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Math Glossary Honors Algebra Cty Online Course

absolute the measured distance on a number line from one location to the origin
value ( 0 ).
absolute all the solution values are outside the endpoints away from zero; |A| > B
value with means A < -B or A > B
greater than
absolute all the solution values are between the endpoints and zero: |A| < B
value with means -B < A < B
less than
adding combine like terms, the real numbers with themselves and the imaginary
complex numbers with themselves
numbers
adding combining all like terms in an algebraic expression
polynomials
adding with add like terms with the same signs; subtract like terms with opposite
signs signs using the sign of the larger term for the answer
additive the value that can be added without changing any number; i.e., 0
identity
additive the value that can add with a number to produce 0; the number with the
inverse same absolute value but opposite sign as the given number; i.e., the
inverse of a is -a
algebra of process of adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing functions with
functions functions
and connector used with inequalities to indicate that the solution set will
include only values which satisfy both inequalities in the problem;
sometimes referred to as an intersection.
approximation a line or curve created to approximately represent the pattern produced
by graphing single pieces of data on a plane.
arithmetic an ordered collection of numbers in which the difference between any two
sequence consecutive terms is a constant (d); these sequences follow the pattern
an = a1 + (n - 1)d
arithmetic an = a1 + ( n - 1 )d
sequence
general form
arithmetic the sum of the terms in an arithmetic sequence;
series
   
n n
Sn =   ( a1 + aL )or Sn =   ( First term + Last term )
2 2
   

associative of addition, a + b + c = (a + b) + c = a + (b + c);


property
of multiplication, a · b · c = (a · b) · c = a · (b · c)
asymptote a line that the graph of a function approaches but never reaches.
Asymptotes can be either horizontal or vertical
augmented an array for a system of equations which utilizes as elements both the
matrix coefficients of the variables and the constants in the equations
average one number used to represent a group of values, calculated by adding all
the values in the group then dividing by the number of values included in
the group
axis of the imaginary line that passes through the vertex of a parabola and is
symmetry parallel to the axis along which the curve is opening
b variable used to represent the y-intercept in the slope-intercept equation
for a line.
base the number or variable to which an exponent is attached
binomial an algebraic expression composed of two monomial terms linked by
addition or subtraction
binomial  n 
coefficient n!
 m  =
formula m!(n - m)!
 

binomial the principle that the coefficients in a binomial expansion follow


theorem
directly the patterns developed in Pascal′s triangle.

cancellation dividing both a numerator and a denominator by the same number so


long as the numbers being divided are either both in the same fraction or
are in fractions which are multiplying with each other.
Cartesian the ordered pair, usually (x,y), that designates the location of a point on a
coordinates Cartesian plane
Cartesian the flat surface created by two number lines which intersect at right
plane angles
Center of a the fixed point that is a set distance from each point in the set of points
circle that is the circle; usually designated as the ordered pair (h, k) where h is
the x-value and k is the y-value of the point.
change-of- change of base theorem:
base theorem
loga x
logb x =
loga b
allows revising a logarithm problem to be in a base
that is easier to use in solving the problem

circle the set of all the points at a fixed distance, the radius (r), from a specified
point, the center (h,k); a completely symmetrical figure
clearing the practice of elminating a radical from the denominator of a fraction
denominator
coefficient a constant multiplying with an algebraic variable
combined a situation that mixes direct and indirect proportions
variation
combining collecting terms that have the same variables each to the same degree or
like terms power
common a number that can be used as the denominator for every fraction in a
denominator problem; generally it is the lowest multiple common to all the existing
denominators in the problem
common ( d )a constant value that separates each term in an
difference
artihmetic sequence from its neighboring term on each
side; a constant value that multiplies with ( n - 1 ) to derive
a product to add to a1 to create a specific term in an
arithmetic sequence; the constant d in the general statement
of an arithmetic sequence an = a1 + d(n - 1)

common ratio ( r )a constant value found when any term in a geometric sequence
is divided by the preceding term; the constant value that multiplies
with any term in a geometric sequence to produce the term
following; r in the general formula for a geometric sequence
an = a1 rn - 1

commutative of addition, a + b = b + a, where a and b are real numbers;


property
of multiplication, ab = ba, where a and b are real numbers
completing the process of isolating on one side of the equation the terms containing
the square the variable being solved for, then adding the value necessary for that
side to be a perfect square to both sides of the equation, then factoring or
taking the square root of both sides, and finally performing arithmetic as
needed to solve for the variable.
complex a fraction which has one or more fractions in its numerator, denominator
fraction or both.
complex a value composed of both a real number and an imaginary number.
number Complex numbers are often written in the form a + bi, where a is the real
number and bi is the imaginary number.
composite a value composed of prime numbers that are multiplying; a value with
number more than two factors
composition multiple functions acting on each other in a specified order.
compound two inequalities linked by and or or
inequality
compound A = P( 1 + r/m )mt
interest
formula
conditional a linking of two individual statements in the form that if the first one is
statement true, then the second one is also true; if p, then q
conic halves the curves produced when conic equations are solved for or graphed only
for the positive roots; also known as square root or half-conic functions
conic section any curve which is derived by intersecting a cone with a plane, such
figures include: the point (the plane touches the tip of the cone) line (the
plane is tangent to the side of the cone) parabola (the plane intersects
the cone parallel to its side) circle (the plane intersects the cone parallel
to the base of the cone) ellipse (the plane intersects the cone at an
angle), and hyperbola (the plane intersects the cone vertically).
consecutive even numbers that follow one another when counting, i.e., 2, 4, 6, ... or
even numbers x, x + 2, x + 4, ...
consecutive numbers that follow one another when counting; i.e., 3, 4, 5, ... or x, x +
numbers 1, x + 2, ...
consecutive odd numbers that follow one another when counting, i.e., 3, 5, 7, ..., or
odd numbers 2x + 1, 2x + 3, 2x + 5, ..., or x, x + 2, x + 4 ... given that x is an odd
number
constant a number which always has the same value, i.e., 7; the value in a
function which does not change
constant a constant change in position with respect to time; traveling a distance
velocity over some amount of time at an even speed, can be determined using a
formula that specifies that speed equals distance traveled divided by time
used travelling
continuously A = Pert where A is the interest accumulated, P is the principal
compounded
interest on which the interest is being accumulated, r is the interest rate,
and t is the time in years.

contradiction an equation with no solution; there is no value for the variable that
produces a true mathematical sentence
contrapositive a statement that links two clauses such that one originally stated as true
and dependent on the other is now stated as false and controlling of the
other
converse a sentence that links two statements but changes their original order so
that the one originally stated second and dependent on the first is not
first and controling of the other; logically this combination cannot be held
to be true without additional information
Cramer's rule a process utilizing determinants to solve systems of linear equations
cross- a practice used to eliminate denominators when one or more fractions are
multiplying found in an equation; the procedure involves multiplying the common
denominator from one side of the equation with the numerators on the
other side of the equation with the result that the multiplying
denominator disappears into the receiving numerator
cube root the number r that multiplied with itself twice produces the given number;
the number that with two more of itself and 1 are the only factors of the
given number
cubic an equation in the third degree; y = ax3 + c or x = ay3 + c.
equation

curve fitting superimposing a line or curve over the graph of single points of data to
approximately represent the pattern produced in the graph
degree the highest power used in any of the terms of an algebraic expression
degree of highest power used in any of the terms of the algebraic expression
polynomial
denominator number or expression on the bottom, or doing the dividing, of a fraction
dependent a group of three equations in three unknowns that has an infinite number
system of solutions; the planes for the three equations intersect in a line
dependent the quantity in an algebraic expession whose value changes as
variable calculations are made subsequent to one or more substitutions for the
independent variable, i.e., the variable whose value "depends" on what is
substituted in for the other, or "independent," variable.
determinant |D|, det(D), a number, or scalar, that represents the value of a matrix
difference of x3 - y3 = ( x - y )( x2 + xy + y2 ).
two cubes

difference of a2 - b2 = ( a - b )( a + b )
two squares

difference of x2 - y2 = ( x - y )( x + y ).
two squares

dimension of the number of rows "x" the number of columns


a matrix
direct two or more quantities increase or decrease in the same way to the same
proportion degree, each in accordance with its size
direct two or more quantities increase or decrease in the same way to the same
variation degree, each quantity in accordance with its size
directrix the fixed line that helps determine the points in a parabola;
1
a parabola of the form y = cx2 has its directrix as y = - c.
4
discriminant the algebraic expression under the radical in the quadratic formula;
used to determine the number and type of roots for the equation.
If the discriminant > 0, the equation has two real roots.
If the discriminant = 0, the equation has one real root.
If the discriminant < 0, the equation has two complex roots.

distance an equation that determines


formula
the shortest distance between any two points
on a Cartesian plane;
_____________________
d= √(x2 - x1 )2 + (y2 - y1 )2

distance on a subtract the end values to determine the number of units apart the two
number line endpoints are on the line
distributive (of multiplication over addition), a(b + c) = ab + ac, where a, b, and c
property are real numbers.
dividing by 0 result is undefined; never do it
domain the set of all values that the independent variable for a function, usually
x, can use in that function
domain of a the set of all values available for the variable such that the denominator
rational of the rational never equals zero