
\ .
7. Each exterior angle of a regular polygon of n sides
0
0
4 360
90
n n
= =
TRIANGLES
1. Triangle : A simple closed figure consisting of three line segments.
2. The sumof the lengths of the sides of a triangle is called its perimeter is (AB +BC +CA =a+b+c)
3. A triangle in which no two sides are equal is called a scalane triangle.
4. A triangle in which two sides are equal is called an isosceles triangle.
5. A triangle in which all sides are equal is called an equilateral triangle.
6. A triangle in which all the three angles are acute is called an acute triangle.
7. A triangle in which one of the angles is an obtuse angle is called an obtuse triangle.
8. A triangle in which one of the angles is right angle is called a right triangle.
9. The side opposite to the right angle is called hypotenuse.
10. The sumof the angles of a triangle is 180
0
.
11. The sum of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the third side.
i.e., a +b >c, b +c >a, c +a >b
12. The difference of any two sides of a triangle is less than the third side i.e.,
a b c, b c a, c a b < < <
13. In a triangle angles opposite to equal sides are equal.
14. The exterior angles of a triangle is equal to the sum of its two interior opposite angles.
15. Each interior angle of an equilateral triangle is 60
0
.
Each exterior angle of an equilateral triangle is 120
0
.
16. Two plane figures are said to be congruent if they have same shape and same size.
17. Two line segments having the same length are congruent.
18. Three or more lines passing through a single point are said to be concurrent.
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19. The point of concurrence of Perpendicular bisectors is circumcenter
* The point of concurrence of Angular bisectors is incentre
* The point of concurrence of Angular altitude is orthocenter
* The point of concurrence of Angular medians is centroid
20. Centroid divides the median in the ratio of 2:1
21. Circumcenter is equidistant fromvertices
22. Incentre is equidistant fromsides.
23. Circumcentre at a right angled triangle is midpoint of hypotenuse.
24. Orthocenter of a right angled triangle is the vertex which is having right angle.
25. A is orthocenter, G is centroid, S is circumcenter then H.G. : G.S. : 2:1
26. H, G, S are collinear in a triangle, HGS line is called Euler line.
27. The side opposite to greatest angle in a triangle is greatest.
NUMBER SYSTEM
1. In the period of Ramayana, the number of Vanarasena in Yuddakanda is described as Mahasamudram.
Mahasamudram is a number in which 1 is followed by 52 zeros.
2. 1 crore =100 lakhs
=10,000 Thousands
=10 millions
3. 10 crores =100 millions
4. 10 lakhs =million
5. If the difference between a pair of prime numbers is 2, they are called Twin primes.
6. If 1 is the only common factor of two numbers, then the two numbers are said to be relatively prime
number or coprimes.
7. G.C.D. of coprime numbers is 1.
8. L.C.M. of two coprimes is equal to the product of the given numbers.
9. If a is multiple of b then L.C.M. of a,b is b and G.C.D. of a,b is a.
10. If a and b are two numbers and their L.C.M. and G.C.D. are L and G respectively. Then
a b L G =
11. 1 is factor of every number and it is the least.
12. Every number is a factor of itself and it is the greatest.
13. A natural number is divisible by 11 if and only if the difference of the numbers obtained on adding the
alternate digits of the number separately is divisible by 11.
14. Division by zero is undefined.
15. The difference of succeeding and preceeding numbers of a given number is 2
16. Zero is neither positive nor negative.
17. The multiplicative inverse of
a b
is
b a
.
18. The additive inverse of
a
a
is
b
b
time
32. 18 km/hr =5 m/sec.
33. Relative speed while moving in opposite direction =sumof the speeds.
34. Relative speed while moving in a same direction =difference of speeds.
35. Time taken by two moving objects to meet
Distancebetweenthem
Relativespeed
=
36. Angle made by minute hand in 1min is 60
0
.
37. Angle made by the shorthand in 1min.
0
1
2
= .
38. Relative speed of the minute hand is
0
1
5
2
per min.
SETS AND RELATIONS
1. Set theory was introduced by German Scientist George Cantor.
2. A set is a collection of well defined objects.
3. A null set is a set with no elements in it.
4. A set containing one and only one element is called singleton set.
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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5. The sets A and B which have onetoone correspondence are equivalent sets.
6. The number of elements in a set is called the cardinal number of the set.
7. If
Y X c
and
Y X =
then y is called the proper subset of X.
8. If A B,B C thenA C. c c c
9. The set consisting of all the subsets of a given set A is called the power set of A.
10. If there are n elements in a set then the number of subsets of that set is 2
n
.
11. If there are n elements in a set the number of proper subsets of that set are 2
n
1.
12. If the set contains n elements its power set consists of 2
n
elements.
13. Rectangle is used to represent a universal set.
14. A A = (Identity Law)
15.
A A A =
(Idempotent Law)
16.
A A A =
(Idempotent Law)
17. A A = = (Identity Law)
18. De Morgans Law
(i) A (B C) (A B) (A C) =
(ii) A (B C) (A B) (A C) =
19. A B (A B) (B A) A =
20.
C C C
A B (A B) =
21.
C C C
A B (A B) =
22. (a,b) (b a) = unless a =b.
23. Cartesian product of two sets
{ } A B (x,y)/ x Aandy B = e e
24. A relation is a set of ordered pairs.
MENSURATION
1. 1 are =100sq.m =1sq.Dm.
2. 1 square hectometer =one hectare
3. 1 hectare =10,000m
2
=100 Ares.
4. 1 sq.km =100 hectares.
5. Area of triangle
1
bh
2
=
a b c
s(s a)(s b)(s c);s
2
+ +
= =
6. Area of equilateral triangle
2
3
a
4
=
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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7. Height of equilateral triangle
3
a
2
=
8. Area of right angle triangle
1
2
=
(Product of perpendicular sides)
9. Area of isosceles triangle =
2
1
a
2
10. Area of quadrilateral =
1 2
1
d(h h )
2
+
11. Area of trapezium =
1
h(a b)
2
+
12. Area of parallelogram=bh
13. Area of rectangle =lb
14. Area of rhombus =
1 2
1
dd
2
15. Area of square
2
2
d
s
4
= =
16. Area of four walls of a room (rectangle) =2h (l +b) =Ph
=4lh (square shape)
17. L.S.A. of cuboid =2h (l +b)
18. T.S.A. of cuboid =2 (lb +bh +lh)
19. L.S.A. of cube =4l
2
20. T.S.A. of cube =6l
2
21. Volume of cuboid =
b h l
22. Volume of cube =S
3
.
23. Area of circle
2
2
d
r
4
= =
24. Area of semicircle
2 2
r d
2 8
= =
25. Perimeter of semicircle
36
2( r) r
7
= + =
26. Perimeter of circle 2 r or d = .
27. Area of sector
2
1
.
360 2
x
or lr =
28. Length of the arc of the sector
x
2 r
360
=
29. Perimeter of sector =l +2r
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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30. Area of circular ring (Annulus) (R r)(R r) = +
(R r)w = +
(2R w)w =
31. The region between two concentric circles is called Annulus or Ring.
32. If the angles in a triangle are in 1:1:2 ratio, the corresponding sides are in the ratio
1:1: 2
.
33. If the angles in a triangle are in the ratio 1:2:3 the corresponding sides are in the ratio
1: 3: 2
.
SET OF COMPLEX NUMBERS (C)
set of real Nos (R) Set of Imaginary Nos
set of Rational No.s (Q) set of Irrational (Q)
set of Integers (Z) set of fractions
set of whole numbers (W) set of Negative integers
set of Natural No.s (N) set of O
N W Z Q R C c c c c c
REAL NUMBERS
1. Set of rational numbers,
p
Q x / x , p,q 0 pandqareco primes
q
= = =
`
)
2. If x,y are two rational numbers, only one of the following relations hold.
(i) x <y (ii) x =y (iii) x >y
This is called Law of trichotomy.
3. If x,y,z are any three rational numbers and x >y and y >z the x >z. This is known as transitive property.
4. If x,y,z are any three rational numbers.
z 0 =
such that x >y then x +z >y +z.
5. If x,y,z are any three rational numbers, and z is positive such that x >y then x z >yz.
6. The recurring part in the nonterminating decimal number is called period & number of digits in the
recurring part in it is called periodicity.
7. Square root of 1 is i,
2
i 1 i 1 = =
Ex.:
9 3i (or) 3i =
8. The field of rational number is called an ordered field.
9. There is no square root for a negative number is the set of real numbers.
10.
ab a b =
11.
2
a a =
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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12.
a a
b b
=
13.
a b a b + = +
14.
a b a b =
15. Every whole number has two square roots. One is positive, another is negative.
16. The positive square root of a whole number is called principal square root.
17. Set of complex numbers are in the formof a+ib where a & b are real numbers.
ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSIONS, POLYNOMIALS & FACTORISATION
1. Monomial 
2
ab
1, 2,0,x,y z, ,.............
cd
and
b
ax bis
a
+
6. Degree of monomial
a b c
x .y .z is (a+b+c)
7. Degree of a nonzero number is zero.
8. In
2 3 n 1 n
a bx cx dx .......... px qx
...................(m times)
Laws of Exponents:
For a,b
e
R and m,n
e
Z
3. a
m
.a
n
=a
m+n
4.
m
m n
n
a
a
a
= if m >n
n m
1
a
=
if n >m
5. (a
m
)
n
=a
mn
6. (ab)
m
=a
m
b
m
7.
m
m
m
a a
(b 0)
b b
 
= =

\ .
8.
0
x 1 if x 0 = = [x is undefined if x =0]
9.
n
n
1
x
x
=
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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10.
1
n n
x x =
called n
th
root of x.
11.
p
q
p q
x x , =
q
th
root of
p
p
x . Q
q
e
12. If a >0 and n is any positive integer then
n
a
is positive.
13. If a <0 and n is any odd integer then
n
a
is negative.
14. If a <0 and n is any positive even integer then
n
a
does not exist.
15.
p
q
x
is multiplicative inverse of
p
q
x
.
16.
5
4
243 exist; 16
does not exist.
17.
n n n
a b ab =
18.
n
n
n
a a
b b
=
19.
m n n mn m
a a a = =
20. is irrational but
22
7
is rational.
LINEAR EQUATIONS
Equation : If an open sentence contains the sign of equality then the open sentence is known as equation.
Ex.: (i) ax +b =0,
a 0 =
, is a linear equation in the variable x.
(ii) ax +by +c =0,
a 0 =
,
b 0 =
is a linear equation in the two variables x and y. .
1. Solutions (or) Roots of the equation :
The values which satisfies the equation i.e make the equation true are called solutions (or) roots of the
equation.
Ex.: (i) 3x +2 =8
When x =2, L.H.S. =8 and R.H.S. =8
So 2 is the root (or) solution.
2. Simultaneous equations in two variables :
If there are two consistent equations in two variables then there will be only one set of solutions. These
are called simultaneous equations in two variables.
Ex.: 4x +5y =7, 2x +y =5
Here x =3, y =1 is the only solution.
3. Consistent Equation :
A pair of simultaneous equations in two unknown is consistent if they have an unique solution.
4. Condition for unique solution :
If a
1
x +b
1
y +c
1
=0 and a
2
x +b
2
y +c
2
=0 are the equations then a
1
b
2
=
a
2
b
1
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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5. The unique solution will be :
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2 2 1
bc b c ca c a
x ; y
ab a b ab a b
= =
6. Dependent equations:
Linear equations in two unknowns are dependent if they have infinite solutions.
i.e.,
1 1 1
2 2 2
a b c
a b c
= =
7. Inconsistent equations:
Linear equations in two unknowns are inconsistent if they have no unique solution (no solution).
Here
1 1 1
1 2 2 1
2 2 2
a b c
ab a b and
a b c
= = =
8. Cartesian Plane :
Cartesian plane is a plane in which a horizontal number line called xaxis intersect a vertical number line
called yaxis.
9. Origin :
Origin is a point of intersection of xaxis and yaxis. Its coordinates are (0,0).
10. Quadrants : Quadrants are the four regions of the plane into which the axes divide the plane.
11. The equation of xaxis is y =0
12. The equation of yaxis is x =0
13.
1 2
Q Q =
14. Slope is the ratio between y coordinate and x co ordinate (i.e., m =y/x)
15. The line y =mx passes through origin.
16. The line y =mx+c intersect the yaxis at (0,C).
17. The slope of xaxis is zero.
18. The slope of yaxis is not defined.
19. A vertical line does not have any slope.
20. If the slopes are equal, then the lines are parallel.
21. Equation of a straight line which is parallel to xaxis is y =k where k is constant.
22. Equation of a straight line which is parallel to yaxis is x =k.
23. ax +by =c is an open sentence in two variables.
LINEAR INEQUATIONS
1. Linear equation in two variables in general represents a line in a plane divides the plane into three
mutually disjoint sets.
2. The line ax +by +c =0 divides the plane into two half planes. (i.e., ax +by +c <0, ax +by +c >0)
3. In equations are very useful in solving the problems pertaining to linear programming.
4. If a <b then ac <bc and
a b
c c
<
( c 0) >
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Mathematics  NTSE Material VIII Class
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5. If a >b then ac >bc and
a b
( c 0)
c c
> >
6. For any three numbers a,b,c where c <0
(i) If a <b then ac >bc and
a b
c c
>
(ii) If a >b then ac <bc and
a b
c c
<
7. If a and b are the same sign and a <b (a,b) then
1 1 1 1
a b a b
 
> <

\ .
STRAIGHT LINES
1. One and only one straight line exists through two given points.
2. Two coplanar lines must be either intersecting in a single point or they must be parallel.
3. One and only one parallel line can be drawn to a given line through a given point not on the given line.
4. If l & m are two coplanar lines, such that m {P} = l then l and m are intersecting lines.
5. If l & m are two coplanar lines such that m = l then l and m are parallel lines.
6. Corresponding angles : Two angles are said to be a pair of corresponding angles if
(a) They are on the same side of the transversal.
(b) One is interior angle and the other is an exterior angle.
(c) They are not adjacent angles.
7. Alternate Angles : Two angles are said to be a pair of alternate angles if:
(a) both are interior angles
(b) they are on either side of the transversal
(c) they are not adjacent angles.
8. If a transversal intersects a pair of parallel lines, then the interior angles on the same side of the transversal
are supplementary.
9. If a transversal intersects two coplanar lines in such a way that a pair of alternate angles are equal, then
the two lines are parallel.
10. If a transversal intersects two coplanar lines in such a way that a pair of interior angles on the same side
of the transversal are supplementary then the two lines are parallel.
11. If two lines are perpendicular to the same line they are parallel to each other.
12. If two lines are parallel to the same line then they are parallel to each other.
13. If the arms of one angle are respectively parallel to the arms of another angles then the two angles are
either equal or supplementary.