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INTRODUCTION

Jack Welch once said that while he always valued inventions and big ideas, he put a far greater
value on people who could take those ideas and spread them, share them, move them through the
company in ways that would make the customer happier and more engaged.
This gives us a clear idea as to how important the employees of the organization are for its
progress. It also tells us that ‘human resources’ is one of the most important departments of an
organization as after all it is ‘The Employees’ who make up the organization. And the way an
organization treats its employees, is the way the employees are towards the customers.
Managing employee performance is an integral part of every organization’s functions. It is
as important as managing financial resources and program outcomes because employee
performance or the lack thereof, has a profound effect on both the financial and program
components of any organization.
Measuring the employee’s performance is termed as ‘Performance Appraisal’. To be precise,
Performance appraisal is the process of obtaining, analyzing and recording information about the
relative worth of an employee.

PURPOSE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL


Performance appraisals are important and necessary to an organization for various reasons. A
few of them are mentioned below:

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 To review the performance of the employees over a given period of time.
 To determine development and training needs.
 To aid in compensation management.
 To provide assistance to the Human Resources Department for processes like promotions,
transfers etc.
 To let the employees know what exactly is expected from them and where they are falling
short.
 To compare the expected and actual performance.
 To judge the validity of the other human resource functions of the organization such as
recruitment and selection.
 Helps to strengthen the relationship and communication between subordinates and
management.
 Deciding future course of action about a particular employee.

METHODS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

STEPS INVOLVED IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL

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There are 6 steps involved in the process of evaluating an employee’s performance. These steps
can be changed and modified according to an organization’s needs; these just serve as a guideline
according to which a firm can set its performance appraisal system.
➢ Establishing performance standards.
➢ Communicating these standards to the employees
➢ Measuring the actual performance
➢ Comparing the actual performance with the desired performance
➢ Communicating the result and discussing
➢ Decision making

FACTORS HAMPERING FAIR APPRAISALS


Every human being has his own set of beliefs and notions. These beliefs and notions stem from
the kind of upbringing that the person has had, his friend circle and family and his own sense of
right and wrong. A very common problem faced by appraisers is to avoid the effect of their
notions and perceptions while appraising a person. Mentioned below are few of such factors
which hamper proper and fair appraisals.
➢ Halo effect
➢ Stereotyping
➢ Recency effect
➢ Primacy effect
➢ Leniency effect
➢ Stringency effect
➢ Perceptual set
➢ Culture
➢ Fundamental attribution error

EMERGENCE OF MODERN APPRAISAL METHODS

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A lot of the traditional methods of performance appraisal were troubled by the above mentioned
pitfalls. This problem created the need for new and advance methods of appraisal which ensured
fairness and accuracy of the appraisal.
Also with certain methods like BARS, not just the output factor of the employee but his behavior
and personality could also be taken under consideration. This added on to the accuracy of the
appraisal because the performance of a person doesn’t depend on his output alone.

ANALYSIS OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL PROCESS AT


ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL, HYDERABAD
Faculty feedback collected from the students is a part of the performance appraisal system at
IBS, Hyderabad. The appraisal form given to students is based on the Graphic Rating method.
However the performance standards currently in place lack certain parameters which may be of
prime importance in how effective a professor is when he/she teaches. Some of the parameters
taken into consideration at present are faculty’s core subject knowledge, control over the class,
biased-ness, syllabus coverage etc.

EXISTING FORMAT OF FACULTY FEEDBACK (BY STUDENTS):


The existing format of the feedback forms given to the students is given in the annexure. It is
based on 10 fundamental parameters.

DRAWBACKS IN THE EXISTING SYSTEM:


Following are the drawbacks of the existing system of evaluation:
➢ The semester end faculty evaluation sheet is unnecessarily lengthy, so most of the
students are inclined to giving neutral or indiscriminate marks to the individual faculties.
➢ It ignored some of the critical attributes for the purpose of evaluation which are important
from the point of view of having a complete feedback.
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➢ The result of the feedback should have been made available to the students, but this does
not happen.
➢ Proposed actions and steps to be taken by the administration on the basis of the feedback
obtained were not communicated in any way.
➢ Such a system of evaluation should have been done more than once in a semester (first
one could be midway of semester and the second one at the end of semester) which
would ensure that consistency and comparison of data collected.
➢ The system of individual faculty carrying their individual feedback form to the class and
students filling them up should be done away with because the students more often give
inaccurate feedback due to the presence of teacher.

SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL CRITERIA TO ENHANCE THE


APPRAISAL PROCESS:
➢ Industry interaction (SIP, project initiatives) - The college should have proper
measures to ascertain and judge the faculty’s liaisons with the corporate for easy
allocation of industry projects. This should be initiated by the academics department on a
regular basis in consonance with the top management
➢ Research papers- Relevant weightage should be given towards the faculty’s field of
research so that we can allocate proper domains of knowledge impartment for the
lecturers.
➢ Accessibility to students- Professor’s should be weighted on this basis of whether the
concerned staff is ready to share his contact details and stay open to students queries
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➢ Problem solving skills- Various situations may arise during the course of the teaching
and the faculty should have adequate management skills to take care of the problems as
and when they arise.
➢ Communication skills (sociability) - Often it so happens that in spite of having sound
core knowledge about the subjects the staff miss out on interpersonal skills which affect
students understanding of the concepts.
➢ Flexibility and adaptability in teaching methods- The professor should deliver lectures
in a way that is desired by students so that its easy for understanding.
➢ Acquaintance with corporate trends- The lecturer has to be up-to-date with the
prevailing industry practices and accordingly let the students aware of those.
➢ Open to feedback and criticism- The concerned faculties need to have eagerness
towards self improvement and continuous learning which would consequently enable him
to make the most out of the existing feedback process.

SUGGESTED MODERN APPRAISAL METHOD:

Among all the different appraisal methods, Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
would be the most appropriate method for the performance appraisal of the faculty members.
Smith and Kendall developed it to provide a better method of rating employees. Here the
students (appraisers) are asked to select the description that best matches the actual behavior of
faculties and their performances during a particular semester in the class. Once those behaviors
are identified for a particular job, or employee, the items can be used to base a numerical or
performance label.

RATIONALE FOR USING THIS METHOD:

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This method is given preference over and above other methods because:
➢ It focuses on behaviors that are determined to be important for completing a job task or
doing the job properly, rather than looking at more general employee characteristics
(e.g. personality, vague work habits).
➢ It examines behaviors displayed by the faculties by comparing them with a range of
predetermined behaviors which helps to see the gap.

Questionnaire developed based on BARS:


➢ Communication skills-
Anchors Rating

Is able to communicate with the students


clearly and affectively and ensures correct flow 5 ( ) Excellent
of information and understanding.
Is able to deliver himself well in class and 4 ( ) Good
shows his concern about whether the class is
able to follow him or not.
Is fairly effective in communicating 3 ( ) Average
information properly and tries to ensure that the
class is with him.
Is seldom concerned about whether he is able to 2 ( ) Below Average

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communicate properly or not and is usually not
concerned about the understanding of the
students.
Is hardly ever bothered about his ability to 1 ( ) Poor
communicate.

➢ Clarity and ability to explain concepts-


Anchors Rating
Is extremely efficient at explaining concepts
and is able to put forth complex concepts in a 5 ( ) Excellent
lucid manner exhibiting commendable
understanding of the concept himself.
Has clear understanding of the concepts he
discusses in class and is able to explain them 4( ) Good
properly to the students.
Is able to explain the concepts more or less
satisfactorily and seems to be well aware of the 3 ( ) Average
concept that he teaches in class.
Is seldom able to explain the concepts properly
and shows that his understanding of the subject 2( ) Below average
is patchy.
Cannot explain the concepts he teaches in class

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and his personal understanding of the subject 1 ( ) Unacceptable
matter is flawed.

➢ Subject knowledge-
Anchors Rating
Has excellent overall knowledge of the subject
he teaches and is able to address doubts that 5 ( ) Excellent
may not be directly related to the topic of
discussion in more than satisfactory manner.
Has commendable subject knowledge and is
able to handle subject related doubts 4 ( ) Good
satisfactorily.
His knowledge of the subject is enough to
suffice the course content and usually is able to 3 ( ) Average
answer questions pertaining to the subject he
teaches.
His understanding of the subject is not enough
to teach a graduate course and his ability to 2 ( ) Below Average
handle questions outside the scope in hardly
satisfactory.
His subject knowledge is poor and and he
avoids/ discourages asking of questions that are 1 ( ) Unacceptable

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not directly related to the topic of discussion.

➢ Ability to handle questions –

Anchors Rating
Handles questions extremely efficiently and his
answers always clear the doubts of th questioner. 5 ( ) Excellent
He also encourages people to ask questions to
stimulate learning.
Is careful to answer questions to the best of his 4 ( )Good
ability and invites questions in his sessions.
Usually he tries to clear the doubts and succeeds 3 ( ) Average
too. People are allowed to ask questions in his
sessions.
He is seldom able to give satisfactory answers to 2 ( ) Below average
the questions asked and generally avoids having to
answer questions.
He is never able to come up with satisfactory 1 ( ) Unacceptable
answers for the questions directed to him and
ignores questions asked to him.

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➢ Controlling the class-
Anchors Rating
His sessions have undivided attention of the
students who are always alert and attentive. 5 ( ) Excellent
Impeccable disciplinarian.
His lectures are able to grab the attention of the 4 ( ) Good
students and he is able to conduct the classes
without any major disturbances.
Most of the students find his lectures 3 ( ) Average
informative and pay attention. A few may be
inattentive but that normally does not affect the
general discipline of the class.
He is seldom able to generate interest among 2 ( ) Below average
the students who are usually found doing other
tasks in his class and his ability to maintain
discipline needs improvement.
Students find his lectures boring and dozing is 1 ( ) Unacceptable
a common act in his class. His classes are
normally a scene of chaos even when he is
present in the class.

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➢ Approachability-

Anchors Rating
Invites people to come to him if ever they have
any problem and is always open and eager for 5 ( ) Excellent
discussions, consultation at any hour. Gives
suggestions for the betterment of the students
voluntarily.
Has asked people to come to him if they have 4 ( ) Good
any problem and he is open for consultation at
specified times.
Has specified hours for consultation and 3 ( ) Average
usually tries to accommodate queries. Usually
gives suggestions but only when asked.
He is seldom approachable and he contributes 2( ) Below average
in form of suggestions only when he feels like
it.
He does not entertain any queries nor does he 1 ( ) Unacceptable
give any suggestions even when asked for it.
His attitude usually gives negative vibes to the
students.

➢ Helpfulness-

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Anchors Rating
He is extremely helpful and is always willing
to help the people who are weak and arranges 5 ( ) Excellent
extra coaching sessions for people who miss
classes and accommodates people who have
problems and cannot attend his classes.
He helps people with lessons especially who 4 ( ) Good
are weak and helps people who need help if
requested to do so.
He tries to help people but it depends if he has 3 ( ) Average
time to do so or not.
He does not normally encourage people 2( ) Below average
coming to him for extra help.
Turns people away if they ever come for help. 1 ( ) Unacceptable

➢ Fairness and unbiasedness-


Anchors Rating
Is fair and just and has no favorites and does
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not favor anybody when evaluating. His 5 ( ) Excellent
process of evaluation is transparent and open
for inspection if any discrepencies occur.
He is just and unbiased and takes care that his 4 ( ) Good
judgements are not influenced by peoples’
behavior towards him.
He is usually unbiased and tries to be 3 ( ) Average
transparent in his evaluations.
He gets influenced by people and their 2 ( ) Below average
behavior and can be biased when it comes to
evaluations.
He is extremely biased and hardly ever 1 ( ) Unacceptable
evaluates fairly. Favors his own group of
favorites blatantly. Even accepts gifts in kind
as well. Can be bribed.

➢ Handling of class discussions-


Anchors Rating
He ensures full class participation, invites
diverse points of view and stimulates debates 5 ( ) Excellent
in the class to heighten the learning activity all
the while keeping a strict watch over the fact

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that the discussion does not divert from the
main topic.
He is always careful towards involving the 4 ( ) Good
entire class in the discussion and keeps a watch
on the fact that the discussion does not go out
of the purview of the topic.
He mostly talks in discussions and allows 3 ( ) Average
occasional inputs from the students. May
digress from the topic some times.
His class discussions do not allow the students 2 ( ) Below average
to participate to the fullest extent and most of
the times he ends up talking about irrelevant
things,
His class discussions are chaotic and people 1 ( ) Unacceptable
hardly ever make pertinent points.

➢ Stimulating people to have open minds-


Anchors Rating
Encourages people to be aware about the
happenings in the world and is in favor of 5 ( ) Excellent
alternative learning practices.
Is appreciative of people who are involved in 4 ( ) Good
something other than academics.
Does not have a problem if people are involved 3 ( ) Average
ion extra curriculars.
Is usually skeptical about people who get 2 ( ) Below average
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involved in activities other than activities as he
is of the view that it hampers academic
performance.
Is against doing something that is not related to 1 ( ) Unacceptable
the course content and discourages
participation in such events.

➢ Syllabus coverage-
Anchors Rating
He completes all the topics in the syllabus and
gives equal weightage to all topics and even 5 ( ) Excellent
keeps time for revising topics that are critical.
He completes the syllabus in time and tries to 4 ( ) Good
make time for revision of old topics.
He completes the important topics in the 3 ( ) Average
syllabus and for those not covered provides
notes to make learning easier.
He does not complete the syllabus due to poor 2 ( ) Below average
time management.
He does not complete the syllabus and wastes 1 ( ) Unacceptable
time doing irrelevant topics that has no link

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whatsoever with the syllabus.

➢ Punctuality and regularity-


Anchors Rating
Never misses a session and is always right on
time. 5 ( ) Excellent
Regular to class and is fairly punctual-may be a 4 ( ) Good
minute or two late at the most.
Misses a session or two once in a while and tries 3 ( ) Average
to be on time.
Misses sessions at regular intervals and is late 2 ( ) Below average
most of the times.
Misses sessions without any apparent reason 1 ( ) Unacceptable
and is always late for the class.

ANNEXURE
Faculty Performance Appraisal Form - IBS Hyderabad

S Facult
.No y
. Attributes Name

1 Subject Knowledge
2 Delivery
3 Able to engage class in discussion
Teaches with practical examples and
4 case studies
5 Method of evaluation
6 Quality of assignments
7 Able to create Interest in the subject
8 Punctual
9 Full Syllabus covered (Yes/ No)
10 Fundamental concepts cleared

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Points to be given on the scale of 1-
10
1 - unsatisfactory
10 - Excellent
Note: Do not write your name or enrollment anywhere on this form

REFERENCES

1. Gary Dessler, Human Resource Management,10th Edition.


2. Human Resource Management, ICMR Text Book, November 2003 edition.
3. J.S. Pounder, Towards a Behaviorally Based Performance Appraisal System for
Academic Staff
4. Nicole T. LaGuerre, Using BARS to Assess Motivational Behaviour,
http://www.vicissitudeconsulting.net/Using-BARS%20to%20assess%20motivation.pdf
5. Thomas F. Patterson , Refining Performance Appraisal, Journal of Extension,
http://www.joe.org/joe/1987winter/a5.html

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