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PSO Based Optimal Placement and Setting of FACTS Devicesfor Improving the Performance of Power Distribution System

J. Tibin, X. Sini, S. Chitra, V.I. Cherian and SasidharanSreedharan

Abstract--- Power systems, under heavily loaded conditions, are at high risks of probable line outage and consequent voltage instability problem. Real power loss and voltage deviation minimization are reliable indicators of voltage security of power system networks. This paper proposes a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based algorithm for the optimal location and setting of FACTS devicesto improve voltage stability. Particle swarm optimization technique optimizes the locationand setting of SVC, which is used in this paper as FACTS device.The effectiveness of the proposedalgorithm has been tested in IEEE-14 Bus standard test system. Keywords Power System, Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, SVC, Real Power Losses FACTS devices is found to behighly effective in preventing voltage instability [6].However, the benefits and performance of FACTS controllers aredetermined by their location and size [3].Owing to high cost, thenumber of FACTS devices to be used should be minimized andtheir benefits may be maximized through efficient optimizationmethods [6].Static VAR Compensator is a shunt connectedcontroller capable of all possible benefits of FACTS devices [1]-[2]. It is also easy to incorporate in load flow solution andhighly suitable for VAR support As a result of todays power electronics technologies, newdevices capable of providing control to one or more of themain transmission and distribution system parameters have been developed. The definition of a FACTSdevice given by the IEEE is "a power electronic basedsystem and other static equipment that provide control ofone or more AC transmission and distribution system parameters to enhance controllability and increase power transfercapability" [13]. FACTS devices include Thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC), Static VAR Compensator (SVC), Thyristor controlled phase angle regulator (TCPST), Static compensator (STATCOM), Unified power flow controller (UPFC) etc. FACTS devices have been widely used for voltage stability and reactive power compensations. The loss of one of the power sources could suddenlyincrease the load demand on the remaining part of the system, causing severe voltage depression that could results in an ultimate voltage collapse. The changes that are going to occur in the network configuration during contingencies, like generator outages or branch outages, the reactive power flow in the system differs widely under different contingencies. It has long been recognized that the steady-state transmittable power can be increased and the voltage profile along line controlled by appropriate reactive shunt compensation. The voltage magnitude at all or some load buses may fall below the specified lower limits during heavy load conditions and at light loads, the voltage magnitude may exceed the specified upper limits. Thus, shunt connected, fixed or thyristor switched reactors are applied to maintain the voltage levels within the specified limits[5-7]. The Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm belongs to the category of Swarm Intelligence methods. It is a population based algorithm that exploits a population of individuals to probe promising regions of the search space. In every iteration, the velocity vector is adjusted so that the prior best positions (cognitive aspect) and the best positions found by the

I.

INTRODUCTION

HE modern power system networks are forced to be operatedmuch closer to stability limits due to ever increasing load demand, the environmental constraints in expansion of transmission and distribution networks and. In such a stressed condition, the system may enter into voltage instability problem and it has been found responsible for several block outs across the world. A power system needs to be with sufficient reactive power capability to remain voltage secured even under highlystressed conditions. In a deregulated environment, the optimum bidders are chosen only based on real power cost characteristics and this results in reactive power shortage and ultimately the probable voltage instability. Distribution lines, in a deregulated environment, are operated under heavily loaded conditions andit results in increased voltage drop and is in high risks ofoutages. To ensure uninterrupted and quality power supply tothe consumers the power system should be stable undercontingency conditions.The introduction of Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers [2] are increasingly used to provide voltage andpower flow controls. Insertion of

J. Tibin, PG Scholar, Department of EEE, AmalJyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirapally, India. E-mail:josephtibin@gmai.com X. Sini X, PG Scholar, Department of EEE, AmalJyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirapally, India. S. Chitra, PG Scholar, Department of EEE, AmalJyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirapally, India. V.I. Cherian, Professor, Department of EEE, AmalJyothi College of Engineering, Kanjirapally, India. SasidharanSreedharan, Professor, Department of EEE, Vidya Academy of Science & Technology, Thrissur, India.

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particles within a specific neighbourhood (social aspect) act as attractors. Each particle moves with an adaptable velocity throughout the search space, and retains in its memory the best position it has encountered so far [12]. In this paper, identification of optimal location for placement of SVC in IEEE 14 bus bar system is first formulated as an optimization problem and the solution is then achieved through the steps of PSO. The formulation of the problem and sequential steps of PSO as applied to the problem are explained in this paper. Extensive simulation results are supplied to illustrate the new approach. II. PROBLEM FORMULATION

power by working as an inductor. The rating of SVC at bus-i is obtained by using (2). B. Objective Functions and Constraints The goal of voltage stability improvement under contingency condition is to minimize the active power losses and voltage deviation by optimal positioning of SVC and its corresponding parameter. Hence, the objective function can be expressed as: Min F = PLK(5) Subjected to the following equality constraints

A. Modelling of SVC A Static VAr Compensator (SVC) is a shunt connected device and is installed in parallel with a bus. It has the ability to generate or absorb reactive power at the point where it is connected. Figure 1 shows the steady state model of the SVC. The effect of SVC is incorporated in power flow problem as reactive power generation/absorption.

(6) (7) And the inequality constraints Power flow limits: The apparent power that is transmitted through a branch l must not exceed a limit value, Sl max, which represents the thermal limit of the line or transformer in steady-state operation: Sl Slmax (8)

Bus voltages: For several reasons (stability, power quality, etc.), the bus voltages must be maintained around thenominal value: Uimin Ui Uimax III. Figure 1: SVC Connections to a Bus Terminal The model is completed by the algebraic equation expressing the reactive power injected at the SVC node. The model of SVC in this paper interprets the FACTS as a shunt element with varying susceptance B [14]. The active and reactive power value of an SVC from the injected power equations [14] is: Pi = 0 Qi=Vi2 Bt (1) (2) (9)

Where Pi and Qi are injected real and reactive power to a bus respectively and Vi is the voltage at bus-i at which an SVC is shunted. The total susceptance with SVC shunted at bus-i is: Bt= Bi+ BSVC (3)

PSO is an evolutionary computation technique developed byEberhart and Kennedy in 1995, and was inspired by the socialbehaviour of bird flocking and fish schooling [16]. PSO has its roots in artificial life and social psychology as well as in engineering and computer science. It utilizes a population of individuals, called particles, which fly through the problem hyperspace with some given initial velocities. In each iteration, the velocities of the particles are stochastically adjustedconsidering the historical best position of the particles and their neighbourhood best position; where these positions are determined according to some predefined fitness function. Then, the movement of each particle naturally evolves to an optimal or near-optimal solution. Each particle keeps track of its coordinates in the problem spacewhich are associated with the best solution (fitness) it hasachieved so far. The fitness value is also stored. This value is called Pbest. When a particle takes all the population as its topological neighbours, the best value is a global best and is called Gbest. After finding the two best values, the particle updates its velocity and positions with following equation (10) and (11). C. Algorithm of Proposed Methodology Step 1: Input line data, bus data, svc data, voltage limits, line limits and PSO settings. Step 2: Identify the best location for svc placement by the

The net reactive power generated by SVC is QSVC= QC-QL (4) In case, the bus voltage that falls below the specified lowerlimits, the SVC will supply reactive power by working as a capacitor. On the other hand if the bus voltage exceeds the specified upper limits, then the SVC will absorb reactive

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calculation of total active power loss of the system and connect the svc to that particular bus. Step 3: Calculate the base case power flow with the svc connected at the identified bus. Step 4: Randomly generate an initial population (array) of particles with random positions and velocities on dimensions in the solution space. Set the iteration counter i = 0 Step 5: For each particle, calculate and compare its objective function value with the individual best. If the objective value is higher than Pbest, set this value as the current Pbest and record the corresponding particle position. Step 6: Choose the particle associated with the minimum individual best Pbest of all particles, and set the value of Pbest as the current overall Gbest. Step 7: Update the velocity and position of particle using the velocity and position update equations. Vik+i =W* Vik + C1 * rand1 * P best i - Sik + C2 * rand2 * Gbest -Sik Sik+1 = Sik + Vik+1 (10)

(11)

Step 8: If the iteration number reaches the maximum limit, go to step 9. Else set iteration index i = i+1 and go back to step 5. Step 9: Display the optimal solution to the target problem. The best position gives the location for svc resulting in minimum total active power loss for the system. Vik+i = Velocity of agent i at kth iteration Vik+1 = Velocity of agent i at (k +1)th iteration W = The inertia weight C1 = C2 = individual and social acceleration constants (0 to 3) rand1=rand2=random numbers (0 to1) Sik = Current position of agent i at kth iteration Sik+1 = Current position of agent i at (k+1)th iteration itermax = Maximum iteration number iter= Current iteration number Pbest i= Particle best of agent i Gbest= Global best of the group D. Optimal Parameter Value Table1: Optimal Value of PSO Parameters Parameters Number of particles Number of iterations

Individual acceleration Constant Social acceleration constant

Figure 2: Flow Chart for the PSO Algorithm IV. CASE STUDY AND SIMULATION RESULTS

E. Specification of Test System The proposed solution method was tested on an IEEE 14 bus test system, shown in Figure 3. The network consists of 6 generators, of which one is slack and there are 20 lines. The results consist of two steps. The first step is to access the best location and setting of SVC and the second is the calculation of minimum active power loss. The proposed methodology has been tested on IEEE14-bus system as shown in figure 5. Bus-2, 10 are PV buses and 3, 6 and 8 are synchronous compensator buses. Loads were modeled as constant power loads (PQ load) and were solved by using Newton Raphson Power flow Routine. The program was coded in MATLAB.

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F. Results and Discussions The base case without SVC bus voltage level is compared against the base case with SVC and the voltageprofile is as given in Figure.4.The figure shows that optimal placement of SVC slightly adjusted the voltages of PV buses and for minimising the losses. The figure clearly states that all the bus voltages are within the set limits at minimum active power loss with SVC at optimum location

Rective Power Generation (without SVC) Reactive Power Generation (with SVC)

0.60 0.40

0.20

0.00 1 3 5 7 No 9 . 11 13 Bus

1.05

1.00 0.95

11

13

Figure 6: Typical Real Power Generation with and without DG Table.2 shows the active power loss of the system with and without SVC. The losses are reduced when the SVC is optimally located. The optimal SVC bus is identified as bus number 14. Table 2: Active Power Loss without and with SVC Active Power Loss(p.u) 0.3269 0.2225 Total Reactive power generation (p.u) 0.223 0.210

Bus No. Figure 4: Typicalvoltage Levels with and without SVC The active power flows in various lines are given in Figure. 5 The thick black stacked area corresponds to the power flow with SVC and the white area represents the power flow without SVC. Figure 6 shows the bus generations at minimum active power loss using SVC at optimum location. The thick dark black bar represents the reactive power generation at minimum active power loss using SVC and the white bars, the base case without SVC.

Power Flow (with SVC) Power flow (without SVC)

V.

CONCLUSION

This work shows the step by step application of the Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm to solve the problem of optimal placement in a medium size power network The algorithm is easy to implement and is able to find the optimal solution with regard to global best position and size of SVC. The settings of the PSO parameters are shown to be optimal for this type of application and the algorithm is able to find the optimal solutions with a relatively small number of iterations and particles, therefore with a reasonable computational effort. In this paper, a method for determining the minimum voltage deviations by using the FACTS device has been presented. The particle swarm optimization based algorithm has been used to obtain the minimum voltage deviation and active power loss by optimally locating SVC device. The result seemed to be quite promising when tested on IEEE 14bus system. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The authors gratefully acknowledge Dr Federico Milano, for his excellent simulation software PSAT [11]. REFERENCES

[1] B. Singh, N. K. Sharma, and A. N. Tiwari, A Comprehensive Survey of Optimal Placement and Coordinated Control Techniques of FACTS Controllers in Multi-Machine Power System Environments, Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 79-102, 2010.

6

Line Real power flow (pu)

4

2 0

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 -2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 91011

Line No.

Figure 5: Typical Line Flows with and without SVC

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[2]

[3]

[4] [5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

[13]

B. Singh and K. Nehru, Prevention of Voltage Instability by Using FACTS Controllers in Power Systems: A Literature Survey, International Journal of Engineering Science, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 980-992, 2010. S. Sakthivel, D. Mary, and V. S. Kannan, Optimal Location of SVC for Voltage Stability Enhancement under Contingency Condition through PSO Algorithm, International Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 30-36, 2011. F. P. Parasseri, D. S. Antony, and B. Subair, ( SVC s ) Using Particle Swarm Optimization, Population (English Edition), pp. 1-4, 2010. I. Pisica, C. Bulac, L. Toma, M. Eremia, and S. Member, Optimal SVC Placement in Electric Power Systems Using a Genetic Algorithms Based Method, Power, no. 2, pp. 1-6, 2009. M. Kowsalya, K. K. Ray, D. P. Kothari, and S. Member, Voltage Stability Enhancement Through Optimal Location of Var Compensator, pp. 360-365, 2008. R. Mnguez, F. Milano, R. Zrate-miano, S. Member, and A. J. Conejo, Optimal Network Placement of SVC Devices, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 1851-1860, 2007. M. H. Hemmatpour and M. Mohammadian, A Novel Approach for Optimum Reconfiguration and SVC Planning Considering Variable Load Pattern Based on Voltage Security Margin, Canadian Journal on Electrical and Electronics Engineering, vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 514-525, 2011. M. Joorabian, F. Ramandi, M. Ebadi, and X. A. X. Bu, Optimal Location of Static VAR Compensator (SVC ) Based on Small Signal Stability of Power System, Power, no. 8, pp. 1333-1338, 2008. M. N. Nwohu,Voltage Stability Improvement using Static Var Compensator in Power Systems, Sciences-New York, no. 14, pp. 167172, 2009. F. Milano, An Open Source Power System Analysis Toolbox, IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 1199-1206, Aug. 2005 J. Kennedy, R. Eberhart, "Particle swarm optimization in,Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference onNeural Networks, pp. 19421948 1995 Proposed terms and definitions for flexible AC transmission system(FACTS), IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Volume 12, Issue 4, October 1997, Pages 1848-1853

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