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This question paper consists of 5 printed pages, each of which is identified by the Code Number PEME108001

UNIVERSITY OF LEEDS School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering January 2009 Examinations


Time allowed: 3 hours Answer five questions, one question from each Section PLEASE SHOW ALL WORKINGS IN ANSWERS TO NUMERICAL QUESTIONS. SECTION A Resources 1 With the aid of diagrams and/or flowsheets where appropriate, discuss TWO of the following mineral processing topics: (a) (b) (c) (d) hydrocyclone classification of particles recovery of minerals by froth flotation chemical leaching of ores purification of leach liquors by solvent extraction

[10 marks each]

Analyse the global production, processing and utilisation of TWO of the following commodities: (a) (b) (c) (d) aluminium zinc salt oil

[10 marks each]

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SECTION B Materials Processing 3 For EACH of FOUR of the articles listed below, draw a flowsheet to represent ONE possible route for the production of the article from the indicated material in its primary form. Take care to include all necessary stages and justify your choice of processing route. On each flowsheet indicate the major energy inputs to the process and the major sources of waste. (a) a polyvinylchloride football (b) a bronze ships propeller (c) an alumina insulator for a spark plug (d) the steel case for a washing machine (e) an aluminium alloy connecting rod for an internal combustion engine (f) a glass milk bottle. NB. You should not use the same principal processing route more than once. [5 marks each] 4 (a) Discuss the general features of ONE of the following classes of processes for the production of engineering components. Illustrate your answer with reference to one specific technique taken from that class. (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) (c) casting (and moulding) forming powder processing fabrication.

[12 marks]

What types of materials are suitable for processing by your chosen class and in what form? [2 marks] What are the strengths and weaknesses of the class relative to the others (in terms, for example, of the materials which may be processed, the form of products which may be produced and the properties of the final component)? [6 marks] SECTION C Chemical Processes

Answer TWO of the following: (a) With the aid of appropriate sketches and flow diagrams, discuss the importance of reactor mixing in facilitating the efficient and safe scale-up of chemical reactions. Include in your answer examples of two different reactor impeller designs. With the aid of a sketch, describe the basic principles and mode of operation of a spray drying facility. Include in your answer an example of a representative material prepared using this technique. Continued over



(c) (d)

Overview the three main process chemistry routes for the manufacture of aspirin, highlighting which one is used for the commercial process and why. Describe in detail what happened in the Seveso accident of 1976 and why. Include in your answer a molecular reaction scheme for this process and describe the main lessons learned from this incident. [10 marks each] With the aid of suitable equations, outline the influence of temperature and pressure on the kinetics of chemical reactions. [4 marks] The steam cracking of ethane is endothermic with the following stoichiometry: C2H6 (g) C2H4 (g) + H2 (g)

(a) (b)

Give the optimal conditions of temperature and pressure for maximum product yield. [4 marks] (c) With the aid of a molecular diagram of the reaction of NaOH with an alkyl chloride, illustrate the basic principles of an SN2 reaction mechanism and explain how this relates to the activation energy. [6 marks] Outline how an SN2 reaction rate can be affected differently when carrying out the reactions in polar protic and polar aprotic solvents. [6 marks] SECTION D Energy and Fuels 7 Answer ONE of the following: (a) (i) Calculate the calorific value of a composite natural gas made by volume from 68% methane (CH4), 13% ethane (C2H6), 12% propane (C3H8), 5% butane (C4H10), 2% pentane (C5H12). Assume the calorific value for methane is 37.71, ethane 66.07, propane 93.94, butane 121.8 and pentane 149.7 MJ/m3, respectively. [10 marks] Explain the significance of burning velocity, flammability limits, flame temperature and calorific value for gaseous fuel combustion. [10 marks] Discuss the importance of the following for a coal: - Proximate and ultimate analyses - Net and gross calorific values - Rank


(ii) OR (b) (i)

[10 marks] Continued over



A coal has a gross calorific value of 30500 kJ/kg. Calculate the net calorific value of the coal, given that it contains 5% hydrogen and 15% water by weight, and the enthalpy of vaporisation of water is 2442 kJ/kg. [10 marks]

Answer TWO of the following, illustrating your answers with diagrams or graphs as appropriate: (a) (b) (c) Discuss the significance and pattern of gaseous pollutant emissions from energy sources. Outline the pattern of energy consumption in the UK industrial and transport sectors. Explain why the available power in a wind is proportional to the (wind speed)3. Calculate how much power is contained in a wind stream travelling at 14 m/s through an area of 150 m2 (density of air = 1.2kg/m3). Explain the basic principles of: (i) Power generation from pulverised coal combustion. (ii) Solar power.


[10 marks each]

SECTION E Fire and Safety 9 (a) Describe the importance of gas density in: (i) (ii) (b) the detection of accidental flammable and toxic gas releases. the detection of smoke from fires. [4 marks] [3 marks]

A fire is burning at the bottom of a 30 m high stairwell of a building. Assume that the average temperature of the hot gases filling the stairwell is 150oC. (i) (ii) (iii) Calculate the density of the gases. (The universal gas constant is 8314 J/(kmol K) and assume the same molecular weight as that of air) [5 marks] Calculate the pressure difference that these conditions will generate between the bottom of the stairwell and the surrounding atmosphere (which is at 20oC and 1 bar pressure). [5 marks] In a simple sketch indicate the flow patterns that this scenario will generate. [3 marks]

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On a diagram showing the mass-burning-rate against time for a typical compartment fire, mark clearly the phases of fire development. Briefly describe the characteristics of each phase and discuss some of the influencing parameters (and their effects) by comparison with an open fire. [9 marks] Calculate the maximum mass-burning rate in a compartment with a door (1x2 m2) and a window (1x1 m2). State any assumptions that you make. [7 marks] What are the three criteria of fire resistance? Briefly explain the meaning of each. [4 marks] END

(b) (c)