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24.

1 Photons Photoelectric Effect


1) A clean zinc plate is placed on the cap of a gold-leaf electroscope which is negatively charged so that the gold leaf diverges, as shown in Figure 24.1.

2) The leaf stays in the same position when the mercury lamp is switched off. However, the divergence of the leaf is observed to decrease when the mercury lamp is switched on. 3) The ultraviolet radiation from the mercury lamp which arrives at the zinc plate causes free electrons in the plate to receive sufficient energy and escape from the zinc plate. As a result, the divergence of the leaf decreases. 4) The emission of electrons from the surface of a metal due to the incident light is called the photoelectric effect. The electrons emitted in this way are called photoelectrons. 5) When a glass plate is placed between the zinc plate and the mercury lamp, the divergence of the leaf stops. 6) The glass plate prevents the ultraviolet radiation from reaching the zinc plate. This has the same effect as switching off the mercury lamp. 7) If the electroscope is initially charged positive, the leaf remains in the same position even though the mercury lamp is switched on. This is due to the fact that the ultraviolet radiation cannot supply enough energy to the free electrons to escape from the positively charged zinc plate.

Photocell Circuit
1) The circuit which is used to study photoelectric effect is called a photocell circuit, shown in Figure 24.2.

figure 24.2

2) The tube is evacuated so that the electrons will not collide with air molecules. 3) The cathode is coated with cesium. When monochromatic light of certain frequency falls on the cathode, photoelectrons are emitted. 4) The electric field between the anode and cathode accelerates the photoelectrons toward the anode. 5) The circuit is completed when the photoelectrons reach the anode. A current will be detected by the galvanometer.

6) This current is known as photoelectric current or photocurrent, I. 7) The intensity of the monochromatic light is kept constant by fixing the distance of the light source from the cathode. 8) By using the potential divider, the voltage between the anode and the cathode can be varied slowly. 9) Figure 24.3 shows the graph of photoelectric current, I against the voltage, V between the anode and cathode.

figure 24.3

10)When the voltage is increased slowly, more photoelectrons are attracted to the anode. If the voltage is large enough, all photoelectrons emitted at the cathode are attracted to the anode. 11) The current has now reached its limiting value known as the saturation current, Is 12) When there is no voltage applied between the anode and cathode, there is still current detected by the galvanometer because there are still some photoelectrons energetic enough to reach the anode. 13) When the polarity of the voltage is reversed, some photoelectrons can still reach the anode. 14) However, if the reverse voltage is large enough, the flow of photoelectrons is stopped completely. The reverse voltage is now called the stopping potential, Vs. 15) The most energetic photoelectrons are prevented from reaching the anode when V = Vs, i.e.
potential energy, eVs = maximum kinetic energy eVs =

where e = charge of electron, m = mass of electron and Vmax = maximum velocity of electron.

Concept of Light Quantisation


1) Five features of photoelectric effect are described in the following section. 2) However, features III, IV and V cannot be explained using the wave theory of classical physics. They can only be explained satisfactorily using Einstein's concept of light quantisation. Feature 1 Figure 24.4 shows the graph of photoelectric current, I against applied voltage, V when the frequency of the monochromatic light is kept constant.

2) It is found that the saturation current varies directly with light intensity, I'. This is because more photoelectrons are emitted at the cathode and collected at the anode when the intensity increases. 3 However, the stopping potential is not affected by the light intensity. Feature II 1) The stopping potential differs with the type of material used, provided that the intensity of the monochromatic light is fixed, as shown in Figure 24.5.

figure 24.5

Feature III 1) Photoelectrons are only emitted from a metal surface if the frequency of the incident radiation exceeds a certain frequency. 2) The minimum frequency of the incident light required to eject the electrons from a metal surface is called the threshold frequency or cut-off frequency, fo. 3) The threshold frequencies depend on the types of metal. For example, the threshold frequency of cesium is lower than that of zinc because visible light can eject photoelectrons in cesium but not in zinc.

4) According to the wave theory, the photoelectric effect should occur for any frequency or intensity of light. If the metal is exposed to the light long enough, the electrons will eventually absorb enough energy to escape from the metal surface, regardless of how small the frequency or how low the intensity. Nevertheless, no photoelectrons are emitted. 5 According to the concept of quantisation of light, the energy of the light comes in discrete packets called quanta. These quanta of electromagnetic radiation are called photons. 6 The energy of one photon is given by E= hf where h= Planck's constant = 6.63 x 10-34 Js and f= frequency of electromagnetic radiation. 7) If the frequency, f of the incident radiation is less than the threshold frequency, fo, the energy of the photon is hf < hfo. The energy of the photon is insufficient to eject the electron from the surface. Feature IV 1) Figure 24.6 shows the graph of maximum kinetic energy, Kinax of photoelectron against frequency of incident radiation.

Figure 24.6 2) It is observed that Kmax of the photoelectrons increases as the frequency of the monochromatic light increases and is independent of the intensity of light. 3) Figure 24.7 shows the graph of photoelectric current, I against voltage, V for different frequencies. Figure 24.7

4) It is observed that the stopping potential, Vs increases as the frequency, f increases. 5) According to the wave theory, the maximum kinetic energy, Kmax should increase with light intensity. Since light of greater intensity carries more energy, the electrons should gain more energy. Nevertheless, this does not happen.

6) According to the concept of quantisation of light, the maximum kinetic energy increases only with the frequency, f of the radiation. Photons with energy greater than hfo import more energy to the electrons. Hence, the photoelectrons are emitted at greater speed. 7) Light of greater intensity consists of only more photons. Therefore, more electrons are ejected. However, the energy of each photon remains the same. 8) Therefore, the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons is not affected by intensity. Feature V 1) If the frequency of the monochromatic light is greater than the threshold frequency, fo, photoelectrons are emitted almost instantaneously when the metal is illuminated. 2) According to the wave theory, the photoelectrons are ejected only after a certain amount of time when the photoelectrons have absorbed enough energy to escape from the metal. Nevertheless, this does not occur. 3) According to the concept of quantisation of light, when an electron absorbs a photon of sufficient energy, E hfo, the electron is immediately emitted from the metal surface. Checkpoint 24.1 1) Is it possible for a beam of infrared radiation to contain greater total energy than a beam of ultraviolet radiation? Explain your answer. 2) A metal plate is illuminated with a light of given frequency. Which of the following determine whether the electrons are emitted or not? Time of expnsure to the light. (b) Thermal conductivity of the metal. (c) The type of metal. (d) The intensity of light. (e) The area of the plate. (f) Explain. 3) When a metal surface is illuminated with light of a given wavelength, not all of the photoelectrons are ejected at the same speed. Explain this phenomenon. 4) A monochromatic light of wavelength and intensity I is incident on a metal surface. As a result, photoelectrons are ejected at a certain speed from the metal surface. Describe the effect of using (a) a monochromatic light of wavelength and intensity I. (b) a monochromatic light of wavelength and intensity 2I. (c) a monochromatic light of wavelength 2.

Quantisation of Electromagnetic Radiation: Photons


1 According to Einstein, light consists of discrete and concentrated packets of energy, called photons, which travel through space. 2 In other words, Einstein proposed that light behaves like a particle instead of a wave. 3 The energy of a photon is E = hf where h = Planck's constant = 6.63 x 10-34 J s and f = frequency of electromagnetic radiation. EXAMPLE 24.1 A transmitting station emits light of wavelength A at power P. Write down an expression for the rate of emission of photons.
P= = =
Rate of emission of photons,

EXAMPLE 24.2 Calculate the energy of a photon of wavelength 500 nm.


E= hf = = = 3.9781

EXAMPLE 24.3 A light source emits 4 x 1013 photons per second per square centimetre. Find the intensity of the radiation if the frequency of light is 5 x 1014 Hz.
Intensity, I = total energy of all photons per second per square centimetre I = (number of photons per second per square cm) hf = = 1.32610-5 J s-1 cm-2 = = 0.1326 J s-1m-2 =0.1326 W m-2

Work Function and Threshold Frequency


1) When a photon of energy hf collides with an electron in a metal, the energy is transferred to the electron. 2) However, if the energy hf is more than the work required to overcome the attractive forces that hold the electron, the electron is ejected as photoelectron. Otherwise, the electron is not ejected. 3) The work function, W of a metal is the minimum energy required for a free electron in the metal to escape from the metal surface. 4) The kinetic energy of the escaping electron is due to the excess energy, hf -W. 5) If the electron is already near the surface of the metal, or if it does not lose energy due to internal collisions as it escapes from the metal, all the excess energy, hf- W is manifested in the form of kinetic energy. Therefore, Kmax represents the maximum kinetic energy the photoelectron possesses outside the metal surface. 6) Hence, Kmax = hf W hf = Kmax + W (1) or hf = (2) where m = mass of a photoelectron and vmax = maximum velocity of photoelectron. 7) Equations (1) and (2) are known as Einstein's photoelectric equation. 8 Only when Kmax > 0 can the electron escape from the metal surface.

9 Therefore, the frequency of electromagnetic radiation f must W exceed the value h n order for photoelectric emission to occur. The value W is known as the threshold frequency, J. 10 Table 24.1 shows the work function values for some metals.

EXAMPLE 24.4 An electromagnetic radiation of wavelength 280 nm is incident on a metal surface. The emitted electrons have maximum kinetic energy of 1.25 x 10-19 J each. Calculate the lowest frequency required to remove the electrons from the metal surface.

EXAMPLE 24.5 The maximum wavelength of light which can produce photoelectrons from iron is 275 nm. (a) Calculate the energy of a photon of light of this wavelength. (b) What is the work function of iron? (c) If light of wavelength 220 nm is used to illuminate an iron surface in a vacuum, what is the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons?

Relationship Between Stopping Potential and Frequency of Incident Radiation 1 Figure 24.8 shows a circuit used to study the variation of the stopping potential, Vs against the frequency, f of the incident radiation.

Figure 24.8 2 Plate A is connected to a positive potential. The micrometer will give a reading when the electrons reach B. Incident radiation of known frequency f is directed towards plate A. 3 The potential across A and B is called the reverse potential difference because the potential of A (cathode) is positive with respect to B (anode). 4 The reverse potential difference is increased slowly until the reading of the micrometer drops to zero. 5 When this occurs, the reverse potential difference is the stopping potential, Vs of the metal which made up plate A. 6 At first, the reading of the micrometer decreases because the increasing positive potential at A opposes the movement of the electrons from A to B. 7 When the potential of A equals the stopping potential Vs, no more electrons reach B. In other words, electrons with Kmax are completely stopped. 8 Point 4 is repeated using incident radiation of different frequencies. 9 Figure 24.9 shows a graph of V against f for a particular type of metal.

Figure 24.9 10 From Einstein's photoelectric equation, When the micrometer reading is zero, Kmax= eVa. Equation (1) becomes

11 The threshold frequency 4, occurs when Kinax = 0, (that is V, = 0). Therefore, the intercept on thef-axis gives the threshold frequency J. Using the value of fo, W can be calculated from W = hfo. EXAMPLE 24.6 For a certain cathode material in a photoelectric effect experiment, a stopping potential of 1.0 V for light of wavelength 750 nm, 2.0 V for 500 nm and 3.0 V for 375 nm. Determine the work function for this material.

EXAMPLE 24.7 The photoelectric threshold wavelength of a tungsten surface is 272 nm. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of the electrons ejected from the tungsten surface by radiation of frequency 1.26 x 1015 Hz. Express the answer in electron volts.

EXAMPLE 24.8 A light of wavelength 200 nm falls on nickel with a work function of 5.1 eV. Find (a) the kinetic energy, in electron-volt (eV), of the most energetic photoelectrons emitted. (b) the stopping potential in volts. (c) the maximum speed of the photoelectrons. (mass of electrons = 9.11 x 10-31 kg)

Checkpoint 24.2 1 When radiation of wavelength 18 nm is incident on a metal surface as shown in the figure below, the milliammeter reading falls to zero at a reverse voltage of 1.32 V.

What is the work function of the metal in electron-volt (eV)? 2 Photons of x J each are directed onto a photocathode with a work function of y J. A collector, which consists of a plate, is placed close to the photocathode. Write down an expression for (a) the maximum speed of the photoelectrons emitted, in terms of x, y and m. (b) the stopping potential required to prevent photoelectrons emitted with maximum kinetic energy at an angle 0 to the cathode from reaching the collector, in terms of e, x, y and 0. (m = mass of the photoelectron, e = charge of electron)

3 The minimum energy required to remove an electron from the atom is 13.6 eV. Find the maximum kinetic energy of the ejected electron when a 55 nm photon is absorbed by the atom. 4 Silicon is illuminated with light of wavelength 220 nm and the stopping potential is found to be 0.85 V. It is then illuminated with light of wavelength 160 nm and the stopping potential becomes 2.97 V. Find (a) the value of the Planck's constant, h. (b) the work function of silicon, in electron-volt (eV). (e = 1.60 x 10-19 C and c = 3.0 x 108 m s-1) 5 A graph of stopping potential V against frequency for three different metals 1, 2 and 3, illuminated by light of different frequencies is as shown.

Explain why the gradient of the graph for each metal is the same. 6 Explain how the value of Planck's constant can be determined from the graph of maximum kinetic energy K aX against radiation frequency, f. 24.2 Wave-Particle Duality de Broglie's Hypothesis 1 It can be inferred from experiments on photoelectric emission that light behaves as particles called photons. Nevertheless, in experiments involving diffraction, interference and polarisation, light behaves as waves. 2 In 1923, Louis de Broglie reasoned that the universe is symmetrical in many aspects. If light can have particle-like properties, he reasoned that matter should have wave-like properties. 3 Hence, both matter and light possess particle-like properties under some circumstances and wave-like properties under other circumstances. This is called the wave-particle duality. Matter Waves 1 The energy of a photon of electromagnetic radiation of wavelength A is 2 According to Einstein's special theory of relativity, the inherent energy contained in a mass m is

3 4 The momentum p of a photon with wavelength is

5 6 Equation (5) is called the de Broglie relation and A, is called the de Broglie wavelength. 7 The de Broglie wavelength is the wavelength of waves associated with matter in motion. The waves are also called matter waves. 8 In 1923, Arthur H, Compton scattered short-wavelength light from different materials. He observed that the scattered light has a slightly longer wavelength than that of the incident light. 9 This is because the incident light in the form of the particles (photons) collide with electrons in the metal causing the scattered photons to give some of their energy and momentum to the electrons. 10 Since the momentum of the scattered photon is lower, its de Broglie wavelength is now longer. The calculations agreed with the experimental values. 11 The discovery of this Compton effect is one of many evidences supporting the waveparticle duality of nature. Figure 24.10 shows the Compton effect.

EXAMPLE 24.9 1111 The de Broglie wavelength of an electron is 2 x 10-10 m. Calculate its (a) velocity. (b) kinetic energy, in electron-volt (eV). (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-" kg)

EXAMPLE 24.10 Show that the formula for the de Broglie wavelength of an electron is approximately

EXAMPLE 24.11 Determine the de Broglie wavelength of an oxygen molecule in the air at room temperature. (mass of an oxygen molecule = 5.3 x 10-26 kg, room temperature = 20 C, k = 1.38 x 1023 J K-1)

Checkpoint 24.3 1 Calculate the wavelength of (a) a 0.15 kg ball travelling at 0.12 m s-'. (b) a neutron of mass 1.67 x 10-27 kg travelling at 6.2 x 104m s-1. 2 Calculate the wavelength of an electron with a kinetic energy of 15 eV. (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-" kg) 3 Find the kinetic energy of a proton with a wavelength of 0.20 m. (mass of proton = 1.67 x 10-27 kg) 4 A moving proton and a moving electron have equal wavelengths. Determine the ratio of the kinetic energy of the electron to that of a proton. (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, mass of proton = 1.67 x 10-27 kg)

5 What is the wavelength associated with electrons that have been accelerated through a potential difference of 28 kV in a vacuum? (Charge of electron = 1.60 x 10-19 C, mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-3' kg) 6 How many volts of potential difference is needed to accelerate an electron in order to obtain a wavelength of 0.12 nm? (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-3' kg) Electron Diffraction 1 In 1928, G.P. Thomson found that the pattern obtained on a screen when electrons are directed at a thin metal foil containing tiny crystals called grains is identical to the one obtained when X-rays are directed at the thin metal foil. 2 The electrons undergo diffraction just like the X-rays. 3 Hence, de Broglie's theory is proven. Under the right circumstances, particles have wave-like properties. 4 Figures 24.11 and 24.12 show the diffraction of electrons and the pattern of rings formed on the screen.

5 In 1927, Clinton J. Davisson and Lester H. Germer conducted an experiment which demonstrated the wave-like property of electrons. Figure 24.13 shows the set-up of the experiment.

Figure 24.13 6 An electron gun produces an electron beam which is directed towards a nickel target in a vacuum. The electrons are found to scatter from the target. 7 A movable detector is used to measure the distribution of electrons as a function of its scattering angle 9. 8 A diffraction pattern similar to that of X-ray diffraction is obtained where maximum and minimum intensities occur at specific angles. 9 Figure 24.14 shows the diffraction of electrons from the target. Path difference between ABC and DEF = 2d sin 0. For constructive interference, 2d sin 0 = nA, where n = 1, 2, 3, ... This equation is called Bragg's equation.

Figure 24.14 EXAMPLE 24.12 An electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength of x m is directed towards a diffraction grating, producing a diffraction pattern. Using the same diffraction grating, derive an expression for the potential difference V required to accelerate a beam of electrons in terms of the charge of electron, e, mass of electron, m, Planck's constant h and x.

Electron Microscope 1 The ability of a microscope to distinguish between two nearby point objects is called its resolving power. 2 A microscope is said to have a high resolving power if two objects can be clearly seen as two distinct objects. 3 As the wavelength of radiation used in a microscope decreases, its resolving power increases. 4 The resolving power of an optical microscope is limited by the wavelength of visible light. This weakness can be overcome using an electron microscope. 5 Figure 24.15 shows an electron microscope which makes use of the dual nature of electrons.

6 The wavelength of electrons is approximately 100 times shorter than that of visible light. Therefore, an electron microscope has a resolving power 100 times greater than an optical microscope. 7 In Figure 24.15, the electron beam is controlled using a set of magnetic lenses. By increasing the momentum or kinetic energy of the electron, its wavelength decreases. As a result, the resolving power of the electron microscope increases. Checkpoint 24.4 1 In the Davisson-Germer experiment, the electrons are accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 2500 kV in a vacuum. Determine (a) the de Broglie wavelength. (b) the momentum. (c) the kinetic energy of the electron. (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-3' kg, charge of electron = 1.60 x 10-19 C, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s) 2 A microscopic object is observed using an optical microscope. The optical microscope uses visible light of wavelength 6 x 10-7 m. An electron microscope using electrons which have been accelerated through a potential difference of 4800 V is used to observe the same object. Compare the resolving power. 24.3 Atomic Structure Bohr's Postulate 1 Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom was put forward to explain the spectral emission from the hydrogen atom called the Balmer series. 2 There are two postulates of Bohr's model:. Postulate 1 Electrons revolve about the nucleus in circular orbits, and only certain orbits are allowed. These orbits are stable with fixed energy states in which the angular momentum L of an electron h is an integer multiple of h, where h =

Usually, the electron is in the lowest energy state, called the ground state at n = 1. By stimulating the atom through collisions thermally, electrically or with absorption of light, the electrons can be excited to higher levels corresponding to n= 2, 3 and so on. Postulate 2 An electromagnetic radiation is emitted when an electron makes a transition from one state of higher energy level to another of lower energy level. A photon of frequency f is emitted according to where E = energy of the higher level and Ef = energy of the lower level. 3 Figure 24.16 shows the emission of a photon with energy hf when an electron undergoes transition from E to Ef.

Radii of Orbits in Bohr's Model 1 A hydrogen atom consists of an electron (charge e) orbiting a nucleus (charge +e) as shown in Figure 24.17. The electron is moving with a tangential speed v in an orbit of radius r.

2 The electron experiences a centripetal force directed to the centre (nucleus) so that it can move in a circle around the nucleus. The centripetal force is given by

3 The centripetal force, F is supplied by the electrostatic force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electron. The electrostatic force is given by

4 5 According to Bohr's postulate of quantised angular momentum,

Squaring both sides of equation (4), 6 Substituting (3) into (5),

7 Using equation (6) the radius of the smallest orbit r, is

This radius of the smallest orbit for the hydrogen atom is called the Bohr radius. 8 From equation (6) the radius r increases as

9 10 Equation (6) shows that electrons can only orbit the nucleus at only certain distances. Figure 24.18 shows the possible orbits in the Bohr model.

Energy Levels in Hydrogen Atoms 1 The electron orbiting the nucleus possesses two types of energy: kinetic energy due to its motion and electric potential energy due to the electrostatic force. 2 Substituting equation (3) into

5 6 Equation (10) shows that the electron can only have certain amount of energies, depending on which orbit is in. The energy of the electron is said to be quantised.

7 The energy El is called the ground state level because the electron usually occupies this level. Hence, 13.6 eV is required to remove the electron in the innermost orbit to infinity. 8 The energy level can be written as 9 The subsequent energy levels are

10 Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom can also be applied to other atoms with one electron, for example, the singly ionised helium atom He+, the doubly ionised lithium atom, Li2+ and the triply ionised beryllium atom, BO+.

11 The derivation for r n and En earlier are still valid with one modification. All e2 term in the formula are replaced with Ze2 where Z is the atomic number of the single-electron atom. Hence,

12 Bohr's model of the atom fails in the case of atoms with more than one electron. Line Spectra 1 Figure 24.19 shows an arrangement to analyse the light emitted by atoms of a gas in a discharge tube.

2 The prism separates the light into its component colours, with each component colour generates a bright line. 3 Each of these lines is called a line spectra. In this case, the line spectra is known as the emission spectra. Each line is a characteristic of a particular type of atom. 4 If white light passes through a gas, the wavelengths of light absorbed would appear as a series of dark lines called the absorption spectrum, shown in Figure 24.20.

Explanation of Line Spectra for Hydrogen Atom 1 The electron in a hydrogen atom can be situated at any one of the levels postulated by Bohr's model. 2 At room temperature, the hydrogen atom will usually be in the ground state, where n = 1. 3 During electric discharge or high temperature, the collisions between free electrons and the hydrogen atom will transfer energy to the electron in the ground state. 4 The electron is now in an excited state. When it makes a transition to a lower state, a photon is given off. Figure 24.21 shows the excitation of a hydrogen atom followed by the emission of a photon.

5 When an electron makes a transition from a higher energy level, n to a lower energy, n', a photon of wavelength A, is emitted.

6 For the case of a photon emitted from a hydrogen atom,

where R is known as the Rydberg constant, with a value of 1.0974 x 107m-1. 7 The spectral lines corresponding to the transition of electrons from higher energy levels to a particular energy level is called a series. Table 24.2 shows the different spectral series of the hydrogen atom.

8 Figure 24.22 shows the transitions between energy levels that correspond to the various observed spectral lines.

EXAMPLE 24.13 Determine the radius of the orbit corresponding to n = 4 of the hydrogen atom.

EXAMPLE 24.14 An electron which is initially in the third excited state makes a transition to the ground state. What is the wavelength of the emitted photon?

EXAMPLE 24.15 Calculate the maximum and minimum wavelength in the Balmer series. In order for the wavelength A, to be the maximum, E = E3.

Checkpoint 24.5 1 Which state in the hydrogen atom corresponds to a radius of 0.8496 nm? 2 An electron is in the n = 3 orbit of a hydrogen atom. Calculate the (a) orbital radius. (b) speed. (c) angular momentum. (d) centripetal acceleration. 3 Find the energy, in electron-volt (eV), of a hydrogen atom in a ground state. 4 A hydrogen atom is in the ground state. Find the longest wavelength that it will absorb. 5 Compute the wavelength of the fifth line in the Lyman series. Excitation Energy and Ionisation Energy 1 Excitation energy is the energy required by an electron to bring it from the ground state (n = 1) to any other excited state (n > 1). 2 Excitation energy is the product of charge of electron, e and the excitation potential, V. Excitation energy = (charge of electron, e) x (excitation potential, V) 3 In Figure 24.22, the excitation energy of an electron moving from the ground state n = 1 to the excited state n = 2 is equal to the energy difference between these states.

4 Ionisation energy or binding energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state to escape completely from the attraction of the nucleus. 5 For an electron in the ground state (n = 1) to escape the attraction of the nucleus, the electron has to reach the energy level corresponding to n = .. 6 Ionisation energy is the product of charge of electron, e and the ionisation potential, V. Ionisation energy = (charge of electron, e) x (ionisation potential, V)

8 If an electron in the ground state is supplied with energy E which is greater than the ionisation energy, Am, then the difference between E and Eon manifests in the form of the kinetic energy of the electron. Kinetic energy of the escaping electron = E Eon EXAMPLE 24.16 A hydrogen atom in the ground state is excited to the energy level corresponding to n = 3. (a) Calculate the excitation energy. (b) Find the speed of the electron which would cause the excitation of the above hydrogen atom. (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-31 kg)

EXAMPLE 24.17 A gas of monoatomic hydrogen in the ground state is bombarded with a beam of electrons that have been accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 12.1 V. Which spectral lines would you expect to observe? When the hydrogen atom absorb 12.1 eV, it will be raised to energy level n = 3 from the ground state.

Therefore, when the atom returns to the ground state, the possible spectral lines are the first two Lyman lines and the first Balmer line. Checkpoint 24.6 1 A radiation of wavelength 80 nm ionised a hydrogen atom in the ground state. Calculate the velocity of the electron removed from the ground state. (mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-3' kg) 2 Determine the wavelength of the photon that would ionise a hydrogen atom in the n = 2 state and give the ejected electron a kinetic energy of 8.2 eV.

3 Find the maximum wavelength of radiation which will ionise a hydrogen atom in the ground state. 24.4 X-rays 1 X-rays are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths between 10-11 m and 10-' m. 2 Figure 24.23 shows a modern X-ray tube which is used to produce X-rays.

3 When the filament is heated by current flowing through it, thermionic emission occurs. Electrons are emitted from the cathode. 4 The electrons are attracted towards the copper anode by the high potential difference ranging from 104 V to 106 V between the anode and the cathode. 5 The glass tube is evacuated so that the accelerated electrons can move without colliding with air molecules. 6 The electrons decelerate rapidly on impact with the target. As a result, some of the kinetic energy is converted into X-rays. 7 Less than 1% of the total energy supplied to the X-ray tube is converted into X-rays. The rest is converted into heat energy. 8 To prevent the target from melting easily, the target is made of heavy metals with high melting points such as tungsten or molybdenum. 9 Oil or water is also used to help conduct heat away. X-ray Spectra 1 A graph of the intensity of X-rays emitted as a function of its wavelength can be obtained using an X-ray spectrometer and a crystal as a wavelength selector. 2 The spectra and its corresponding graph are shown in Figure 24.24.

3 The X-ray spectrum consists of a continuous background of X-ray radiation and a series of characteristic lines with intensity peaks.

4 In the continuous background, the intensity varies smoothly with wavelength. The background intensity reaches a maximum value as the wavelength increases and then falls as the wavelength increases further. 5 The characteristic X-ray line spectrum consists of sharp peaks of high intensity at specific wavelength, which are unaffected by the voltage of the X-ray tube. 6 The peaks are due to electrons from the cathode knocking out inner shell electrons from the target atoms. When the vacant shells are refilled by free electrons, X-ray photons of specific wavelengths are emitted. 7 Figure 24.25 shows the production of characteristic X-ray spectrum.

8 The K-series peaks consist of Ka and K. These peaks occur when the innermost shell, the K-shell, is refilled by electrons from the outer shells. As a result, X-ray photons corresponding to the series are emitted. Figure 24.26(a) and (b) show the transitions responsible for the K-series peaks.

9 The L-series peaks consist of La and Ls. The L-series peaks occur when the second shell, the L-shell, is refilled by electrons from the outer shells. As a result, X-ray photons corresponding to the series are emitted. Figure 24.27(a) and (b) show the transitions responsible for the L-series peaks.

EXAMPLE 24.18 For each of the following, provide a suggestion as to how it can be achieved in an X-ray tube. (a) An increase in the intensity of X-rays (b) A decrease in the minimum wavelength of the X-ray spectrum. Solution (a) Increase the current in the beam of electrons. (b) Increase the potential difference between the anode and the cathode. Checkpoint 24.7 1 The energy levels for the K, L and M shells of silver are as listed. K-shell: 25.51 eV L-shell: 3.56 eV M-shell: 0.53 keV Determine the wavelengths of the Ka and K3 peaks when electrons strike the silver target in an X-ray tube. 2 The graph shows the intensity against wavelength for X-rays produced from an X-ray tube.

(a) Find the potential difference between the anode and cathode which would produce the above graph. (b) Sketch the X-ray spectrum obtained if the potential difference between the anode and cathode is greater than the value in (a). Label the spectrum as Q. 3 Explain the following: (a) The continuous X-ray spectrum (b) The characteristic X-ray spectrum (c) The minimum wavelength of X-rays produced from an X-ray tube. 4 State the factor which determine the values of the wavelengths of Ka and Ks, La and LP peaks. Minimum Wavelength of X-rays Let the potential difference across the anode and cathode in Figure 24.23 be V. Electrical potential energy of electron = Kinetic energy of electron eV = 1 m 1,2

2 me v2 e = charge of electron, me = mass of electron and v = speed of electron. 2 The maximum frequency, 4,,x of the photon radiated occurs when all the kinetic energy of the electron is radiated as a single X-ray photon. m ev2 = eV = hfrna, (h = Planck's constant) 2 3 Therefore, the cut-off frequency is eV fmax = Using f= ceV A'rnin = h Minimum wavelength, 21,m = hc (c = speed of light) n eV 4 There are 2 types of X-rays. (a) Hard X-rays: X-rays of short wavelength and high penetrating power. (b) Soft X-rays: X-rays of long wavelength and low penetrating power. 5 When the current flawing in the cathode is increased, the number of electrons colliding with the target increases. As a result, the number of X-ray photons produced per unit time increases. 6 As a result, the intensity of X-rays increases if more electrons collide with the target per second. The operating voltage of an X-ray tube is 96 kV with a beam current of 1 mA. If its efficiency is 0.9%, determine (a) the number of electrons hitting the target per second. (b) the X-ray energy produced per second. (c) the heat energy dissipated per second. (d) the minimum wavelength of the X-rays produced. Solution (a) Ine t It 1 x 10-3 x 1 11- - = 6.25 x 10'5 e 1.60x 10-19 (b) Electrical power supplied to the tube, P = VI = (96 x 103)(1 x 10-3) = 96 W X-ray energy produced per second = 0.9% x 96 = 0.864 J (c) Heat energy dissipated per second = 96 0.864 = 95.136 J (d) V (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) (1.60x 10-'9)(96 x 103) = 1.29 x 10-" m

1 An X-ray tube produces a potential difference of 35 kV between the anode and cathode. Calculate the minimum wavelength of X-rays produced. 2 Electrons in an X-ray tube are accelerated through a potential difference of 40 kV towards a target. As a result, 600 J of thermal energy is produced per second. However, only 1% of the energy supplied by the electrons is converted into X-rays. Find the average rate at which the electrons strike the target. 3 The beam of current of 10 mA is accelerated through a potential difference of 35 kV in an X-ray tube. Find (a) the number of electrons colliding with the anode per second. (b) the electrical power supplied to the X-ray tube. (c) the energy in the form of X-rays produced each second if the efficiency of the X-ray tube is 0.8%. (d) the heat energy dissipated per second. X-ray Diffraction 1 In order to produce a diffraction pattern, the spacings of the slits on the diffraction grating must be of the order of the wavelength of the X-ray. 2 However, an ordinary diffraction grating is unable to diffract X-rays because the spacings of the slits are much larger than the wavelengths of X-rays. 3 Therefore, a regular crystal which consists of an ordered array of atoms is used instead of a diffraction grating. The distance between each atom is of the order of the wavelength of the X-ray. 4 X-rays directed towards a regular crystal produce waves of different phases which combine and undergo destructive interference. 5 However, if the X-rays are travelling in a certain direction, they would interfere constructively and produce observable diffraction patterns, shown in Figure 24.28.

6 Figure 24.29 shows the diffraction of X-rays from the planes of a crystal. The rays AC and FG are incident on the planes at the glancing angle, also called the Bragg angle.

7 Constructive interference between the two rays occurs if both rays are in phase. The condition for the two rays to be in phase so that constructive interference occurs is path difference between the X-rays = whole number of wavelengths BC + CD = 0, (n = 1, 2, 3, ...) 2d sin 9=n7 (BC = CD = d sin 0) (where d = separation between atomic planes) This equation is known as the Bragg equation.

8 Figure 24.30 shows an X-ray spectrometer which is used to measure the separation between atomic planes in a crystal.

9 Collimators are used to produce a parallel beam of incident X-rays which strike the crystal at the glancing angle 0. 10 A detector detects the diffracted X-rays. Both the crystals and the detector can be rotated so as to measure the glancing angle 0. In an X-ray spectrometer, a narrow beam of X-rays of wavelength 0.156 nm is directed onto a crystal. The detector picks up the first-order maximum at an angle of 45.2 from the beam axis. Find (a) the orientation of the lattice planes (b) the spacing of the lattice planes. 45.2 (a) 2 = 22.6 (b) 0 = 22.6, n = 1 (first order), A = 0.156 x 10-9 m Using 2d sin 0 = nA. nA, d 2 sin 0 1 x 0.156 x 10-9 2 sin 22.6 = 2.03 x 10-b0 m A beam of X-rays of wavelength 0.065 nm reaches a crystal and produces a first-order diffraction maximum at an angle of 18. Calculate the spacing between the atomic planes. Solution = 0.065 x 10-' m, n = 1, 0 = 18 Using 2d sin 0 = nA, d= 2 sin 0 1 x 0.065 x 10-9 2 sin 18 = 1.05 x 10-1 m 1 Show that diffraction is not observed if the X-ray wavelength is less than twice the distance d between two adjacent planes of atoms in a crystal. 2 A beam of X-rays of wavelength 1.28 x 10-10 m is incident on a crystal. Given that the spacing between the lattice planes is 2.19 x 10-10 m, determine the range of orders of diffraction which is not possible. 3 Monochromatic X-rays impinge on a crystal in which the spacing of the atomic planes is 0.5010 nm. The first-order diffraction maximum occurs when the incident and reflected X-rays make an angle of 30.0 with the crystal planes. Find the wavelength of the X-rays. 4 X-rays of wavelength 0.126 nm are incident on a crystal whose atoms are in planes which are spaced 0.212 nm apart. At what angle must the X-rays be directed if the first diffraction maximum is observed?

1 Nanoscience is the study of the properties of structure of the size smaller than several hundreds of nanometer (nm). 2 Objects on the scale of nanometer studied in nanoscience include atoms and molecules. 3 One of the aim of nanoscience is to study how to manipulate and control chemical and biological matter on this very small scale. 4 Nanoscience is widely applied in electronic devices. (a) Molecular scale electronics: A branch of nanoscience which study the uses of single molecules as electronic components. (b) Nanolithography: The study and application of fabicrating nanometer scale structures in nanocircuity integrated circuits. (c) Nanoelectronics: The applications of nanoscience on electronic components especially transistors. 1 State few possible benefits of nanoscience. 1 Light consists of bundles of energy called photons. 2 Photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons from a metal surface illuminated by light. 3 Work function, W is the minimum amount of energy required for an electron to escape from the metal surface. 4 Threshold frequency, fo is the minimum frequency of the incident radiation for an electron to escape from the metal surface. 5 Stopping potential, V is the reverse voltage applied to prevent photoelectrons from reaching the anode in a photocell. 6 Einstein's photoelectric equation is given by hf= Kn.+ W. 7 The de Broglie wavelength of a particle with momentum p is A = h where h = Planck's constant. 8 If K = kinetic energy of the particle and m = mass of the particle, then A = J2mK 9 Electrons directed at a thin metal exhibit patterns of diffraction identical to the patterns obtained when X-ray is directed at the foil. Therefore, electrons exhibit wave properties. 10 An electron microscope uses an electron beam which has a wavelength many times smaller than that of light used in an optical microscope. Hence, the resolving power of an electron microscope is many times greater than that of an optical microscope. 11 Bohr's first postulate for the hydrogen atom: An electron of mass m and charge e travelling with speed v in a circular orbit of radius r about a nucleus has an angular momentum given by L = myrn = nh 12 Bohr's second postulate: When an electron makes a transition from a higher energy level n' to a lower energy level n, the difference in energy between the levels is radiated as a photon of frequency f, i.e. hf = En, E n2h2e 13 The radius of the nth orbit, r = 2 0, where n = 1, 2, 3, ... n we ir nie4 14 The total energy, En= 8 8 h 2 2 2, where n = 1, 2, 3, ... n 15 Line spectra are produced due to transitions of electrons between energy levels.

16 The excitation energy is the energy required by an electron to break free from the ground state (n = 1) to a higher level. 17 The ionisation energy is the energy required by an electron to break free from the attraction of the nucleus. 18 When high speed electrons decelerate after striking a metallic target, X-rays are produced. 19 The minimum wavelength of X-rays produced is given by = he min min e 20 X-ray spectra consist of a continuous and characteristic spectrum. 21 The characteristic spectrum consists of sharp peaks of high intensity at specific wavelengths which are unique to every metal. 22 Diffraction of X-rays using a crystal obeys Bragg equation given by 2d sin 0 = nA, (n = 1, 2, 3, ...). 23 Nanoscience is the study of the properties of structures of the size smaller than several hundreds of nanometer. 1 The intensity of the radiation used in a photoelectric experiment is halved. Which of the following is the new graph obtained?

2 Light with constant intensity is incident on a photocell which is connected to a direct current voltage source. Which of the following graphs shows the variation of the current I through the photocell with the voltage V of the source?

3 Light of frequency f is incident on the surface of a metal. If the maximum kinetic energy of the emitted electron is K and h is Planck's constant, what is the threshold frequency of the metal? A hf K C K hf B hf K D K hf 4 What is the energy of a photon of wavelength 400 nm? A 2.95 eV C 3.09 eV B3.00 eV D3.11 eV 5 An experiment is performed to show the photoelectric effect. The frequency of the light is kept constant while the intensity is increased. Which quantity below will increase? A The momentum of the photoelectrons will increase. B The emission rate of the photoelectrons. C The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons. D The minimum de Broglie wavelength of the photoelectrons. 6 In the photoelectric effect, the energy of the photon is used A to release the electron from the lattice only. B as the kinetic energy of the electron only. C to release the electron from the lattice and as the kinetic energy of the electron. D by the electron to produce a new electron called photoelectron. 7 A photon of 2.7 x 10-19J is incident on the cathode of a photocell. By applying a stopping potential of 0.16 V, the current through the cell becomes zero. What is the work function of the cathode? A 2.44 x 10-19J

B 2.61 x 10-19J C 3.10 x 10-19 J D 3.22 x 10-'9J 8 A photocell consists of a material of threshold frequency fo. If the monochromatic light of the frequency 3fo is directed to the photocell, its stopping potential is A 4hf C 2hf e 3hf B D jZfo 9 A particle has kinetic energy E. If its de Broglie wavelength is doubled, its kinetic energy is A 4E C 4 D E B 2E 2 10 According to de Broglie, an electron of velocity v may behave like a wave of wavelength A. Which of the following graphs shows the variation of A with v?

11 If A is the wavelength of a particle with momentum p, which graph has a gradient equal to the Planck's constant?

12 Light of wavelength A is incident normally and reflected by a plane mirror. The photons of the light hit the mirror at a rate of k. What is the force exerted on the mirror by the photons? 2khr, A kh D kh 2k 13 Proton, electron, deuteron and helium nucleus are particles. If these particles have equal kinetic energy, which particle has the smallest de Broglie wavelength? A Proton C Deuteron B Electron D Helium nucleus 14 Electron can be considered as waves because they A have mass. B can be diffracted. C move in a straight line. D have linear momentum. C The electron in the orbit nearest to the nucleus has the lowest energy level. D The Coulomb force between the nucleus and electron maintains the electron in its orbits.

15 A tungsten filament lamp produces white light which passes through sodium vapor. When viewed through a diffraction grating, the observed spectrum is A dark lines on a white background. B coloured lines on a white background. C dark lines on a white background. D coloured lines on a black background. 16 In 1913, Neils Bohr suggested several postulates to explain the origin of the spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Which of the following is not true of the suggestion? A The energy of the atom is discrete. B The angular momentum of an orbiting electron is quantised. C The linear momentum of an orbiting electron may have any value. D The radiation energy emitted corresponds to the difference between two energy levels. STPM 2005/P1/Q45 17 A hydrogen atom absorbs a photon and as a result, an electron is excited from the ground state to the first excited state. If the nth energy level of the hydrogen atom is given by E = 132.6 eV, the photon energy absorbed is A3.4 eV C13.6 eV B 10.2 eV D 17.0 eV 18 Which of the following statement is not true of Bohr's atomic model? A Radiation is emitted when an electron orbits in the allowed orbits. B The angular momentum of an electron in the allowed orbit is an integer of multiple h 19 The figure shows the energy levels of the hydrogen atoms.

Which transition produces radiation of wavelength 436 nm? A n = 4 to n = 1 B n = 4 to n = 2 C n = 5 to n = 1 D n = 5 to n = 2 20 The figure shows some of the energy levels of an atom.

The maximum number of the spectral lines produced by the transition of electrons from these four energy levels is A3 C5 B4 D6

21 Four energy levels of an atom and the line spectrum produced from the electron transitions between the energy levels are shown in the diagrams (a) and (b) below respectively.

Which transition produces P and Q lines? P Q A E4 E2 > Ei B E4 ---> E2 E4 C E2 E4 D E, E4 > 22 Which energy-level diagram represents the energy levels of an atom?

23 An X-ray tube emits X-rays of minimum wavelength Amin when the potential difference V is applied across the tube. If 1i a graph of Amin against j7 is plotted, the gradient is

A h C e B he D he 24 The penetration power of X-rays which is produced from an X-ray tube can be increased by A increasing the current which flows through the cathode. B increasing the potential difference between the anode and the cathode. C focusing the electron beam by using a collimator. D using an anode made of an element of large atomic number. 25 The graph shows a spectrum produced by an X-ray tube.

If the accelerating voltage is raised, A the value of will decrease. mm B the value of A,. will increase. C the wavelength of the characteristic lines K and K will decrease. D the wavelength of the characteristic lines Ka and K will increase. 26 In an X-ray tube, the minimum wavelength produced is 4.0 x 10-"m. If the potential difference between the cathode and the anode is decreased to half of the original value, the minimum wavelength becomes A 2.0 x 10-" m B 4.0 x 10-11 m C 8.0 x 10-11 m D 1.6 x 10-1 m 27 The graph shows the X-ray spectra I and II produced by an X-ray tube when it is operated at two different voltages.

Which statement explains why the minimum wavelength of spectrum II is longer than that of spectrum I?

A A lower voltage is used to produce spectrum II. B A higher voltage is used to produce spectrum II. C A lighter element is used as the target material to produce spectrum II. D A heavier element is used as the target material to produce spectrum II. 28 When a beam of X-ray of wavelength 3.10 x 10-10m is directed at a glancing angle of 26.5 to a crystal, a second order diffraction is observed. What is the interplanar distance of the crystal? A 3.88 x 10-1 m B 6.95 x 10-1 m C 7.76 x 10-1 m D 1.39 x 10-19m 29 The minimum wavelength of the X-rays emitted from an X-ray tube depends on A the material of the target. B the material of the filament. C the current through the filament. D the accelerating potential of the X-ray tube. 30 The figure shows the first-order diffraction of an incident X-ray by a crystal. Given that the wavelength of the X-ray and the separation between the atomic planes are 2.05 x 10-10m and 4.10 x 10-10m respectively, 0 is A 135 B 140 C 151 D 160

1 The work function for Cesium is 2.14 eV. Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectrons emitted from Cesium surface when illuminated by light of wavelength 565 nm. 2 In a photoelectric experiment, light of wavelength 450 nm is incident on a metallic surface with work function 2.3 eV. (a) Determine the velocity of the most energetic electrons ejected from the surface. (b) Calculate the stopping potential. 3 A light beam of wavelength 0.110 nm collides with an atom. After the collision, an electron is emitted with kinetic energy 180 eV (a) Calculate the energy absorbed by the atom. (b) Calculate the velocity of the electron emitted. 4 An electron has a de Broglie wavelength of 1.2 x 10-10 m. Calculate (a) the momentum (b) the kinetic energy (c) the potential difference required to accelerate the electron. 5 Electrons are accelerated from rest through a potential difference of 1500 V in a vacuum. Many electrons are found to emerge from a very thin crystal with a deflection of 2. When the accelerating potential is halved, calculate (a) the ratio of the new electron speed to the initial speed.

(b) the new wavelength of the electron. (c) the new angle of deflection. (charge of electron = 1.6 x 10-19 C, mass of electron = 9.11 x 10-31 kg, h = 6.63 x 10-34 J s) 6 The energy of the electron in a hydrogen atom is given by the equation E = 13 6 where n = 1, 2, 3,... eV 12 n2 ' (a) Calculate the energy of the electron in the ground state. State your answer in joule (J). An electron in a hydrogen atom makes a transition from energy level n = 5 to energy level n = 2 and emits a photon. (b) Find the energy emitted by the atom, in electron-volt (eV). (c) Determine the wavelength of the emitted photon. (d) State the series in which the line spectra due to the photon is located. 7 The figure shows three of the energy levels of a hydrogen atom.

(a) What are the frequencies of radiation which are emitted resulting from transition between these levels? (b) State the region of the electromagnetic spectrum in which the emitted radiation lies. 8 (a) State the difference between the production of a continuous spectrum and a characteristic spectrum of X-rays. (b) Calculate the shortest wavelength of X-ray emitted by electron striking the surface of a 20 kV television picture tube. 9 (a) State the principle of the production of X-ray. (b) If the potential difference applied to an X-ray tube is 25 kV, calculate (i) the speed of the electron that strike the target. (ii) the minimum wavelength of the X-ray produced. 1 (a) (i) Define the stopping potential in photoelectric effect. (ii) State four most important results from a photoelectric effect experiment. (b) The work function for cesium is 2.14 eV. (i) Calculate the maximum wavelength of light that ejects electron from a Cesium target. (ii) If light of wavelength 452 nm is illuminated on Cesium, calculate the maximum kinetic energy of photoelectron. (c) If this page of this question paper is illuminated by 120 W nr1 of light with wavelength 550 nm, calculate (i) The power received by an area 1.0 cm'. (ii) The number of photons striking each square centimeter per second. 2 (a) State de Broglie's hypothesis and give the relationship between momentum p and wavelength A of a particle. (b) In an electron diffraction experiment, an electron beam which is accelerated on a potential difference is incident normally on a very thin gold film. (i) If the voltage at the anode is increased, what happens to the circular rings? (ii) If a particular ring of radius R is chosen and different values of accelerating

1 voltage V are recorded, sketch a graph of R against ,_. VV (c) (i) A 60 kg marathon runner runs at a speed of 5.0 m s-'. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of the marathon runner. (ii) Explain briefly the production of continuous and characteristic X-rays. 3 (a) State Bohr's postulate for an atom. (b) The following diagram shows an electron of mass m and charge e moving at speed v in a circular orbit of radius r around a nucleus.

If the force attraction between the electron and the nucleus provides the centripetal acceleration of the electron, derive an expression for the radius of the nth orbit of the electron. 4 An X-ray tube operates at an electron beam current of 2 mA and a potential difference of 50 kV. The heat capacity of the anode is 25 J (a) Give two characteristics of suitable cathode used. (b) Calculate the minimum wavelength of X-rays produced. (c) Find the rate at which heat must be removed from the anode. (d) State two assumptions in the calculation in (c). (c) (i) I=I0 cos, e

(iii) I= Io cos, e= 3 Io, 9= 55 4. (a) Optical path = nl, n = refractive index of medium, and 1= distance travelled by light in the medium. (b) (i) Time taken is the same because the optical paths are equal. (ii) Equal number of wavelengths in both glass and plastic. (iii)n glass (14.0) = npiast,o (10.0) 10_5 nglassl nplastic 14 =7 (c) (i) x = AD a Angular separation = x =A = 480x 10-9 rad D a 1.50 x 10-3 = 3.20 x 10-4 rad (ii) Path difference at the centre of the interference pattern,

(n - 1)d= 9A, (1.40 - 1)d= 9(480 x 10-9) Thickness, d = 1.08 x 10-5 m 5. (a) Diffraction: Spreading of waves through a narrow slit or after passing an obstacle.

(iii) When the width of the slit is halved, width of the central maximum is doubled. 1 sin 0 = A, -a, when a' = -2-- a, sin 0' = a 1 Intensity at the centre = -4 Io Half of the light passes through, and spreads over twice the area. (c) (i) m = 1, tan 01 = 6860, 01= 20.14 550 x 103 sin 20.14 = 6.30 x 10-7m 173 m = 2, tan 02= 180' 02=43.9 2(5501x 103) sin 43.9 = 6.30x 10-7m Average wavelength = 6.30 x 10-7m (ii) Advantage: 192 is larger. Percentage error in its measurement is smaller. Disadvantage: Image (spot) is bigger, less sharp and dimmer. 1. It is possible. The amount of energy depends on the frequency and the number of photons. A beam of lower frequency can have greater energy if it has more photons. 2. (c) Different metals have different threshold frequencies. 3. Electrons which are closer to the surface require less energy to escape compared to the electrons further from the surface. Hence, electrons closer to the surface are emitted at greater speed. 4. (a) Photoelectrons are ejected at greater speed. (b) More photoelectrons of the same speed are ejected. (c) No photoelectrons are emitted. 1. Using hf = eV + W, where Icax= eV, W = hf - eV = hc T. (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) (1.60 x 10-'9)(1.32) (184 x 10-9) = 8.70x 10-19J 8.70 x 10-19 1.60X 10-19 = 5.4375 eV 2. (a) Using hf = K.+ W x = Kmax+ y Kmax = x -y

1 2 " MV = X y 2m vmax = V2(x -y)m

Km= eV . , 1 mv2i. sine 0= eV (x - y) sine 0 = eV, T7(x - y) sine = e 3. Using hf= Kmax+ W Ica.= hf - W = hf - W hc =w = F(6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108)l 1 L (55 x 101 _I\ 1.60 x 10-'9)-13'6 = 9 eV 4. (a) Using hf= Kn.+ W hc = eV+ W S When A= 220x 10-9m and Vs = 0.85 V h(3.0 x 10') = (1.60x 10-9)(0.85) + W ...(1) 220x 10-9 When A= 160 x 10-9m and Vs = 2.97 V h(3.0 x 108) - (1.60 x 10-9)(2.97) + W ...(2) 160x 10-9 (2) - (1) 5.11 x 10'4 h = 3.39 x 10-'9 = 6.64 x 10-34J s-' (b) Substituting h= 6.64 x 10-34J s-1 into (1), (6.64x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) = (1.60 x 10-'9)(0.85) + W (220 x 10-9) W= 7.69 x 10-19J 7.69 x 10-'9J 160x 10-9 = 4.8 eV 5. From hf= Kmax+ W hf= eVs+ W Vs= (11e)f Gradient =-h = constant e 6. Using hf= Kmax+ W Kmax= hf - W Gradient = h

1. (a) p =mv = (0.15)(0.12) = 0.018 kg m s-1 A= h= 6.63 x 10-34 p 0.018 = 3.68x 10-32m (b) p = my = (1.67 x 10-27)(6.2 x 104) =2 kg m s' =h 6.63 x 10-34 p 1.0354x 10-22 = 6.40 x 10-12 2. Using A = 21-1-727 6.63 x 10-34 'N/2 x 9.11 x 10-" x 15 x1.60 x10-19 = 3.17 x 10-1m 3. Using A- 2iNinIC h)2 1 h2 al 2m = 2mA2 (6.63 x 10-34)2 = 2(1.67 x 10-27)(0.02)2 = 3.29x 10-39J 4. Let K= kinetic energy K= -1 my2 2 - 1 (mv)2 2m K= 2m where p = my p= For the electron, As = 2r/n:1Cs For the proton, 21 = -\12mic So, A..= AP h h 21.N,Ke.N2nniTc ms Ks= mic K m = 1.67x 10-27 1833 Kp Me 9.11 x 10-31 5. Kinetic energy of electron, K= my' = eV 2 Using A = .1271K V2m07

6.63x 10-34 N/2(9.11 x 10-31)(1.60x 10-'9)(2800) = 7.34 x 10-'2m 6. Using A = V2meV h V= h2 2meA2 (6.63 x 10-34)2 = 2(9.11 x 10-31)(1.60x 10-19)(0.12x 10-19)2 = 104.7 V 1. (a) Using A = \j2meV 6.63 x 10-34 -V2(9.11 x 10-31)(1.60 x 10-19)(2500x 103) = 7.77 x 10-" m (b)p= h = 6.63 x 10-'4= 8.53 x 10-22 kg m s-1 7.77 x 10-" p2 - (8.53 x 10-22)2 (c) k= 2m 2(9.11 x 10-31) = 3.99 x 10-13J 2= = 6.63x 10-34 .A , V2me V -V2(9.11 x 10-31)(1.60x 10-19)(4800) = 1.77 x 10-11m Since the wavelength of the electron microscope is 1.77x 10-" 1 34 000 times that of visible light, the 6 x 10-7 resolving power of the electron microscope is approximately 34 000 times that of an optical microscope. 1. ra=()n2 7r n=Virme2ra ohz 7r(9.11 x 10-31)(1.6x 10-19)2(0.8496x 10-9) (8.85 x 10-12)(6.63 x 10-34)2 =4 E h2 2. (a) ra= (irrn e2)n2 [ (8.85 x 10-12)(6.63 x 10-34)2 2 Lir(9.11 x 10-31)(1.60 x 10-'9)213) = 4.78 x 10-1 m (b) v= e2 47rEim (1.60x 10-19)2 V47r(8.85 x 10-12)(4.78 x 10-19)(9.11 x 10-31) = 7.27 x 105m s-1 nh (c) Angular momentum = 27r (3)(6.63 x 10-34) 27r = 3.17 x 10-34 J s-1 (d) Centripetal acceleration = v2 -r

_ (7.27 x 105)2 4.78x 10-1 = 1.106 x 1021m S-2 4\1 3. Ea= (872/12)(w) En [8((98.1815xx117416.6603xx110012)421( r12 (1.60 x 10-19) = -13.6 eV 1 1 1 4. From 2 -, =-hc (E - E,)=-he(E- E1) (Ea,= E1) In order for` the wavelength A to be the longest, Ea= E2 = -13.6 (1) = -3.4 eV 22 1 1 = he {[-3.4 - (-13.6)](1.60 x 10-19)} A _ (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) = 1.22 x 10-7m (10.2) (1.60x 10-19) 1 5. = -h (E6 - E1) 1 ) 5. - (-13.6) 671 )] 1 (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) [-13.6 ( x (1.60x 10-19) A= 9.40x 10-8 m A, 1.-1 mv2= -A, - (ionisation energy) 2 1 hc -mv2= - (k-E1) v= ,l 1 ilE - (k-E1)} = 2 f 6.63x 1734x c - (0-(-13.6)(1.60 x 10-1 9.11x10-31t 80x10-9 = 8.25 x 105m-1 2. -hc =(E - E2) + K.E. hc (6.363x 10-34)(3.0x 108) (k-E2)+ K.E.[ ( 13.6 0- -7T-) + 8.41.60 x 10-19) = 1.07 x 10-7m 3. Energy of radiation = ionisation energy Using -hc =E -E = hc A, E..-E1 (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) [0 -15)] (1.60x 10-19) 2 = 9.14 x 10-8m Checkpoint 24.7 1. Energy involved in Ka peak = [-3.56 - (-25.51)](1.60 x 10-19) = 3.512 x 10-19J

hc Using E=T, he_ x 10-")(3.0 x 108) E 3.512x 10-" = 5.66x 10-" m Energy involved in Kp peak = [-0.53 - (-25.51)1(1.60 x 10-19) = 4.0 x 10-15J he Using E = ' _ he (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) =4.97 x 10-n m rc, 4.0 x 10-" A e 2. (a) Using eV = ATz hc _ (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) V- kin - (1.60 x 10-19)(5.2 x 10-10) = 2390.625 V

3. (a) The continuous X-ray spectrum is produced when the fast moving electrons from the cathode are decelerated on hitting the target anode. Different electrons convert different amounts of their kinetic energies into X-ray photons of different wavelengths, resulting in the continuous spectrum. (b) The characteristic X-ray spectrum is a result of the electrons from the cathode knocking out inner shell electrons from the target atoms. When the vacant shells as refilled by free electrons, X-ray photons of specific wavelengths are emitted. (c) The minimum wavelength kin occurs when all energy of the accelerated electron is converted into an X-ray photon in a single collision. 4. Type of metal used as target. Checkpoint 24.8 1 - he = (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) = 3.35 x 10-" m min eV (1.60x 10-19)(35x 103) 2. Electrical _ thermal energy X-ray energy power supplied produced per per second second Since 99% of the energy supplied is thermal energy, 100 electrical power supplied = -99 x 600 = 606.1\ W 2 However, electrical power supplies = IV= V( t = v( tne ) ) Hence -n Ve = 606.1 n606.1 606.1 t = Ve (40x 103) (1.60x 10-'9) - 9.47 x 1016

3. (a) I = Q = -ne t nI 10 x 10-3 6.25 x 1016 t e = 1.60x 10-49 P = VI = (35 x 103)(10 x 10-3) = 350 W X-ray energy produced per second (d) Efficiency = x 100% electrical power supplies X-ray energy produced per second 0.8%o 350 X 100% X-ray energy produced per second = 2.8 J (e) Heat energy per second = 350 - 2.8 = 347.2 J 1. Using 2d sin 0 = nA,, sin 0= 2d Considering n =1, sin 0 1, 2d , -A.5_ 2d 2. A= 1.28 x 10-I m, d = 2.19 x 10-m m Using 2d sin 0= nA, sin 0 = = n(1.28 x 10-10) = 0.2922 n 2d 2(2.19 x 10-10) Diffraction is not possible if sin 0> 1 0.2922n > 1 n> 3.422 Hence, diffraction of order equal to 4 and above are not possible. 3. d= 0.5010x 10-9m, 0=30.0, n= 1 Using 2d sin 0 = nA,, A = 2d sin 0 = 2(0.501 x 10-9) sin 30 = 5.01x 10-m m n 1 4. A= 0.126 x 10-9m, d= 0.212 x 10-9m, n = 1 Using 2d sin 0 = sin 0 =I 2dA 0 = sin-' (Fa) 2d 1. ( x0.126 x 10-n = 2 x 0.212 x 10-9) = 17.3 Checkpoint 24.10 1. Stronger and lighter materials. Motors on molecular scale. Faster computers. More efficient catalyst. Higher efficiency of solar energy conversion. 1. D: Threshold frequency depends only on the frequency of radiation 2. D 3. B: K = hf - W = hf - hfo hf. = hf - K r hf- K 0= h

4. D: E = hf=he 4.=(6.63x100 0-9 0-34x3.0x108) : 1.60 x 10-19 = 3.11 eV 5. B: The rate of incoming photons increases as the intensity increases. Hence, the rate of emission of photoelectrons increases. 6. C: hf = Kn.+ W 7. A: hf = K + W = 2.7 x 10-'9- (1.60 x 10-'9)(0.16) = 2.44 x 8. C:K = eV h(34) - hf = 2hf 2hfo Vs= e 9. C: Using 2 = p= If A is doubled, p is halved. Using E = - 2 1 mv2= 2 m 2m im (14 = -122-, E p2 If p is halved, E decreases by 1 4' 10. D: 2, = h - = h cc1 p my 11. B: p = = h() ... gradient of the graph p against Ti = h

AP F = -t = k[p - (-p)] = 2kp =214)A 2kh = h h 1 13 D: = mv = \rTa where K = -2 mv2 A is the shortest if m is the largest. 14. B: Only waves can be diffracted. 15. A 16. C: Linear momentum of an orbiting electron can only take up certain values. 13.6 ( 13.6 17. B: E2 - = = 10.2 eV 18. A: Radiation is emitted when an electron falls from a higher energy level to a lower energy level. hc- 6.63 x 10-34x 3.0x 108 19. E= = 4.26 x 10-19J 436x 10-9 4.56 x 10-19 = 1.60x 10-'9 = 2.85 eV n = 5 -) n = 2; -0.54 - (-3.39) = 2.85 eV D: E3 E2 "r E1

20. D: E4 Q E3 E2 P E1 22. A: Difference in energy between levels decreases as n increases. he 23. B: A = eV V thc 1 \ Amin = (e V))( :.. gradient = hc-e ) hc 24. B: Penetration increases when A. decreases. (A= eV ) 25. A: From Amin =-ephe decrease when V increases. 1 26. C: = hc eV 77If V is halved, is doubled. 27. A: From A. = -hc 2 1 eV ..1.inc`V Since for spectrum II >Atefor spectrum I, V for spectrum II is lower, than V for spectrum I 28. B: 2d sin 0= nA, 2d sin 26.5 = 2(3.10 x 10-10) d = 6.95 x 10-' m he 29. D: 2.. = eV 30. C: 2d sin 0'= nA, where 0'= glancing angle. 2(4.10 x 10-9 sin 0'= (1)(2.05 x 10-10) sin 0'= 0.25 0'= 14.48 ... 9 = 180 - 14.48 - 14.48 = 151.04 151 1. Erna.=hc -W = [(6.63 x 10-24)(3.0 x 108)1 x 1 2'14 565x 10-9 1.60x 10-" = 6.02 x 10-2 eV hc 2. (a)1 mv2 = T - w _ (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) - (2.3)(1.60 x 10-'9) - 450x 10-19 = 7.4 x 10-2J

v V29(71.41 xx 1100--2301) 4.03 x 105m s1 max(b) eV = 2 mvmax = 7.4 x 10-2 J 7.4 x 10-20 = 0.463V eV = 1.60x 10-9 3. (a) Energy absorbed by atom = energy of photon - K.E. of electron hc _180 A, =1(6.63 x 10-34)(3.0x 108)1x 1 180 0.110x 10-9 J 1.60x 10-19 = 1.11 x 104 eV 1 (b) -2 mv2 =180 eV V2(180)(1.60 x 10-'9) v= 9.11x 10-31 = 7.95 x 106m s-1 4. (a) = -h h 6.63 x 10-34 = 5.525 x 10-24 kg m s-' P = = 1.2x 10-1 (b) K.E. = P2 = 5.525x 10-24 = 1.68 x 10-17J 2m 2 x(9.11 x10-31) (c) V =KE= 1.68 x 10-17 e 1.60x10-19 Vnew 1 5. (a) mv2 = eV = 2 V V /Ti7, (b) Using = -VT-. Amax hc '\/2Me 6.63x 10-34 1- /2(9.11 x 10-31)(750)(1.60 x 10-19) (c) From na. = 2d sin 0, sins A. From A, ,A 1 Nt V Hence, sin 6 .< -1 sin Onew ( V vinitial 4 sin sold 1e, sin On = sin 2 19_,= 250' 131.6 = 6. (a) = 13.6 eV = (-13.6)(1.60 x 10-19) = -2.176x 10-18

E= (_ 132.6) = (b) E5-2 2 2.855 eV (c) E = (2.856)(1.60 x 10-19) he -(6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) = 4.35 x 10-7m 4.57 x 10-'s (d) Balmer series En,- En 7. (a) hf = En,- En =f= h From n = 5 to n =3, f_ [-0.54 - (-1.5)](1.60 x 10-'9) . 2.32 x 1014 Hz 6.63x 10-34 From n = 4 to n=3, f= [-0.85 - (-1.5)](1.60 x 10-'9) =1.57 x 1014 Hz 6.63x 10-34 From n= 5 to n = 4 f_ [-0.54 - (-0.85)](1.60 x 10-19) 7.48 x 1014 Hz 6.63x 10-34 (b) Infrared 8. (a) Continuous spectrum is produced when fast electron from the cathode are decelerated on impact with the target. The decrease in energy of decelerated electrons is radiated as photons in the continuous spectrum. Characteristic x-ray is produced when a vacancy in the inner shell of the target atom is filled by an electron from a higher shell. The difference in energy of the electron is radiated as a characteristic x-ray photon. (b) eV -1hc min 9. (a) X-ray is produced when fast electrons are decelerated on collision with a heavy metal. (b) (i) 2mv2 = eV 2eV v= m V2(1.60 x 10-19)(25x 103) 9.11x 10-" = 9.37 x 107 m s-1 hc (ii) = (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) (1.60x 10-19)(25x 103) = 4.97 x 10-11m 1. (a) (i) Minimum reverse potential required to stop all photoelectrons from reaching the anode. (ii) Minimum frequency (threshold frequency) of the electromagnetic radiation to eject electrons from a metal surface. Photoelectrons are emitted instantaneously. Photoelectric current increases when the intensity of electromagnetic radiation increases. Maximum kinetic energy of photoelectron depends on the frequency of incident electromagnetic radiation not the intensity of the radiation. (b) (i) W= max = he (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) max W 2.14(1.60x 10-19) = 5.81x 10-7m he ,= (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 10') OD Amax = rr (452 x 10-)(1.60 x 10-19)

- 2.14 = 0.610 eV (c) (i) Power = Intensity x Area = (120)(1.0x 10-4) = 0.0120 W (ii) Power = N- (0.0120)(550x 10-9) (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) = 3.32 x 1016 photons s-4 2. (a) A particle moving with a velocity v behaves as a wave of wavelength A,. = -h where h = Plank's constant (b) (i) When the voltage increases, A, decreases and the radii of the circular rings decreases.

Velocity, of electron, v after experiencing acceleration through a voltage V is mv2 = eV 2 v=V2eV ;71-h de Broglie's wavelength, A, = = my m 2e V

If 0 is small, sin 0 = 0 rad Using Bragg's equation, 2d sin 0= nA, 2d = na, d (20) = nA, Since 6 is small, 20 rad tan 20 From d(20) = 0, and A. = 7ie -n nhl 1 R= d21\rieV The experimental result is in agreement with de Broglie's hypothesis. (c) (i) A = h my 6.63 x 10-34 (60)(5.1) = 2.2x 10-36 m (ii) Continuous X-ray spectrum is produced when fast electrons are decelerated during collisions with a heavy metal. X-rays of various wavelength are produced due to the fraction of kinetic energy of the electrons which is converted into a photon X-ray is random in nature. Characteristic X-ray spectrum is produced when an electron from the inner shell of the target atom is ejected from the near shell to a higher shell drops back to the inner shell. The difference of this electron is emitted as a photon of characteristic X-ray.

3. (a) An electron can only orbit the nucleus in discrete allowed orbits such that angular momentum of the electron = n(h7r) where h is Planck's constant 2 and n = 1, 2, 3, ... When an electron drops from higher energy level En,, to a lower energy level E, the difference in energy of the electron is radiated on a photon of frequency,/ En, - En= hf (b) Angular momentum = n(L1) mvr = n(h n2 h2 m2 v2 r2 = -(1) 4g2 e2 Centripetal force = 47rer2 m v2e2 r = 47cenr2 e2 ...(2) v2 = Ltzeomr Substitute (2) into (1), e2 r2 n2h2 m2 47rEnnir 47r2 n2 E h2 :. radius of the nth orbit, r " 'me= (c) (i) Kinetic energy = -1 my2 2 112(8.64 x 10-20) v= 9.11 x 10-3' = 4.36 x 105m s-' (ii) Total energy of the electron in the nth orbit, 13.6 E = " n2 13.6 = -8.64x 10-20 V(13.6)(1.60 x 10-19) v -8.64x 10-" =5 (iii) Using mvr = r =( nh 2irmv) 5(6.63x 10-34) - 2749.11 x 10-31)(4.36x 105) = 1.33 x 10-9m 4. (a) Low heat capacity so that it becomes hot easily. Low work function so as to eject electrons easily. (b) Amin = he

= (6.63 x 10-34)(3.0 x 108) (1.60x 10-19)(50x 103) =2.449x 10-um (c) Rate at which heat must be removed. = IV = (2 x 10-3)(50 x 103) = 100W (d) Temperature of anode remains constant. Energy loss in the form of radiation is negligible. 1. (a) Neutron has no charge. Hence, it produces very little ionisation when it passes through matter and it is not deflected by electric field and magnetic field. (b) The ejected alpha particle, 42He is easier to detect because it is charged. 2. The radiation knocked off protons from paraffin. The momentum of a-rays is very small and its ionisation power is too low to knock protons from paraffin. Checkpoint 25.2 1. Man defect, Am = [28mp + 28m, + (62 - 28)m,,] - MN = 28(mp + me) + 34m,, - MN = 28m H + 34m,, - MN = 28(1.007825) + 34(1.008665) - 61.928349 = 0.585361 m Binding energy = 0.585361 x 931.5 = 545.3 MeV Binding energy per nucleon = 545.3 62 = 8.795 MeV/nucleon 2. Binding energy = (Am)c2 = f[29mp + 29me + (63 - 29) m,,]} MN x c2 = [29(mp + m) + 34m,, - MN] x c2 = (29mH + 34 me - MN) x c2 = (29(1.00783) + 34(1.00866) - 62.92960) x c2 - (0.59191)(1.66x 10-'7)(3.0x 108)2 106(1.60x 10-19) = 552.696 MeV Number copper atoms = 62. 2.893 x 6.02 x 1023 = 2.68x 102' Total energy required = 2.68 x 1022 x 552.696 = 1.48 x 10 MeV 3. (a) Total mass = 29(m + me) + 30m,, = 26(1.007276 + 0.0005486) + 30(1.008665) = 56.463390y > 55.934939,u (b) Binding energy per nucleon = (tim)c2 A = (56.463390 - 55.934939)(1.66 x 10-27)(3.0 x 108)2 106(1.60X 10-19) 56 = 8.81 MeV/nucleon 0 x 106. 4 (12 x 103)) 1. Number of atoms = (6.02 x 1023) 21

= 1.688 x 10'3 Using - -dN dt = _dN A.= = dt 6.3 x 107 N 1.688 x 10'3=3.73 x 10 -6 s-' 2. Percentage of 288Ra remaining = 20% Hence, N = 20% From, N= 0.2 No ...(1) N =2x No . (2) Substitute (2) into (1), N0= 0.2N0 2 2x = 5 In 2x = In 5 x = 2.32 However, x = -t t = 1620 2 162 =2.32 t = 3758.4 3758 years 3. (a) X= ln712 = 1n2 138 x 24 x 60 x 60 -5.81x 10-8 s-' 2 (b) From -dN = dt