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2006 COSMOS Annual Meeting Berkeley, California, November 17, 2006

DHS/FEMA ATC-58 Project Selection and Scaling of Ground Motions


Yin-Nan Huang University at Buffalo Andrew Whittaker, S.E., University at Buffalo ATC-58 SPP Team Lead Ron Hamburger, S.E. Simpson, Gumpertz & Heger, Inc ATC-58 Project Lead
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Discussion items
ATC-58 project Procedures for scaling ground motions
! ! ! ! Method 1: geometric mean Method 2: spectrum-matching Method 3: Sa at T1 Method 4: amplitude scaling to spectral stripes

Performance assessment
! Intensity-based assessments ! Scenario-based assessments ! Time-based assessments
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

ATC-58 Project
Next generation tools and guidance for performance based seismic assessment and design
! FEMA 273/356 (ATC-33 project) ! PEER research program ! Phase I: assessment tools (2009) ! Phase II: design tools (2014)
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

ATC-58 Project
Assessment options
! Intensity: response spectrum
"Median response

! Scenario: [M, r] pair


"Median response and dispersion

! Time-based: seismic hazard curve


"Median responses and dispersions

Seismic hazard analysis


! USGS seismic hazard maps ! PSHA
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scaling procedures: method 1


Amplitude scale a pair of motions to minimize the sum of the residuals between the target spectrum and the geometric-mean spectrum Preserves both correlation between components of a pair and irregular shape of spectra
Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2

1.5 1

EQ1 EQ2 Geometric mean Target spectrum

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scaling procedures: method 1


50 pairs of amplitude-scaled NF (25) and FF motions Spectral shapes for the median and target spectra Dispersion in spectral demand retained Benchmark dataset (Bin 1)
Spectral acceleration (g)

4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

Spectral acceleration (g)

4 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

Median 16th and 84th Target spectrum

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scaling procedures: method 2


Spectrum-matching using RSPmatch Bin 2 motions are spectrum-matched Bin 1 motions Target spectra: median NF and FF spectra of Bin 1
Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2

Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2
Median, 16th and 84th Bin 1 Bin 2

1.5 1

1.5 1

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scaling procedures: method 3


Amplitude-scale individual ground motion records to a target spectral acceleration at T1 (Shome, Cornell, et al.)
Spectral acceleration (g)

4 3 2 1 0 0 0.5 1 1.5 Period (sec) 2

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scaling procedures: method 4


Probability density function

5 a. !=0.3g; "=0.4 4 3 2 1

Sample spectral striping


! Computation at 1 second ! 5 stripes ! "=0.3g and #=0.4
1

x1 x2 x3 x4
0

x5

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Spectral acceleration (g) b.

Cumulative distribution function

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0

!=0.3g; "=0.4

Spectral acceleration (g)

c.

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 Spectral acceleration (g)

0.5

1 Period (sec)

1.5

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scaling procedures: method 4


Generate 11 spectral stripes using " and #; Bin 1 FF Amplitude scale one ground motion, randomly selected from Bin 1 FF, to one of the spectral stripes at the first mode period; repeat 11 times with randomly selected motions
3
Spectral acceleration (g)

11 spectral stripes using ! and " in Bin 1 motions

0 0 1 2 Period (sec) 3 4

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Evaluation of method 2
Nonlinear response analysis of bilinear oscillators
! Yield strength: infinity, 0.4W, 0.2W, 0.1W and 0.06W ! Underestimates median (nonlinear); dispersion is lost
Peak displacement, Sd (m)

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 Period1 (sec) a. 84th, 50th and 16th pers. of Sd, elastic

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 Period 1 (sec) b. 84th, 50th and 16th pers. of Sd, Fy=20%W

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2

LBin 1 LBin 2 Lyield displacement

2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4 Period2 (sec) c. 84th, 50th and 16th pers. of Sd, Fy=6%W

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Evaluation of method 3
Nonlinear response analysis of bilinear oscillators
! First mode period scaled motions across range of periods ! Unbiased estimate of median
Peak displacement, Sd (m)

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 Period1 (sec) a. 84th, 50th and 16th pers. of Sd, elastic

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 2 Period 1 (sec) b. 84th, 50th and 16th pers. of Sd, Fy=20%W

0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2

LBin 1 LBin 3 Lyield displacement

2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4 Period2 (sec) c. 84th, 50th and 16th pers. of Sd, Fy=6%W

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Evaluation of method 4
Nonlinear response analysis of bilinear oscillators
! Yield strength: infinity, 0.4W, 0.2W, 0.1W and 0.06W ! 10,000 combinations of 11 seed motions from Bin 1 ! Unbiased estimate of median
0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Period1 (sec) a. !, elastic 2 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Period 1 (sec) b. !, Fy=20%W 2 >5 <5 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 Period2 (sec) c. !, Fy=6%W 4
Median of Bin 1 Distribution for median estimate of Bin 4(16,50,84)

! (m)

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Evaluation of method 4
Nonlinear response analysis of bilinear oscillators
! Yield strength: infinity, 0.4W, 0.2W, 0.1W and 0.06W ! 10,000 combinations of 11 seed motions from Bin 1 ! Overestimates dispersion in displacement response
1.2 0.8
!

1.2 >5 0.8 0.4 0 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Period 1 (sec) a. !, elastic 2 0 0.4 0.8 1.2 1.6 Period 1 (sec) b. !, Fy=20%W 2 <5

1.2 0.8 0.4 0 2 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 Period 2 (sec) c. !, Fy=6%W

! of Bin 1 Distribution for estimate of ! for Bin 4(16,50,84)

0.4 0

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2

Summary-1

Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2

1.5 1

1.5 1

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

Method 1: geometric mean

! Pros: retains irregular spectral shape and correlation between components; no need to compute T1 easy to implement; ! Cons: finding a set of ground motions with a median (or mean) spectrum that matches the target spectrum; treatment of dispersion

Method 2: spectrum matching


! Pros: no need to compute T1; easy to implement ! Cons: underestimates median displacement demand in highly nonlinear systems; greatly reduces dispersion
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2

Summary-2
Method 3: Sa at T1

Spectral acceleration (g)

2.5 2

1.5 1

1.5 1

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

0.5 0 0 1 2 3 Period (sec) 4

! Pros: unbiased estimate of median demand; easy to implement ! Cons: dispersion is lost for near-elastic systems; need to know T1

Method 4: Spectral-stripes
! Pros: unbiased median demand; conservatively estimates dispersion ! Cons: minor level of complexity; need to know T1
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Intensity-based assessment
Calculate loss given a response spectrum Compute median displacements and accelerations only; some dispersion retained Hazard representation
! 5% damped spectrum for horizontal shaking

Scaling procedure
! Amplitude scale a number (n) of recorded ground motions (NF or FF) using Method 3: Sa at T1 ! Required number is a function of dispersion in the displacement response given the scaling procedure, required accuracy of the estimate, and required confidence in the estimate ! For #=0.55, 75% confidence, 20% of median, 12 ground motions required.

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Scenario-based assessment
Calculate a distribution of loss (median, fractiles) given an earthquake magnitude and distance Compute the median displacements and accelerations and their dispersions Hazard representation
! Median spectral demand and dispersions in the demand defined by a controlling [M, r] pair and an attenuation relationship

Scaling procedure
! Generate 11 spectral curves based on median demands and dispersions ! Amplitude-scale 11 recorded ground motions, one per stripe (value of Sa) at T1
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Time-based assessment
Establish distribution of annualized loss Compute the median displacements and accelerations and their dispersions at selected annual frequencies of exceedance Hazard representation
! Seismic hazard curves

Scaling procedure
! Determine mean spectral ordinates at the selected frequencies of exceedance and T1 ! Amplitude scale 12 recorded ground motions to the target spectral ordinates using Method 3 ! Series of intensity-based assessments ! Method 4 scaling could be used to capture dispersion (epistemic uncertainty) at each annual frequency of exceedance
ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Issues yet to be addressed


Multi-mode scaling rules
! Mid-rise and high-rise buildings ! Nonstructural components and systems

Scaling of small AFE (0.0004), near-fault motions


! ATC-63 project recommendations

Rotated geometric mean and max/min shaking


! USGS seismic hazard maps and correction factors ! BSSC Project 07

Forward rupture directivity


! BSSC Project 07 ! FN and FP motions

Three-components sets of acceleration histories


ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines

Acknowledgments
Robert Bachman Craig Comartin Allin Cornell C.B. Crouse Greg Deierlein Robert Hanson Stephen Harmesan Jon Heintz John Hooper Charles Kircher E.V. Leyendecker Nico Luco Michael Mahoney Andy Merovich Jack Moehle Paul Somerville

ATC-58: Development of Next-Generation Performance-Based Seismic Design Guidelines