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Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Bradford, Richmond Road, Bradford, BD7 lDP, UK phone: +44-1274-38402 1; fax: +44- 1274-391-521; email: L.Zhang@brad.ac.uk*,C.Watthanasarn@brad.ac.uk

Abstract--A grid-connected wind-power generation scheme using a doubly-fed induction generator @FIG) in conjunction with a direct AC-AC matrix converter is proposed. The analysis employs a stator-flux vector-control algorithm and a space vector modulated matrix converter to control the generator rotor current. The system enables optimal speed tracking for maximum energy capture from the wind and high performance active and reactive power regulation. The paper describes the operating principles of this power generation scheme. The matrix converter-based rotor current control scheme is highlighted. Simulation studies of the proposed power generation system were carried out. Results obtained are presented illustrating the good control performance of the system.

In this paper, the use of a direct matrix converter [4,5,6] for the control of the rotor-side currents of a DFIG system is proposed. Such a configuration offers certain advantages, notably: 1) the power converter requires no bulky and costly energy storage components, like those in the dc-link converter, 2) the control scheme required by a direct AC-AC conversion scheme is simpler than that used by a twostage power conversion. For maximum energy capture from the wind, high performance speed control is desired to enable the generator speed to closely track the value predicted by the wind turbine power-speed characteristic curve. This is realized by regulating the rotor current using a stator-flux, field-oriented scheme and a space-vector modulated matrix converter. The control scheme also enables flexible adjustment of the power factor. In this paper, the operating principles of this power generation scheme and the control method used are discussed. Simulation studies were carried out using a 7.5kW induction generator. The results under various operating conditions are presented. Features of the system and its performance are analysed. 11. PRINCIPLE OF A VARIABLE-SPEED WIND-TURBINE DRIVEN DFIG For a horizontal-axis wind turbine, the mechanical output power P, is a function of wind velocity V, and can be expressed as

I. INTRODUCTION Wind power is widely recognized as a viable source of renewable energy. In the UK the percentage of electrical power generated by wind-driven turbines to the total power generation increases steadily. Most wind turbines currently operate at constant speeds through grid-connected alternators or induction generators. The present system deals with a variable-speed wind generation scheme. This has a higher energy cap? .? capability than a constant speed system and reduces mechanical stresses and audible noises. Integration of the three-phase induction machine and power electronic converter provides an effective means to achieve variable-speed, constant-frequency (VSCF) wind-power generation. A number of machine-converter configurations have been proposed in the literature [1,2,3]. One of these, considered most attractive by the authors, is that developed by Pena et a1 [3], which employs a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) interfaced to the power grid using a dclink voltage-source converter, commonly known as a Scherbius drive. In such a configuration, the converter rating required is only the slip-fraction of the machine power rating due to the restricted speed range, and sinusoidal currents can be obtained from both the stator and rotor windings. However, the use of PWM dc-link converters requires twostage power conversion, namely rectification and inversion, which demands a cumbersome control strategy for the overall power generation system.

pt =+cpp.-R=v;,

(1)

where C, is the coefficient of power, p is the air density and R is the turbine radius. The turbine torque is the ratio of the output power to the shaft speed at, namely, T,=Pimt. The turbine is normally coupled to a generator shaft through a gearbox whose gear ratio <is chosen so as to maintain the generator shaft speed within a desired speed range. Neglecting the transmission losses, the torque and shaft speed of the wind turbine, referred to the generator side of the gearbox, are given by

0-7803-3932-0

906

T ,

= - and w , = <wt,

r,

4-

(2)

respectively where T , is the driving torque of the generator and w, is the generator shaft speed. A wind turbine can only generate a certain percentage of power associated with the wind. This percentage is represented by Cp which is a function of wind speed, turbine rotational speed and the pitch angle of specific wind turbine blades. It is convenient to combine V, and utin a single variable called the tip-speed ratio h where h = Rwfl,. A non-linear relationship between Cp and iL can be obtained experimentally for any given wind turbine. A measured Cp-A curve for a 7.5kW turbine [2] is shown in Fig.1 and is the basis of the wind turbine studied in this work. As shown in Fig.2, for a particular wind speed within the range from cutin to rated wind velocity, the turbine rotational speed can be adjusted so that the maximum Cp can be obtained. This, in turn, causes the wind turbine to generate a maximum power at that wind speed. With a variable-speed wind-turbine driven DFIG, the turbine shaft speed can be regulated electrically. The input driving power to the DFIG is equivalent to the turbine power subtracted by the friction losses in the turbine shaft Pmech = P, - D o s which can also be expressed as Pmech = Tmw,=Tm(1-S)~,, (3) where T , is the generator driving torque and per unit slip s = ( w s - IDr) I u s . The driving torque T, is thus related to turbine torque T, by T,=T,-Dw, T , is balanced in steady-state operation by the electromagnetic torque T, of the DFIG if the friction and windage losses Dw: are accounted for in terms of system power losses

Figure 2 Torque-speed characteristics of the wind turbine (referred to generator side with gearbox ratio=5.05) Control of a turbine shaft speed is through regulating T, which is directly determined by the DFIG generated power. This consists of both the stator and rotor power components. The rotor power P, may be drawn from or returned to the utility grid depending on the operating mode of the DFIG. For the subsynchronous mode (wr<us), the rotor power is positive indicating that the power flows from the grid to the rotor. On the contrary, negative power in the supermeans that rotor power is fed to synchronous mode (wr>ws) the grid. Neglecting the stator copper loss and the motor core loss, the stator power is approximately equal to the air-gap power which is defined as Pg=P,tP,,,h'. P , The DFIG generated electrical power supplied to the grid is, thus, equal to PA-P, To extract the maximum possible power from a wind turbine the control scheme for a DFIG should attempt to enable the wind turbine to track its optimal power curve, as given in Fig 2 Commonly applied control strategies include DFIGrotor speed control and direct power control In this work the latter is used 111. A MATRIX CONVERTER CONTROLLED DFIG A. System ConJiguration In the generation system, an AC-AC matrix converter may be used to supply the variable-frequency voltages to the rotor terminals of the induction machine. Fig.3 shows schematics of the matrix converter-DFIG configuration and its simplified control scheme. The stator of the generator is connected directly to the utility grid. A matrix converter is inserted in the rotor circuit, giving direct AC-AC power conversion between the rotor circuit and grid. The grid-side connection is made via a three-phase LC filter to suppress high-order harmonics. A matrix converter provides bidirectional power-flow control thereby enabling the DFIG to operate in either subsynchronous (or<ws) or supersynchronous modes (w,>o,). In both modes the stator active power is generated from the DFIG and delivered to the grid. On the other hand, the rotor active power is either supplied

Coefficient of power Cp 05 r

01

I

*

0 5

't

\

01

10

1l 5

20

907

to the machine in the subsynchronous mode or delivered to the grid in the supersynchronous mode.

Now the output power of a wind turbine at a specific wind speed varies with change of the turbine shaft speed. The control objective is to ensure that the power developed by the turbine is a maximum at any wind speed. The control scheme must also maintain continuous power flow from the DFIG to the grid. To achieve this, a turbine shaft speed which results in a maximum turbine power must be determined and the DFIG is controlled so as to obtain the desired shaft speed. The desired shaft speed can be determined by an optimal power tracking algorithm which is not fully investigated in this present work. Instead, the stator active power is controlled directly assuming that a maximum generator developed power is known. The ideal machine is used as the reference value stator power, denoted by P,*, for the DFIG power control loop. In the inner current control loop, the stator-flux vector position is used to establish a reference frame that allows the d and q axis components of the rotor current to be controlled independently. Adjustment of the q-axis component of the rotor current. i,, controls either the generator developed-torque or the stator-side active power of the DFIG (Ps). Regulating the d-axis component, jdr, controls directly the stator-side reactive power flow (Qs). When a matrix converter is used to control the DFIG, regulation of the rotor currents and phase-angle control of the grid-side currents are a combined task which can be accomplished by a single modulation scheme From the rotor current control loop, Fig 4, the desired rotor voltage vector is generated and taken as the reference output voltage for the matrix converter The space vector modulation technique [6] is used to achieve the above control Objective

To provide independent control of the stator active power P, and reactive power Qs of the DFIG, by means of rotor current regulation, it is necessary to define the dq components of the rotor currents in the stator-flux oriented reference frame and show that P, and Q, can be represented as functions of the individual current components. Subsequently, the P, and Qs commands can be used to determine the reference rotor currents. Stator-flux oriented control is used to regulate the rotor current. In this scheme the d components of the rotor current vector is aligned with the stator-flux linkage vector I,, hence the active and reactive currents supplied to the power grid become linear functions of the iutor current d and q components, given as

( 4 )

The magnitude of the stator magnetising current vector

z,,f.

is a constant determined by the supply voltage. The stator active and reactive power components may be given as

Q,

= $ ( V ~ , I : ~-

~ k " , )= 2 v e l ds e =Tu

gs

L ;

E -ImS('ms

L,

-i:r)

(6) Knowing L , , , L, and ideal values of Ps- and Q,-, the and I:,. can be calculated directlj reference values for

J;~

from the above equations C. Rotor Current Regulation Using a Matrix Converter As the reference rotor current components are in stator-flux oriented coordinates, these must be transferred to the same reference frame as the DFIG rotor current vector. This is achieved by rotating the rotor reference current vector by an angular position p = (w - w )dt . Due to the rotor speed variation, p is updated at every sample interval. Once the reference frame for both the command and measured current vectors are conformed, simple proportional plus integral (PI) regulators can be used to control the d and q components of the rotor current. The cross-coupling effect of the d-g components must be compensated at the output of the controllers. In stator-flux oriented coordinates, these may be expressed as

power

n v

Figure 3 Configuration of the matrix converter-DFIG windpower generation scheme

vir' = - - m 8 , d r i i r ,

(7)

The rotor voltage, thus obtained, defines the required line-toline voltage o f a matrix converter. Meanwhile, the converter input voltage can be derived from the monitored values of stator voltages Vds and vqs.Once these values are specified for

each sampling period, the matrix converter can be controlled to provide the rotor current regulation. A block diagram illustrating the power control of the DFIG in stator flux oriented coordinates is shown in Fig.4.

kept below the synchronous speed resulting in the subsynchronous mode of operation. Fig. 5(c) shows the waveforms of the converter input voltage vUsand filtered input current i,, indicating that the rotor power is supplied by the grid. The stator active power P, follows the current command iTr* as shown in Fig.5(d). When the DFIG is operated in the supersynchronous mode, a set of results, corresponding to those in Fig.5, is shown in Fig.6. These differ from the results in Fig.5 in that the rotor current tir is temporarily decreased hence allowing the generator to accelerate. It can be seen, from Fig.6(c), that the direction of the rotor power flow is reversed compared with that of Fig.S(c). Since the generator is driven by a constant mechanical torque, constant shaft speed can be obtained by setting i, to a constant value while id,.* may be set to any desired value. Step increase and decrease in rotor current ii, during which

iir is maintained constant is illustrated in Fig.7(a) Rotor

Figure 4 Block diagram of the power control of a DFIG IV. SIMULATION STUDY AND DISCUSSION A 7.5kW wind-turbine driven DFIG was simulated. The rating and parameters of this machine are given in the Appendix. Taking the stator d and q axes as the stationary reference frame, the machine model used can be written PLm 0 0 Rs t p L s 0 pLm PLm w,L, Rr + P L r w,Lr PLm - w J r Rr + PLr The mechanical part of the machine model is given as 2 - T, = J p w r +- D w ~ , (10) and

current id,' is set equal to the magnetising current ,i which means that the excitation current is supplied entirely to the machine rotor. This results in unity power factor on the grid as the stator reactive power Qsis zero. The rotor current I,, is sinusoidal as shown in Fig.7(b) while the stator power and reactive power are shown in Fig.7(c). The rotor current waveform when the generator shaft speed is gradually increased through synchronous speed is shown in Fig 8 It is seen that smooth transition of the rotor currents from sub to supersynchronous modes is achieved The results in this section indicate that stable operation of the DFIG can be achieved by means of stator-flux oriented control This can be effectively implemented using a matrix converter which is capable of producing sinusoidal input and output currents Figures 9(a)-9(c) demonstrate the power control operation of the DFIG. In this, the P, and Qs controllers (PI type) are used to instruct the rotor current controllers iir and iJr respectively. The sampling time for the power PI controllers was set to 5ms while the current controller setting was 5 0 0 p . The command P,' is derived from the reference power-speed curve. The DFIG is driven by the turbine operated under the time-varying wind-speed. For a given wind-speed variation, the generator shaft speed response is plotted in Fig.g(a). The power and reactive power of the machine stator are shown together with the rotor power in Fig.9@). The grid power and reactive power representing the resultant output power of the VSG system are plotted in Fig.9(c). As can be seen, the waveform of the grid power contains a series of the steady-state operating points defined

2 =PPLm 2

- ldsis,

(1 1)

The matrix converter is modelled using ideal switches. The speed of the DFIG is controlled by a PI controller which provides the rotor current command l y r * while idr* is determined by the reactive current requirement. The sampling time for the current control loop and the switching period of the converter are both set to 500ps while the speed loop sampling time is 5 ms. Results shown in Fig.5 were obtained when the current command iqLvis increased to 6.5A and subsequently decreased while idr is set to zero. Waveforms of the rotor currents i4er and I $ are shown in Fig.5(a). Correspondingly, the rotor current i, and the shaft speed are shown in Fig.5@). In this case, the shaft speed is

909

in the ideal turbine characteristics. It can be shown that the optimal output power derived from the reference power curve is achieved for any wind speed.

V. CONCLUSION A variable-speed wind-power generator using a DFIG in conjunction with a matrix converter is proposed. Stable operation of the DFIG was achieved by means of stator-flux oriented control technique. The operational principle of the proposed wind-power generator and the validity of the control scheme were illustrated by the steady-state and transient responses of the power and currents associated with the machine stator and rotor. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed wind-power generator is feasible and has certain advantages.

VI. APPENDIX Doubly-fed induction machine parameters: 7.5 kW, 415V, 6 poles, rated speed 970 rpm, N,/N,= 1.7, q=l.O20, K=0.8ln, L3=0.093H, Lr=0.081H, Lm=0.0664H (all referred to rotor).

VI. REFERENCES

[ 11 R. Jones and G. A. Smith, High quality mains power

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04

06

08

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from variable-speed wind turbines, Renewable Energy, IEE Conf. Pub. No.385, November 1993, pp.202-206. [2] R Spee, S. Bhowmik and J. HR. Enslin, Adaptive control strategies for variable-speed doubly-fed wind power generation system, IEEE IAS Annual Meeting Conf, 1994, pp.545-552. [3] R Pena, J. C. Clare and G.M. Asher, Doubly-fed induction generator using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable-speed wind-energy generation, IEE Proc. Part B, May 1996, pp.231-241. [4] M. G. B. Venturim dnd A. Alesina, Analysis and Design of Optimum-Amplitude Nine-Switch Direct ACAC Converters, IEEE Trans on Power Electronics, 1989. [5] L. Huber, D. Borojevic, N. Burany : Analysis, Design and Implementation of the Space-Vector Modulator for Force-Commutated Cycloconverters, IEE Proc. Part B, Vo1.139, No.2, March 1992. [6] L. Zhang, C. Watthanasarn and W. Shepherd, Analysisand Implementationof a Space Vector Modulation Algorithm for Direct AC-AC Matrix Converters,European Power Electronics Journal, Vol. 6, No. 1, May 1996, pp 7-15. [7] W. Shepherd, L. N. Hulley, D. T. W. Liang, Power Electronics andMOtor Control (2nd edition), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England, 1995.

[8] P.Vas, Vector Control ofAC Machines, Oxford Science

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? . . ^ X I -

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(d) stator active power Figure 5 Step responses to current command zgrs in subsynchronous mode

ow

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Publishng, 1990. [9] C. Watthanasarn, Optimal Control and Applications of AC-AC Matrix Converters, PhD Thesis, 1997, University of Bradford, UK.

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(c) stator active power Ps, reactive power Qs and shaft speed Figure 7 Step responses to the rotor current command idr

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1.15

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(sec)

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(c) resultant output power to utility grid Figure 9 Optimal power tracking operation of a DFIG

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