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Application of Geophysical Well Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Application of Geophysical Well-Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation


Dr.V.Gopala ao and Mr. .!.Cha"raborty #L$ Asia Ltd.

Abstract
Geophysical Well logs are important information source for CBM prospect evaluation !t identifies coal layers "ithout any ambiguity and offers a permanent record# "hich facilitates spatial correlation# and "or$ out geological history of the area by "or$ers of different discipline at the same time or at different point of time Geophysical "ell log characteristics of coal beds bears a strong semblance to coal ran$ing# recogni%es cleat potential & fracture %ones and provides inferences on thermal history# pressure regime and about stress field of the area that are vital for prospect evaluation Well logs are most reliable data source in various map preparation needed for reserve estimation# forecast production potential and plan for optimal recovery of methane gas Well log data being a permanent record# offers a strong foundation for generating transforms bet"een laboratories derived data vis-'-vis log data for continuous evaluation and apply corrective reality measures to incorporate subtle local variations caused due to geologic environmental changes (hese transforms have found "ider acceptance throughout the globe for various assessment# and handy# to ma$e forecast on production potential Among the array of logs used in CBM prospect evaluation# density log occupies a special position (his is because of its "ider use e g in various assessments# framing transforms# and Gas !n Place )G!P* calculation through volumetric method

Introduction
CBM is an energy source and are held in coal layers in a li+uid li$e state Coals can accommodate si, or seven times more gas volume than conventional sand reservoirs Coals have high micro-porosity and large internal surface area that provides the re+uisite accommodation space to host methane gas# "hich can be recovered before# during and after mining# and even from the debris after abandonment of mining activity# called gob gas After e,traction of CBM# coal layers can act as a good host for C-. se+uestration because C-. has high degree of affinity to coal layers CBM e,ploitation is therefore advantageous from the standpoint of protecting planet Earth from potent green house effect leading to high global "arming

Methane has ./ times more "arming capability than C-. Coals are of follo"ing types0 Peat# Lignite# 1ub-Bituminous# Bituminous# and Anthracite Ma2or elements in coal are0 carbon# hydrogen# o,ygen# sulfur and nitrogen Minor +uantities of metals e g iron# sodium# calcium# mercury etc and many organic molecules are also present (heir organic structure varies depending on content and grade -rganic structures in coal generally are too complicated as can be vie"ed from the e,ample presented here in )3ig /* !t is in these molecular sieves# methane molecule is stored (o e,ploit this gas economically# it is necessary to assess its potential first (o this effect# "ell logs through out the "orld have been found very effective and potent data source
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Coalification, Methane Generation and Entrapment


Coal is a carbon rich roc$ derived from plant material in s"amps Peat is the first stage of transformation !t is created under specific conditions e g "ater logging# lac$ of o,ygen or nutrients# high acidity and lo" temperature !ts subse+uent burial by ongoing geologic processes# "hich led to high temperature and pressure "ith increasing depth of burial# affect the plant material undergo coalification# releasing volatile matters )"ater# C-.# light hydrocarbons including methane4 C56* With on going coalification process# coal becomes progressively rich in carbon content and continues to e,pel volatile matter CBM origin can be biogenic or thermogenic (he re+uirements for biogenic gas generation are0 ano,ic environment# lo" sulfate concentration# lo" temperature# abundant organic matter# high p5 values# ade+uate pore space and rapid sedimentation Biogenic methane gas is generated over a period of tens of thousands of years Biogenic gas can be generated in t"o stages0 -ne# in the early stage# from the peat# favored by rapid sedimentation )!t is believed that most of the biogenic gases "ere probably generated during this early stage* and t"o# in the late stage# in recent geological time and is associated "ith active ground "ater system# "hich provides favorable environment for bacterial activity# including methane generation (his late stage biogenic gas generation

can ta$e place in coal beds of any ran$ (hermogenic origin ta$es place in higher coal ran$s )vitrinite reflectance# 78 value 9 8 : ;*< temperature plays a big role in gas yield Gas generation is ma,imum in Anthracite and too lo" in Bituminous coal Gas is trapped in the coal seam in part by "ater pressure and in part by "ea$ co-valent bonding# $no"n as =an de)r* Walls forces Large amount of gas can be stored in the molecular cage at lo" pressure and is adsorbed into the internal structure of the coal

CBM Prospect Evaluation


CBM Prospect evaluation needs0 $no"ledge of thermal history# pressure regime# hydro-dynamics and regional stress (hese are inferred parameters !n addition to these# the coal characteristics# coal ran$ing# gas adsorption capacity# initial gas phase concentration and critical saturation are important laboratory derived parameters needed to predict gas generation and production potential (o "or$ out these parameters# one relies on follo"ing information sources0 Cores and cuttings# Well logs# !nput from Mines# -utcrop Analogue# Geology and 1eismic data (he approach to evaluation# therefore# is on integration and co-vie"ing of multidisciplinary data -n thermal history front# vitrinite reflectance )78* and presence of clays are important contributors#
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particularly $aolinite# "hich indicates that the temperature involved in coalification must have been less than .88> C At and above this temperature# the common clay minerals are metamorphosed 3or specific development# relationship bet"een gas content and gas holding capacity determined from sorption isotherm is important 1orption isotherm is the relationship bet"een gas storage capacity and pressure at constant temperature !t is usually referred as Langmuir sorption isotherm )3ig .* (he relationship is e,ponential and is "or$ed out on actual coal sample in the laboratory Characteristics of Langmuir sorption isotherm are dependent on inorganic content# organic properties and on temperature 3or estimating production potential# $no"ledge on follo"ing three factors is critical0 ?esorption of gas from the coal matri, )follo"s sorption isotherm*# diffusion of gas in the cleat system and flo" through fractures )hydrodynamics* 3rom production engineering standpoint# these can be put under t"o heads0 Permeability and Gas content Most mature coals "ere originally fully saturated# but coal looses gas as reservoir pressure is reduced# due to0 uplift# faulting or unconformities )3ig @* Coals can store more gas at lo"er temperatures after a basin is uplifted Coals can become fully saturated "hen more gas is added due to secondary biogenic gas generation

By combining gas content data "ith an adsorption isotherm# it is possible to determine the gas saturation condition )3ig 6*

CBM Production
CBM production is a function of Langmuir isotherm When the effects of adsorption and the t"o-phase flo" are combined# the characteristic curves assume distinct shape 3or "ater# "e e,pect to see significant initial production follo"ed by a decline# and for gas# "e e,pect to see no initial gas production follo"ed by an increasing gas rate# and finally a decline )3ig A* A field may ta$e years before the onset of actual gas production (his together "ith environment compliance "ater disposal system determines the commercial viability of CBM pro2ect

Contribution of Geophysical Well o!s


Well logs are important information source for identifying coal layers )3ig :* and infer their characteristics e g cleats# ash and moisture content !t provides several important parameters e g net pay thic$ness# reservoir pressure and host of inputs for map preparation necessary for reserve estimation# and forecasts spatial e,tent# gas potential and recovery factor Core-log transforms have been found very helpful to this effect ?etermination of Ash content from density log is routine feature )3ig B* ?irect relationship e,ists bet"een
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density and ash content By e,trapolation of this relationship# ash density )75-a* & pure# ash free# organic coal density )75-o* can be calculated (his input is important because gas content decreases "ith increase of inorganic content 3urther# gas-in-place formula )=olumetric e+uation* contains bul$ density parameter as direct input# )3ig C* ma$ing density log a vital data source With the onset of production# pressure measurements are routinely made# often near the producing layer)s* through "ire-line gauges to have reliable first hand information on pressure regime Dno"ledge about stress field is deduced from full "ave sonic logs (hus host of information are gathered from "ire-line services# "hich in con2unction "ith the supplementary sources# reduce dependency on actual sample measurements and enable continuous evaluation instead of discrete evaluation# and incorporate subtle changes observed in coal characteristics "hich other"ise can be missed

?ensity log is useful for ash content# gas content and other miscellaneous evaluation )3igs /8# //# /.# &/@* Feutron log at times is useful for moisture content estimation 3ull "ave sonic logs help in estimating mechanical properties of coal layers and in establishing the stress field direction (hese inputs are used in designing hydro fracturing and Gor cavitations 2ob to increase productivity Pressure measurements at regular interval facilitates in estimating original gas in place )-G!P* through material balance and# from the decline curve analysis# the ultimate recovery of methane gas 3uture e,ploration# evaluation and e,ploitation practices shall rely more on seismic attribute analysis and "ell log integration for reliable spatial coal characteri%ation (his "ill enable engineers dra" successful e,ploitation plans by incorporating dynamic properties e g reservoir and production engineering data to coal characteri%ation !n the entire process of integration# "ell logs directly or indirectly )through transforms* provide the re+uisite lin$ of multi-faced disciplines

E"amples
Well log response against coal layers yields net pay thic$ness and characteri%es coal layers# "hich are eventually lin$ed to coal ran$ing Micro log have been found useful in establishing cleat potential and delineating fractures )3ig E*

Conclusions
Well logs have been found useful in all stages of CBM pro2ect managementH venture e,ploration# evaluation and e,ploitation Ability of "ell logs in delineating coal layers "ithout any ambiguity and
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their geophysical characteristics lin$ to coal ran$ing have made them an accepted data source in the industry Well logs provide the re+uisite lin$ in integrating multi-disciplinary sub2ects necessary for providing global solution 3uture "ill see more intense integration "ith seismic attributes for better and more reliable spatial characteri%ation (his "ill provide a firm base for reservoir and production engineers to dra" successful "or$ plan for optimal e,ploitation ?ensity log finds a special place in CBM property analysis because density value is directly used in volumetric method for Gas in Place )G!P* assessment# +uantitative ash and )at least* +ualitative gas content determination !t is indirectly related to moisture content as "ell (he relationship bet"een volume of moisture and ash content is linear Micro-log response against coal beds gives good indication about cleat potential and presence of li$ely fractures# providing operator useful information about future drilling techni+ues and completion design 1hear "ave is generally not supported in coals (he recommended practice is to estimate this value from 1tonley "ave velocity or from a $no"n value of PoissionIs ratio 3rom inferred shear "ave arrival time# mechanical properties of coal beds are estimated and are stretched further for determining stress direction (his useful

information is used in designing hydro-fracturing and cavitations 2ob Application of imagery tool and nuclear magnetic tool hold tremendous potential in permeability assessment "hich needs to be e,plored

Ac#no$led!ements
Authors "ould li$e to e,press their ac$no"ledgements to the management of 5L1 Asia Ltd for the permission and resources to "rite this paper

%eferences
Mullen# MJ# /EE/# KCoalbed Methane 7esource Evaluation from Wireline Logs in Fortheastern 1an Juan Basin0 A Case 1tudyL# 1PE /CE6:# PP /:/-/B. Mullen# M J # /EE/# KCleat ?etection in Coalbeds using the Micro LogL# 7oc$y Mountain Association of Geologists# PP /@B-/6B Mullen# M J /ECC# KLog Evaluation in Wells ?rilled for Coal-bed MethaneL# 7oc$y Mountain Association of Geologists# PP //@-/.6 5alliburton ?ocument on CBM Logging (echni+ues and Evaluation 1ircar and Anirbid# August# .888# KA 7evie" of Coalbed Methane E,ploration and E,ploitationL# Current 1cience# =ol BE# F- 6 Fational Laboratory Energy K3uture (echnology 1upply and
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Emerging 7esources4Coalbed Fatural GasL document K?etermining Gas Production Characteristics of Coal 1eamsL# """ sigra com auGpprMcsgdet html

KCoal Bed Methane Play and Prospect Evaluation Nsing GeoGraphi, 1oft"areL# ?ocument

3ig / -rganic 1tructure of Coal

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Application of Geophysical Well Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3ig . Langmuir !sotherm

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Thermogenic gas moved up-dip

Biogenic gas migrated up -dip

3ig @ Gas Migration

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3ig 6 1aturated 7eservoir converting to Nnder-saturated 7eservoir

3ig A 3irst Water Production then Gas Production

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3ig : Log characters against coal and carbonaceous layers

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Application of Geophysical Well Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Ash Content vs. Density


RHOo

. . .
. Dry Ash Content

Density

RHOa

3ig B Ash content determination from ?ensity

Gas in place ormula


G!" # $%&'.( )A* )h* ) Rho B* ) Gc * + ),%-&./ )A* )h* ) "or * )$- 01* )Bg*
2here3 A # Area h # thic4ness Gc =Gas content Bg # Gas compressi5ility actor 6irst part is or adsor5ed gas- second part is or ree gas stored in cleat system )insigni icant 7 89*

3ig C ?ensity value is a direct input to Gas in Place formula

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Application of Geophysical Well Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

< icro log Response


:on-cleated

6ractured or poorly cleated ;o1 to air perm ea5ility

2 ellcleated Good perm ea5ility

T hin laminated coal "ro5a5ly som e racturing < ost li4ely lo1 perm ea5ility

3ig E Microlog 7esponse in cleated and fractured coal

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Application of Geophysical Well Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Gas Content vs. Bul4 Density


Bul4 Density )g>c cm*

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ra ve A

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t on sc ga ge

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s ga en nt co

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s ga nt co t en

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,/ Gas content ) sc > ton*

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3ig /8 Gas Content 7elated to ?ensity

<oisture vs Ash content


@/ ? moisture
"u5l ishe d
al ;oc

8/ / 8/ ? Ash )9* ,/

3ig // Ash Content and Moisture Content 7elationship

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Application of Geophysical Well Logs in Coal bed Methane Prospect Evaluation ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Ash vs 6i=ed car5on


? i=ed car5on

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;oc al

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"u5lis hed

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8/ ? Ash )9*

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3ig /. Carbon Content and Ash Content 7elationship

? i=ed car5on dry ash ree

Ash vs 6i=ed car5on dry ash ree


;oc al

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d she 5li "u

,/

8/

8/ ? Ash )9*

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3ig /@ Carbon Content and ?ry Ash Content 7elationship

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