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Kristin Coggin Group 1 Type 1 Diabetes is associated with Vitamin D and Zinc Type 1 Diabetes is the destruction of Pancreatic

Beta Cells which leads to a lack of insulin production. It is usually the result of a cell mediated autoimmune attack on the Beta cells, environmental factors, and genetics. The description of Type 1 Diabetes is a sudden severe onset found in individuals usually younger than 20 years of age. Type 1 Diabetes has been found to be influenced by some vitamins and minerals. Two that will be focused on in this presentation is Vitamin D and Zinc. It has been found that reduced serum Vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP) levels are associated with Type 1 diabetes. This influences the availability of Vitamin D in the metabolism and regulation of Vitamin D in our system. While looking into minerals that influence Type 1 Diabetes it has been discovered that low levels of Zinc in the drinking water have been associated with Type 1 Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes being an autoimmune attacking disease could be influenced by these Vitamin and Minerals which could influence the gut flora and more of the immune system. The objective of the study with Vitamin D is to see the connection between Type 1 Diabetes with insufficient levels of Vitamin D through the VDBP serum levels and genotype. The objective of the Zinc study is to see if drinking water may influence the risk of Type 1 Diabetes. This could be by enterovirus spead via drinking water or the quality of drinking water and if related to how acidic or the concentration of zinc and nitrogenous components in the water. The design and method for Vitamin D included a cross sectional analysis of VDBP levels. The study had three groups which included 153 control subjects, 203 patients with Type 1 diabetes, and 116 first degree relatives of Type 1 diabetics. The test used were Single Nucleotide Polymorphism(SNP) typing to test VDBP polymorphisms to see what the genetic correlation may be. There was also a second DNA sample set tested with two groups one with Type 1 diabetics and a control group to determine the genotype frequencies. The Zinc study was conducted with 142 families that had a child with Type 1 diabetes who lived in one of the seven places that had the highest annual diabetic cases reported during 1977-2001 and then the other group was six places that had the lowest incidence of diabetic cases reported. The families of both groups had to fill a 200 mL plastic bottle with their tap water and return it by mail. The water samples were then tested for pH, zinc, nitrogenous components, and enterovirus RNA. The results of the Vitamin D showed that the median serum levels were the lowest in Type 1 Diabetics. There was no association found between VDBP, sex, duration, and 25-OH Vitamin D levels. Type 1 diabetes alters metabolic pathways of Vitamin D. In the Zinc study enterovirus RNA was not in the water. The concentration of zinc and nitrogenous components were lower in the samples from the families with a child that had Type 1 diabetes. This supports the association that low levels of zinc can be associated with increased risk of Type 1 diabetes. References Blanton, D., Han, Z., & Bierschenk, L., et al. (2011). Reduced serum vitamin dbinding protein levels are associated with type 1 diabetes. 1-5. Daneman , D. (2006). Type 1 diabetes . Division of Endocrinology,, Retrieved from http://nnt.pharm.su.ac.th/dis/sites/default/files/answer/843/Type 1 diabetes.pdf Samuelsson, U., Oikarinen, S., & Hyoty, H. (2010). Low zinc in drinking water is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes in children. 1-9.