt arrangement into which two conductor ends
are inserted.

Stress control putty - A substance applied with a heat shrink splice to help
provide voltage stress handling properties.

Tape splice - A type of primary cable splice that uses layers of rubber,
plastic, semiconductive, and conductive tapes to replace
original cable layers.

Training - Adjusting or moving a cable to make a work area more
accessible; done to reduce mechanical strain on a splice
area and to reduce conductor movement.

Voltage stress - Stress on a cable's insulation caused by the application of
voltage.


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