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SHORT QUESTIONS

1. Definition of Stress. Stresses refer to balanced internal (reactive or resisting) "forces (per unit cross-sectional area)". They differ from force vectors, which, if unbalanced, cause accelerations "On -in convention": The stress component ij acts on the plane normal to the idirection and acts in the j-direction 1. Normal stresses: i=j 2. Shear stresses: ij 2. What are Cartesian components of stress? Stress components acting perpendicular to the surfaces are called normal stresses and denoted xx, yy and zz. Stress components acting along planes are referred to as shear stresses and denoted xy, yz and xz.

In the static case, when all forces acting on three orthogonal faces of a body are in equilibrium, we can write the nine stress components in a Cartesian coordinate system as

Shehzaib YK

STRESS ANALYSIS

SHORT QUESTIONS

3. What does tensor mean? A tensor can be represented as a multi-dimensional array of numerical values. Tensors are simply mathematical objects that can be used to describe physical quantities, just like scalars, vectors and stress. In fact tensors are merely a generalization; a scalar is a zero order tensor, and a vector is a first order tensor. The stress state is a second order tensor since it is a quantity associated with two directions.

4. What is mean by Principle stresses? Principal stresses act on planes which feel no shear stress. The principal stresses are normal stresses. Principal stresses act on perpendicular planes. The maximum, intermediate, and minimum principal stresses are usually designated 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Note that the principal stresses have a single subscript. The principal stresses represent the stress state most simply

The transformation equations for plane stress can be represented in graphical form by a plot known as Mohr's Circle. This graphical representation is extremely useful because it enables you to visualize the relationships between the normal and shear stresses acting on various inclined planes at a point in a stressed body.

Using Mohrs Circle you can also calculate principal stresses, maximum shear stresses and stresses on inclined planes.

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STRESS ANALYSIS

SHORT QUESTIONS

6. Definition of Strain and its type. Strain is defined as the amount of deformation per unit length of an object when a load is applied. Strain is calculated by dividing the total deformation of the original length by the original length. = =

Linear Strain Strain that changes the length of a line without changing its direction. Can be either compression or tension. Shear Strain that changes the angles of an object. Shear causes lines to rotate.

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STRESS ANALYSIS

SHORT QUESTIONS

7. How Mohrs circle for Strain is drawn? A chief benefit of Mohr's circle is that the principal strains 1 and 2 and the maximum shear strain xyMax are obtained immediately after drawing the circle,

where,

To Draw: 1. On the horizontal axis, plot the circle center at avg = (x + y)/2. 2. Plot the either the point (x , xy/2) or (y , -xy/2). Note the sign change if plotting y and the vertical axis, xy/2, is positive downward. 3. Draw a line from the center to the point plotted in step two (blue line in the diagram). This line should extend from one side of the circle to the other. Radius, r, can now be measured from the graph. 4. The circle itself can be drawn since the center and one point on the circle is known (compass works well for this). 5. The principal strains and maximum shear strains can be identified on the graph.

Shehzaib YK

STRESS ANALYSIS

SHORT QUESTIONS

8. Why Failure theories are defined and what are the common failure theories? Mechanical components fail because the applied stress exceeds the materials strength. Need of Failure Theories: (a) To design structural components and calculate margin of safety. (b) To guide in materials development. (c) To determine weak and strong directions. Common Failure Theory: a) Maximum Normal Stress Theory: Failure will occur in the multi-axial state of stress when the maximum principal normal stress exceeds the ultimate tensile or compressive strength, Sut, or Suc, respectively. If p> Sut, or Suc the part will fail. b) Maximum Shear Stress Theory: Failure will occur when the maximum shear stress exceeds of the materials yield strength max Sy c) Maximum Distortion Energy Theory: Failure occurs when distortion energy in unit volume equals distortion energy in same volume for uniaxial yielding. 9. Name of different techniques of Experimental stress analysis. Generally involve the measurement of deflection of strain. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Electrical Resistance Strain gauge. Transmission and reflection photo-elasticity. Brittle coating. X-ray diffraction. Moir gratings. Moir Interferometry. Holographic and laser Speckle Interferometry. Thermo-elastic Stress Analysis.

10. Advantages & limitations Strain gauge, brittle coating and photo-elasticity techniques. See Notes

Shehzaib YK

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