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Faults and Mountains

Good day students! Do you know how mountains were form? And how faults are also form. Mountains can be explained as landforms that rise well above the surrounding land for a limited area in the form of a peak. This module will help you learn more about this. As you do the Activities and exercises in the module, you will be able to: 1. Describe and Understand Faults and Mountains. 2. Know the kinds of Faults and Mountains.
I. Pre-test:

Directions: Choose the letter of the correct answer.


1. ______ It is formed when two continental tectonic plates collide and their edges crumble to form mountains. a) Fold Mountains c) Volcanic Mountains b) Fault-Block Mountains d) Plateau Mountains 2. ______ These Mountains are formed when large amounts of molten rock or magma push the earths crust from underneath. a) Fold Mountains c) Volcanic Mountains b) Dome Mountains d) Plateau Mountains 3. ______ These are large areas of high levels of flat land, over 600 meters above sea level formed due to earths internal activity. a) Fold Mountains c) Volcanic Mountains b) Fault-Block Mountains d) Plateau Mountains 4. ______ These Mountains are created when faults or cracks in the Earth's crust force materials or blocks of rocks upward or down. a) Fold Mountains c) Volcanic Mountains b) Fault-Block Mountains d) Plateau Mountains 5. ______ They are created when magma pushes its way from beneath the earth to the crust. a) Fold Mountains c) Volcanic Mountains b) Fault-Block Mountains d) Plateau Mountains

Check your answers with your Teacher. Then, move on to. What you Need to Know.

There are five basic kinds of mountains: Fold Mountains: These are the most common types of mountains. These are formed when two continental tectonic plates collide and their edges crumble to form mountains. The crust is uplifted forming folds on top of the other. Vast mountain ranges stretching across thousands of kilometres are Fold Mountains. The Himalayan Mountains in Asia are examples of Fold Mountains. Fault-Block Mountains: The Fault-block Mountains or block mountains are created when faults or cracks in the Earth's crust force materials or blocks of rocks upward or down. The uplifted blocks are Block Mountains or horsts. The intervening dropped blocks are called graben, which can be small or form rift valley systems. These block mountains break up into chunks or blocks and move either up or down. When they move apart blocks of rock get stacked on one another Fault-block Mountains usually have a steep front side and then a sloping back side. The Harz Mountains in Germany are examples of Fault-Block Mountains. Dome Mountains: Dome Mountains are also called Upwarped Mountains. These mountains are formed when large amounts of molten rock or magma push the earths crust from underneath. The magma in this case never reaches the top surface of the earth. So even before it can erupt the source of magma goes away leaving the pushed up Rock as such. This rock then cools and forms a mountain. With time the mountain forms a dome shape, where it gets warped due to erosion. The Black hills of South Dakota in the USA are examples for Dome Mountains. Volcanic mountains: Volcanic mountains are created by volcanoes as the name suggests. They are created when magma pushes its way from beneath the earth to the crust, and when it reaches the surface, it erupts as lava, ash, rocks and volcanic gases. These erupting materials build around the vent through which they erupted. These mountains are then shaped by further eruptions, lava flows, and collapses. Mount Fuji in Japan, Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii are examples of volcanic mountains. Plateau Mountains: Plateau Mountains are formed by Erosion. These are large areas of high levels of flat land, over 600 meters above sea level formed due to earths internal activity. Over billions of years, the rivers can cut deep into a plateau and make tall mountains. These mountains are found near Fold Mountains. The mountains in the Catskills of New York are examples of Plateau Mountains.

II. Post Test: a. Activity 1


Direction: Study and Explain how mountains are formed. (10 pts.)

b. Activity 2
Mountains can be explained as landforms that rise well above the surrounding land for a limited area in the form of a peak. Mountains are steeper, larger and taller than hills and are more than 600 metres in height. Mountainous regions are called montane.Many mountains are so high that they reach the colder layers of the atmosphere. This fact leads to different climates forests, flora and fauna in the same mountain. Mountain life is less preferable due to harsh climates, less suitability for agriculture and also less oxygen as we go higher up. How are these mountains formed? The Earth's crust is made up of 6 huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. When two slabs of the earth's crust smash into each other the land can be pushed upwards, forming mountains. Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents. Convergence due to converging plates can be either continental-oceanic convergence, oceanic-oceanic convergence or continental-continental convergence. When a plate of continental crust converges with a plate of oceanic crust, the heavier oceanic crust will move under the continental crust and this process is called subduction. This is the process through which mountains and volcanoes are formed when the subducted oceanic crust is melted and recycled to the surface (e.g. West coast of North and South America). When a place of oceanic crust converges with another plate of oceanic crust, the older crust will subduct under the newer crust that is less dense leading to volcanic ring islands (e.g. Japanese islands). When two plates of continental crusts come into contact with each other, neither of them will subduct beneath the other due to their densities. So this collision leads to formation of big mountains with fragments of oceanic sediments in them even in the highest peaks (e.g. Alps in Europe, Himalayas in Asia).

1. Describe how Mountains and Faults are formed? _____________________________________________________________________ 2. What happens when two plates of continental crusts come into contact? _____________________________________________________________________ 3. A subduction happens when? _____________________________________________________________________ 4. What happens when older crust subduct to newer crust? _____________________________________________________________________

Check your answers with the answer key. Write your score.
My Score: ________

introduction to mountains: Mountains can be explained as landforms that rise well above the surrounding land for a limited area in the form of a peak. Mountains are steeper, larger and taller than hills and are more than 600 metres in height. Mountainous regions are called montane. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a mountain as a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relatively to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable. Many mountains are so high that they reach the colder layers of the atmosphere. This fact leads to different climates forests, flora and fauna in the same mountain. Mountain life is less preferable due to harsh climates, less suitability for agriculture and also less oxygen as we go higher up. How are these mountains formed? The earths crust is made up of large plates called tectonic plates that fit into each other. These plates keep moving a few centimetres every year. Mountains form along the boundaries where the tectonic plates move towards each other (convergent boundaries). The tectonic plates collide triggering deformation and thickening of the crust. This in turn leads to crustal uplift and mountain formation. This process is a horizontal compression that leads to deformation folding and faulting of layers into folds or wrinkles along the convergent plate boundaries. This crustal uplift can be either a hill or a mountain depending upon the height and slope of the formation. But also to balance the weight of the earth surface, much of the compressed rock is forced downward, producing deep mountain roots making mountains for both upward and downward. Convergence due to converging plates can be either continental-oceanic convergence, oceanic-oceanic convergence or continental-continental convergence. When a plate of continental crust converges with a plate of oceanic crust, the heavier oceanic crust will move under the continental crust and this process is called subduction. This is the process through which mountains and volcanoes are formed when the subducted oceanic crust is melted and recycled to the surface (e.g. West coast of North and South America). When a place of oceanic crust converges with another plate of oceanic crust, the older crust will subduct under the newer crust that is less dense leading to volcanic ring islands (e.g. Japanese islands). When two plates of continental crusts come into contact with each other, neither of them will subduct beneath the other due to their densities. So this collision leads to formation of big mountains with fragments of oceanic sediments in them even in the highest peaks (e.g. Alps in Europe, Himalayas in Asia). Types of mountains: Mountains can be classified into five different basic types based on the cause that formed the mountain, type of rocks, shape and placement on land. Fold Mountains (Folded Mountains) Fault-block Mountains (BlockMountains) Dome Mountains Volcanic Mountains Plateau Mountains Fold Mountains: These are the most common types of mountains. These are formed when two continental tectonic plates collide and their edges crumble to form mountains. The crust is uplifted forming folds on top of the other. Vast mountain ranges stretching across thousands of kilometres areFold Mountains. The Rocky Mountains in North America, the Alps in Europe, the Andes in South America, the Urals in Russia and the Himalayan Mountains in Asia are examples of Fold Mountains. Fault-Block Mountains:

The Fault-block Mountains or block mountains are created when faults or cracks in the Earth's crust force materials or blocks of rocks upward or down. The uplifted blocks are Block Mountains or horsts. The intervening dropped blocks are called graben, which can be small or form rift valley systems. These block mountains break up into chunks or blocks and move either up or down. When they move apart blocks of rock get stacked on one another Fault-block Mountains usually have a steep front side and then a sloping back side. The Sierra Nevada Mountains in North America and the Harz Mountains in Germany are examples of FaultBlock Mountains. Dome Mountains: Dome Mountains are also called Upwarped Mountains. These mountains are formed when large amounts of molten rock or magma push the earths crust from underneath. The magma in this case never reaches the top surface of the earth. So even before it can erupt the source of magma goes away leaving the pushed up Rock as such. This rock then cools and forms a mountain. With time the mountain forms a dome shape, where it gets warped due to erosion. The Black hills of South Dakota in the USA and the Adirondack Mountains in New York are examples for Dome Mountains. Volcanic mountains: Volcanic mountains are created by volcanoes as the name suggests. They are created when magma pushes its way from beneath the earth to the crust, and when it reaches the surface, it erupts as lava, ash, rocks and volcanic gases. These erupting materials build around the vent through which they erupted. These mountains are then shaped by further eruptions, lava flows, and collapses. Mount Fuji in Japan, MountRainer in the US, including Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii are examples of volcanic mountains. Plateau Mountains: Plateau Mountains are formed by Erosion. These are large areas of high levels of flat land, over 600 meters above sea level formed due to earths internal activity. Over billions of years, the rivers can cut deep into a plateau and make tall mountains. These mountains are found near Fold Mountains. The mountains in New Zealand and the Catskills of New York are examples of Plateau Mountains. The highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas. Mauna Loa, stands taller than Mount Everest when measured from its base on the ocean floor but not in terms of summit altitude. The tallest mountain in the solar system is Olympus Mons, located on Mars. Mountains and mountain ranges throughout the world have been left in their natural state, and are primarily used for recreation, while others are used for logging, mining, grazing. Hiking, backpacking, mountaineering, rock climbing, ice climbing, downhill skiing, and snowboarding are recreational activities enjoyed on mountains.

Types of Mountains How are mountains formed? Mountains are formed by slow but gigantic movements of the earth's crust (the outer layer of the Earth). The Earth's crust is made up of 6 huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. When two slabs of the earth's crust smash into each other the land can be pushed upwards, forming mountains. Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents.
Did you know? Earthquakes occur when two plates pushing past each other cause a fracture in the Earths crust.

Mountains form in different ways Sometimes the crust has folded and buckled, sometimes it breaks into huge blocks. In both cases, great areas of land are lifted upwards to form mountains. Other mountains are formed by the earth's crust rising into a dome, or by volcanic activity when the crust cracks open. What different types of Mountains are there? There are five basic kinds of mountains: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fold Mountains (Folded Mountains) Fault-block Mountains (Block Mountains) Dome Mountains Volcanic Mountains Plateau Mountains

These different types of mountain names not only distinguish the physical characteristics of the mountains, but also how they were formed. Fold Mountains Fold mountains are the most common type of mountain. The worlds largest mountain ranges are fold mountains. These ranges were formed over millions of years. Fold mountains are formed when two plates collide head on, and their edges crumbled, much the same way as a piece of paper folds when pushed together. The upward folds are known as anticlines, and the downward folds are synclines. Examples of fold mountains include: Himalayan Mountains in Asia the Alps in Europe the Andes in South America the Rockies in North America the Urals in Russia The Himalayan Mountains were formed when India crashed into Asia and pushed up the tallest mountain range on the continents. In South America, the Andes Mountains were formed by the collision of the South American continental plate and the oceanic Pacific plate. Did you know?

Two Tectonic Plates meet along the Southern Alps. This is called a fault line. The Southern Alps are constantly changing because the Pacific Plate is being pushed down under the Australian Plate and that causes the Alps to rise up. icon Fault-block Mountains These mountains form when faults or cracks in the earth's crust force some materials or blocks of rock up and others down. Instead of the earth folding over, the earth's crust fractures (pulls apart). It breaks up into blocks or chunks. Sometimes these blocks of rock move up and down, as they move apart and blocks of rock end up being stacked on one another. Often fault-block mountains have a steep front side and a sloping back side. Examples of fault-block mountains include: the Sierra Nevada mountains in North America the Harz Mountains in Germany icon Dome Mountains Dome mountains are the result of a great amount of melted rock (magma) pushing its way up under the earth crust. Without actually erupting onto the surface, the magma pushes up overlaying rock layers. At some point, the magma cools and forms hardened rock. The uplifted area created by rising magma is called a dome because of looking like the top half of a sphere (ball). The rock layers over the hardened magma are warped upward to form the dome. But the rock layers of the surrounding area remain flat. As the dome is higher than its surroundings, erosion by wind and rain occurs from the top. This results in a circular mountain range. Domes that have been worn away in places form many separate peaks called Dome Mountains. icon Volcanic Mountains As the name suggests, volcanic mountains are formed by volcanoes. Volcanic Mountains are formed when molten rock (magma) deep within the earth, erupts, and piles upon the surface. Magna is called lava when it breaks through the earth's crust. When the ash and lava cools, it builds a cone of rock. Rock and lava pile up, layer on top of layer. Examples of volcanic mountains include: Mount St. Helens in North America Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines Mount Kea and Mount Loa in Hawaii Find out more about volcanoes iconPlateau Mountains (Erosion Mountains)

Plateau mountains are not formed by internal activity. Instead, these mountains are formed by erosion. Plateaus are large flat areas that have been pushed above sea level by forces within the Earth, or have been formed by layers of lava. The dictionary describes these as large areas of high levels of flat land, over 600 meters above sea level. Plateau mountains are often found near folded mountains. As years pass, streams and rivers erode valleys through the plateau, leaving mountains standing between the valleys. The mountains in New Zealand are examples of plateau mountains