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8.

3 Transformers

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Transformers

8.3

At this point, it is useful to explain the transformer and its equivalent circuit for the case of a short circuit (Fig. 8.3).
primary side (HV) secondary side (LV)

Fig. 8.3:

Transformer and equivalent circuit

The short circuit voltage Uk is the primary voltage at which a transformer with short-circuited secondary winding already takes up its primary rated current. Uk is usually expressed as a relative short circuit voltage in percent of the primary voltage. It is a measure for the loading of the voltage change occurring. The following condition applies: uk Uk 100% UnHV ; (8.12)

When a short circuit occurs during operation of a transformer on the secondary side the peak short circuit current ip first flows, which then gradually decays to the steady state short circuit current. The magnitude of ip depends on the momentary value of the voltage and the magnetic state of the iron core. The value of the steady state short circuit current Ik depends on the short circuit voltage Uk and the internal resistance Z. Ikd UnHV Z ; (8.13) (8.14) (8.15) (8.16)

U ZI k ; nLV UnHV Ik Uk 100% ; uk

InLV 100% : uk

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8 Impedances of Three-phase Operational Equipment

8.3.1

Short circuit current on the secondary side

The equivalent circuit of the positive-sequence, negative-sequence and zerosequence system is given by the number and the circuitry of the windings. The negative-sequence impedance is, due to the phase angle, identical with the positivesequence impedance. The positive-sequence impedance of the transformer is calculated as follows: ZT RT
2 ukr UrT ; 100% SrT

(8.17) (8.18) (8.19)

2 P URr UrT krT 2 ; 100% SrT 3IrT q 2 : R2 XT Z T t

For low voltage transformers, the equivalent resistances and the inductive reactances in the zero-sequence and positive-sequence systems are (Figure 8.4): for the connection symbol Dyn5: Z2T Z1T R0T RT X0T 0:95 XT for the connection symbols Dzn0 and Yzn11: R0T 0:4 RT X0T 0:1 XT for the connection symbol YYn6: R0T RT X0T 7 100 XT (8.25) (8.26) (8.23) (8.24) (8.20) (8.21) (8.22)

Transformers with three windings are employed in auxiliary service for the internal requirements of power stations, in the industrial sector or as network transformers. The short circuit impedances of transformers with three windings in the positive-sequence system can be calculated as follows, in accordance with Figure 8.5:

8.3 Transformers

53

Fig. 8.4:

Equivalent resistances and reactances in the zero-sequence and positive-sequence system for low voltage transformers

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8 Impedances of Three-phase Operational Equipment

Fig. 8.5:

a) Circuit diagram for transformer with three windings and b) equivalent circuit

with side C open: ZAB


2 ukrAB UrTA ; 100% SrTAB

(8.27)

with side B open: ZAC


2 ukrAC UrTA ; 100% SrTAC

(8.28)

with side A open: ZBC


2 ukrBC UrTA : 100% SrTBC

(8.29)

8.3 Transformers

55

With the positive-sequence short circuit impedances, it follows that: ZA 1 2 ZAB ZAC ZBC ; ZB 1 2 ZBC ZAB ZAC ; ZC 1 2 ZAC ZBC ZAB : The meanings of the symbols are: UrT IrT UnHV InLV Uk SrT PkrT ukr uRr R 0T RT X0T XT Rated voltage of transformer on higher or lower voltage side Rated current of transformer on higher or lower voltage side Nominal voltage on higher voltage side Nominal voltage on lower voltage side Short circuit voltage Rated apparent power of transformer Total winding losses of transformer at rated current Rated value of short circuit voltage in % Rated value of resistive voltage drop in % Zero-phase equivalent resistance of transformer Equivalent resistance of transformer Inductive zero-sequence resistance of transformer Inductive resistance of transformer. (8.30) (8.31) (8.32)

The equivalent resistances and reactances of transformers can also be taken from Figure 8.6.

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8 Impedances of Three-phase Operational Equipment

Fig. 8.6:

Equivalent resistances and reactances of transformers for low and medium voltage networks [19]

8.3 Transformers

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Voltage regulating transformers

8.3.2

For the compensation of voltage fluctuations in networks, the windings of transformers are provided with a tap so that the transformation ratios can be adjusted in order to keep the voltage for certain sections constant. Voltage regulating transformers can be divided into two groups: controllable power transformers and series regulating transformers. Controllable transformers have several taps on the voltage side to be regulated, with which the transformation ratio can be increased or decreased in the same proportions, usually in steps of one or two percent. This is also known as in-phase voltage control, since only the magnitude of the voltage is regulated. Voltage regulation takes place step-wise with a switching device which can be described as a stepping switch or stepping switch device. Switchover between the steps must take place under load, since load-dependnet voltage fluctuations are regulated during operation. The transformation ratio of the transformers is determined from the rated voltages. With stepping switches it is possible to match the transformation ratio to the load. The transformation ratio can be calculated, taking into account the step setting: t 1 pT tr where, for tr:
rTHV tr U UrTLV

Regulating transformers are used, in addition to maintaining constant voltage levels, for controlling the load flow. They too can be switched under load. These can be divided into quadrature control transformers and phase-angle control transformers. For quadrature control transformers, an additional voltage is generated which is phase shifted by 90 from the voltage of a conductor. The additional voltage is added to the side on which the voltage is regulated. Phase-angle control transformers are a combination of quadrature control transformers and in-phase control transformers. Stepping regulators are implemented via power electronics components, which are fast and require little maintenance. The most important features of high voltage transformers can be taken from Table 8.2.

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Table 8.2:

Characteristic values of high voltage transformers Rated power SrT (MVA) Short circuit voltage ukr (%) 6 7 10 10 12 13 14 1216 1020 1120 Impedance losses PkrT (%) 0.90.8 0.80.7 0.60.4 0.90.8 0.80.5 0.4 0.5 0.310.19 0.320.19 0.40.2 No-load losses P0rT (%) 0.170.14 0.130.11 0.080.06 0.180.14 0.100.07 0.06 0.05 0.050.03 0.0650.035 0.070.04 No-load current i0rT (%) 1.31.1 1.00.8 0.80.5 0.90.8 0.80.5 0.50.05 0.450.05 0.450.05 0.470.04 0.480.04

Rated voltage Ur (kV)

 30

30 < UrTHV  110

110 110 < UrTHV  220 220 < UrTHV  380

24 510 12.540 6.310 12.540 50, 60 80 100350 1001000 1001000

8.4

Cables and overhead lines

The short circuit impedances for low voltage networks can be taken from the tables of IEC 60 909 that the cross-section is known.

Fig. 8.7:

Cables and lines in the positive-sequence system

For cables and line (Figures 8.7 and 8.8), we can then calculate the determining values as follows: Z L RL j XL ; RL l R0L ;
0 : XL l XL

(8.33) (8.34) (8.35)