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UNIT-IV: TQM Systems: Quality policy deployment, Quality function Standardization, Designing for quality, Manufacturing for quality.

deployment,

The overall objective of QFD is to improve (reduce) the product development cycle while improving quality and delivering the product at lower costs. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a structured approach to defining customer needs or requirements and translating them into specific plans to produce products to meet those needs. The "voice of the customer" is the term to describe these stated and unstated customer needs or requirements. The voice of the customer is captured in a variety of ways: direct discussion or interviews, surveys, focus groups, customer specifications, observation, warranty data, field reports, etc. This understanding of the customer needs is then summarized in a product planning matrix or "house of quality". These matrices are used to translate higher level "what's" or needs into lower level "how's" - product requirements or technical characteristics to satisfy these needs. QFD itself is a systematic and structured approach used to translate the voice of the customer into the appropriate technical requirements and actions for each stage of product or service development and production. Two major components make up the heart of QFD: product quality deployment and deployment of the quality function. Deployment of the quality function encompasses the activities associated with ensuring that customer-required quality is actually achieved. Included in these activities is the assignment of specific quality responsibilities to specific groups or departments.

Quality Function Deployment Process


Voice of the Customer

Design Requirements

Critical Part Characteristics

Required Manufacturing / Service Operations

Operating Instructions

These characteristics need to be measurable because it will be the monitoring of these characteristics that determines whether the customers requirements are being satisfied. The concept of QFD is based on four key documents which aid in avoiding the problems: 1. 2. 3. 4. Overall customer requirement planning matrix Final product characteristic deployment matrix Process plan and quality control charts Operating instructions

The planning matrix translates the voice of the customer into specific final product/service control characteristics. The deployment matrix takes the final product/service control characteristics and translates them into critical part characteristics, thus moving the customer requirements deeper into the design process. The process plan and quality control charts identify the critical product, service, and process parameters that are vital to meeting the critical part characteristics. They also identify checkpoints for each of the critical parameters. The operating instructions constitute the entire set of procedures and practices that will be performed by all personnel to ensure that the critical parameters are achieved. The main purpose of these documents is to translate and deploy the customers requirements throughout the

product/service design, development, and production process of an organization. The customers requirements are ultimately addressed by the operational personnel who produce the product and deliver the services.

House of Quality is a diagram, resembling a house, used for defining the relationship between customer desires and the firm/product capabilities. It is a part of the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and it utilizes a planning matrix to relate what the customer wants to how a firm (that produces the products) is going to meet those wants. It looks like a House with a "correlation matrix" as its roof, customer wants versus product features as the main part, competitor evaluation as the porch etc. It is based on "the belief that products should be designed to reflect customers' desires and tastes". It also is reported to increase cross functional integration within organizations using it, especially between marketing, engineering and manufacturing. By using QFD, many benefits are realized: 1. QFD makes product quality a function of product design. Quality is built in, and product quality is no longer the result of quality control efforts. 2. Total product development time is reduced. (The actual time to define the product typically increases, but the total design cycle is reduced.) 3. Products are produced at lower cost with higher quality (product design is better). 4. The number of start-up problems is reduced. 5. Documentation and communication between groups and departments are improved, which results in an improved working environment. 6. Any conflicting design requirements are usually identified early. Also, any omissions that are typically the result of oversight are avoided. 7. The critical quality characteristics that need to be controlled are identified. 8. Customer requirements are identified and translated directly into product characteristics, which leads to increased customer satisfaction. It also reduces misinterpretation of customer requirements during subsequent stages.

9. The technology and job functions required to carry out the design are identified and assigned to specific individuals or groups. 10. Specific tools and techniques that will provide the greatest payoff are identified. 11. The organizations means of satisfying customer requirements is documented. 12. A historical database is established. This is a very valuable resource for future design and process improvements. See this link for more: http://www.webducate.net/qfd/qfd.html Standardization Standardization is the process of developing and implementing technical standards. The goals of right standardization can be to help with independence of single suppliers (commoditization), compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality. A framework of agreements to which all relevant parties in an industry or organization must adhere to ensure that all processes associated with the creation of a good or performance of a service are performed within set guidelines. This is done to ensure the end product has consistent quality, and that any conclusions made are comparable with all other equivalent items in the same class. Defining Standards and Quality Standards are ubiquitous in todays world, defining much of the way people, products, and processes interact with each other and with their environment. In the most general sense, a standard can be considered as a model or an example that has been established by some form of authority, custom, or general consent. Standards define characteristics or performances, conveys information, or provide a means of communication. They are used everywhere in both the public and private sectors. They allow governments to collect taxes fairly and efficiently, based on measurements of economic output or amounts of goods traded. People rely on standards when they purchase electrical appliances and expect them to fit a given electrical outlet. Standards allow railroads to connect so that shipments and passengers can cross multiple regions unimpeded. They instill confidence in the safety of drinking water by specifying minimum acceptable levels of harmful contaminants. The Function of ISO 9000 ISO 9000 standards provide an organization with a model to follow for the design, implementation, and assessment of quality management systems. Quality management

refers to the steps an organization can take to fulfill the customers requirements and regulatory requirements while aiming to enhance customer satisfaction and achieve continual improvement of its performance in pursuit of these objectives. Mechanisms are established to research and understand customer needs and expectations and act on the result. Special emphasis is placed on the consistent use of documented, standardized procedures to guide processes in the organization. Processes that are subject to such constraints are more likely to enhance product uniformity and conformance to specifications. The ISO 9000 family of standards consists of three standards: ISO 9000:2000 describes the fundamentals and vocabulary of quality management systems. ISO 9001:2000 specifies requirements for quality management systems. This standard was published in 2000 to improve and replace three previous 1994 versions of ISO 9001, ISO 9002, and ISO 9003. ISO 9004:2000 provides guidelines beyond the requirements given in ISO 9001:2000 to consider both the effectiveness and the efficiency of a quality management system, and consequently the potential for improvement of the organizations performance. Certification bodies cannot register organizations against ISO 9004.

Design for Quality http://wwwhome.cs.utwente.nl/~sinderen/publications/thesis/chapter2.pdf http://www.wiley-vch.de/books/sample/3527325840_c01.pdf Manufacturing for quality http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/14857/InTechQuality_control_implementation_in_manufacturing_companies_motivating_factors_and_ challenges.pdf http://www.nrel.gov/ce/ipvmqa_task_force/pdfs/20ipvmqaf_mikonowicz_powermark.pdf