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Part of Speech

1. Noun. 2. Pronoun. Interjection 3. Verb. 4. Adjective. 5. Adverb. 6. Preposition. 7. Conjunction. 8.

1. Noun:
Noun is name of a person, place, a thing, an activity or quality or an idea. For example: Ahmad, Peshawar, Honesty, Book, Saad, stick, combination etc...

Kinds of Noun:
i. ii. iii. iv. v. Proper noun Common noun Collective noun Material noun Abstract noun

i.

Proper Noun: A proper noun is the name of particular person, place, or thing.

e.g: Ahmad, Lahore and Bang e dara etc ii. Common Noun: A common noun denotes no particular person, place or things. It is common to all persons or thing of the same kind. e.g: Boy, Book, City etc iii. Collective Noun: A collective noun denotes a group or collection of similar individuals considered as one complete whole. e.g: there may be many sheep in a field but only one flock. Here sheep is a common noun because it may stand for any and every sheep. Flock is a collective noun because it stand for all the sheep at once and not for any one sheep. iv. Material Noun: A material noun describes the matter or substance of which things are made.

e.g: wood, iron, milk, butter, air etc. v. Abstract Noun: An abstract noun denotes some quality, state, or action without considering the object to which it belongs; as,

e.g: Quality: cleverness, Height, color etc State: Pleasure, property, youth etc Action: Movement, laughter, flight etc.

2. Pronoun:
A pronoun is a word used instead of noun. e.g: I, We, He, She, It, They, etc..

Kinds of Pronouns:
a) Personal Pronoun b) Reflexive Pronoun c) Empathic Pronoun d) Demonstrative Pronouns e) Indefinite Pronouns f) Relative Pronouns g) Interrogative Pronoun h) Distributive Pronoun i) j) Reciprocal Pronoun Quantitative Pronoun

k) Compound Pronoun

a) Personal Pronoun: The pronouns which are used for persons like I, Ewe, She, You, It, They etcare known as personal pronouns. b) Reflexive Pronouns: self and selves form of pronoun is reflexive when the action expressed by the verbs reflects back upon the subject and not to any other person or things. e.g: myself, themselves, ourselves, yourselves, himself, herself, itself c) Empathic Pronoun or intensive Pronoun: self or selves form of pronoun is emphatic when it is used for emphasis. E.g: I have done it myself. He himself told me.

d) Demonstrative Pronoun: A demonstrative pronoun represents a thing or things. These pronouns include (this, these) (that, those)

This tastes good. Have you seen this? These are bad times. Do you like these? That is beautiful. Look at that! Those were the days! Can you see those?

e) Indefinite Pronouns: These pronouns refer to the persons or things in a general way. They do not refer to any person or things specifically. Therefore they are called indefinite pronouns. e.g: All were saved. None of your stories are famous.

f) Relative Pronouns: A relative pronouns refer to noun or pronoun going before in the sentence. e.g

The person who phoned me last night is my teacher.

g) Interrogative Pronoun: We use interrogative pronouns to ask questions. The interrogative pronoun represents the thing that we don't know (what we are asking the question about).There are four main interrogative pronouns: who, whom, what, which. h) Distributive Pronouns: Distributive Pronouns, which refer to persons or things taken one at a time, as each, either, neither. For this reason they are always singular and as such followed by the verb in the singular.

Each of these girls deserved a reward We may take either of these two books

Neither of them writes well.

i)

Reciprocal Pronoun: A reciprocal is a person used to identify an action or feeling that is reciprocated. These are includes one another each other.

j)

Quantitative Pronouns: When the words like some, many, much, few, little, etc are used instead of nouns to describe the quantity, they are called quantitative pronouns. e.g: Few are called but many came to the party.

k) Compound Relative Pronoun: If we add ever so or soever to who, which and what, we get compound relative pronoun as: Whoever, whoso, whosoever, whichever, whatever e.g. You have three choices whichever you overlook, you will be in trouble. Whatever man do, they must be prepared to stand by their action.

3. The Adjective:
An adjective is a word which adds something to the meaning of a noun or pronoun. e.g. a good girl, a bad boy, a great leader etc

Kinds of Adjective
1) Proper adjective: those objectives which describe a thing by some proper noun are called proper adjective. e.g: The chinies food = the food eaten in china. The Pak-Nevy = the Navy of Pakistan. 2) Adjective of quality: the kind of adjective quality by showing the quality or state of the thing named. e.g: A brave girl. A sick horse. 3) Adjective of the Quantity: this kind of adjectives qualifies a noun by showing the quantity of the thing named. They tell how much of the thing is meant, as; e.g: the player has much pain.

I have enough bravery. 4) Adjectives of numbers: this kind of adjectives show how many person or thing are meant , or in what order a person or thing stands. e.g: I have two shirts. Many boys were playing crickets. 5) Demonstrative Adjective: this kind of adjectives qualifies a noun by pointing out or demonstrating which thing is meant. e.g: this pen, these plates, those books, those pencils etc 6) Interrogative adjectives: such adjectives are used with nouns to ask questions are called interrogative adjectives. e.g: which doctor should consult? Whose bag is this? 7) Possessive Adjectives: the word my, his, her, its, our, your, their, when are used attributively before a noun are called possessive adjectives. e.g: my books, his dress, their bags. Etc.. 8) Emphasizing adjectives; sometimes the word own and very are used for emphasis ; as, He does his work with his own hands. Use your own brain to solve this problem. 9) Exclamatory adjectives: sometimes the word what is used for exclamation ; as, e.g: what a shot! What nonsense! What a blunder!

4. The verb:
A verb is a word that tells a state or action of a person or thing. e.g: He play cricket. He is a student. Verbs are subdivided into three main classes. i. Transitive verb: A verb is transitive, if the action does not stop with the agent. It passes from the doer to something else. e.g: she picked a mango.

ii.

Intransitive verb: A verb is intransitive when the action stops with the agent and does not pass from the agent to another. e.g: the girl weeps bitterly.

iii.

Auxiliaries: An auxiliaries verb is one which helps to form a tense or mood of some principles or infinitives to form the tense of ordinary verbs e.g: I am writing. She has gone. He did not work.

5. The Adverb:
An adverb is a word used to qualify any part of speech except a noun or pronoun. Usually it is stated that an adverb qualifies a verb, an adjectives or other adverbs but adverbs can also qualifies prepositions and conjunctions. e.g: An almost black cat came very silently towards me. In this example almost: qualifies the adjective black qualifies the verb qualifies the adverb silently. came and very

Kinds of Adverbs:
1) Simple 2) interrogative 3) relative

1) Simple Adverb:
a) Adverb of time or quality: the simple adverb can be distinguished from each other according to their meaning. e.g: He did his work slowly but surely. He behaved foolishly. b) Adverb of place: those adverbs which answer the question where as; e.g: we must rest here not there. God is every where. c) Adverb of time: The adverb which answer the question when as; e.g: I have forgiven him already. We will soon be here. d) Adverb of frequency: those adverbs which answer the question how often. e.g: He always did his best.

He never fails. They have forbidden him twice. e) Adverb of degree or quantity: those adverbs which give the answer the question to what extent in what degree or how much. e.g: I was too careless about my family. He is very clever. f) Adverb of affirmation of negation: Those adverbs which affirm or negate something. As, e.g: surely, I am mistaken. He will probably return tomorrow. g) Adverb of reason: Those adverb which give the reason of something, as; e.g: hence it is proved. He therefore refused to come. 2) Interrogative adverb: those adverb which are used to ask questions , as; e.g: how did he do? How far is this statement true? How often did he go there? 3) Relative Adverb: The interrogative adverbs are sometimes in a relative sense. They are then called relative adverb. e.g: this is where we live. Let me know when you will come.

6. The preposition: A preposition is word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what
relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else: I-e; There is a cow in a field. He is fond of tea. The cat jumped off the chair. In first example the word in shows the relation between two things cow and field.

Kind of Prepositions
a) Simple Preposition b) compound Preposition

a) Simple Preposition: At, by, for, from, in, out, of, off, on, through, till, up, to, with, are called simple prepositions. b) Compound Preposition: These are generally formed by prefixing a pre position.

7. Conjunction: A conjunction is a word which merely join the sentence and sometimes words.
e.g: God made the country and man mad the town. She must weep or she will die. Two and two make four. Conjunction join together sentences or words an often make them complete. Thus; Gull and Junaid are good bowlers. Is a short way of saying.

Kind of conjunctions
a) Coordinating: A Coordinating conjunction join together clauses of equal marks. The chief coordinating conjunction are, And, but, for, or, nor, also, either, etc.. b) Subordinating: A Subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another on which it depends for its full meaning. The chief subordinating conjunction are ; After, because, if, that, though, although, till, before, as, unless, when, where, while.

8. Interjunction:
An Interjunction is a word which expresses some sudden feelings or emotions. Such as, Hello! Hurrah! Ahh, Alas, Hush!, Certain group of word are also used to express some sudden feeling or emotion; as, Ah me! For shame! , well done! ,

The End.

Name: Syed Kausar Ali Shah Reg: BALLB 3876 Date: 19-11-2013 Assignment no: One

Submitted to: Sir Umar Farooq