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QUESTION: WHAT ARE THE USES AND PURPOSES OF ADMIXTURES AND ADDITIVES IN
CONCRETE STRUCTURES?

ANS: Additives and Admixtures are used for variety of ways some of which are enlisted below:

1. To increase the Workability


2. To increase the Strength
3. To increase the Acceleration
4. Retardation
5. To increase the Durability
6. To reduce the permeability

ADMIXTURES:
Admixtures are ingredients other than water, aggregates, hydraulic cement, and
fibers that are added to the concrete batch immediately before or during mixing. A proper use of
admixtures offers certain beneficial effects to concrete, including improved quality, acceleration
or retardation of setting time, enhanced frost and sulfate resistance, control of strength
development, improved workability, and enhanced finishability. It is estimated that 80% of
concrete produced in North America these days contains one or more types of admixtures.
According to a survey by the National Ready Mix Concrete Association, 39% of all ready-mixed
concrete producers use fly ash, and at least 70% of produced concrete contains a water-reducer
admixture.
Admixtures vary widely in chemical composition, and many perform more than one function.
Two basic types of admixtures are available:
1. Chemical
2. Mineral.
All admixtures to be used in concrete construction should meet specifications; tests should be
made to evaluate how the admixture will affect the properties of the concrete to be made with
the specified job materials, under the anticipated ambient conditions, and by the anticipated
construction procedures.

1. CHEMICAL ADMIXTURES:
Chemical admixtures are materials in the form of powder or fluids
that are added to the concrete to give it certain characteristics not obtainable with plain concrete
mixes. In normal use, admixture dosages are less than 5% by mass of cement, and are added to
the concrete at the time of batching/mixing. The most common types of admixtures are:

(i)Accelerators:
The accelerators speed up the hydration (hardening) of the concrete. Typical materials used
are CaCl2 and NaCl. They can accelerate the setting or the early strength development. Used
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mainly in cold conditions or where very early use of a concrete pavement is required to provide
access.
(ii)Retarders:
Retarders slow the hydration of concrete, and are used in large or difficult pours where partial
setting before the pour is complete is undesirable. A typical retarder is table sugar,
or sucrose (C12H22O11).This type of admixture is mainly used in hot conditions and climates or
on very large pours.
(iii)Air entrainments:
Air entrainments add and distribute tiny air bubbles in the concrete, which will reduce damage
during freeze-thaw cycles thereby increasing the concrete's durability. However, entrained air is
a trade-off with strength, as each 1% of air may result in 5% decrease in compressive strength.
Based on special surfactants, these admixtures cause tiny air bubbles < 0.3mm in diameter to
stabilise within the cement paste. This air helps to prevent the concrete from cracking and
scaling as a result of frost action. Air also increases cohesion in the mix, reducing bleed water
and segregation of the aggregate before the concrete can set.
(iv)Plasticizers (water-reducing admixtures):
Plasticizers increase the workability of plastic or "fresh" concrete, allowing it be placed more
easily, with less consolidating effort. Superplasticizers (high-range water-reducing admixtures)
are a class of plasticizers which have fewer deleterious effects when used to significantly
increase workability. Alternatively, plasticizers can be used to reduce the water content of a
concrete (and have been called water reducers due to this application) while maintaining
workability. This improves its strength and durability characteristics.
(v)Pigments :

They can be used to change the color of concrete, for aesthetics.

(vi)Corrosion inhibitors :

Corrosion inhibitors are used to minimize the corrosion of steel and steel bars in concrete.

(vii)Bonding agents:

These are used to create a bond between old and new concrete.

(viii)Pumping aids:

They improve pump ability, thicken the paste, and reduce dewatering – the tendency for the
water to separate out of the paste.

2. MINERAL ADMIXTURES:
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Blocks of concrete

There are inorganic materials that also have pozzolanic or


latent hydraulic properties. These very fine-
grained mate rials are added to the concrete mix to improve
the properties of concrete (mineral admixtures), or
as a replacement for Portland cement (blended
cements). These include he following substances,

1. Fly ash:

A byproduct of coal fired electric generating plants, it is used to partially replace Portland
cement (by up to 60% by mass). The properties of fly ash depend on the type of coal burnt. In
general, silicious fly ash is pozzolanic, while calcareous fly ash has latent hydraulic properties.

2. Ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS or GGBS):

A byproduct of steel production, is used to partially replace Portland cement (by up to 80% by
mass). It has latent hydraulic properties.

3. Silica fumes:

A by-product of the production of silicon and ferrosilicon alloys. Silica fume is similar to fly
ash, but has a particle size 100 times smaller. This results in a higher surface to volume ratio and
a much faster pozzolanic reaction. Silica fume is used to increase strength and durability of
concrete, but generally requires the use of superplasticizers for workability.

PRODUCTS AND THEIR USAGE:

The list below describes the various products and their functions as an admixture,

Sealobond A general purpose PVA admixture, bonding agent


and primer. Available in 5 litre.
Sealofrost A liquid Frostproofer Rapid Hardener. A calcium
chloride based liquid admixture for use as a
concrete and mortar accelerator and hardener.
Addition rate 2.5 to 4.5 litres per 50kg cement,
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depending on temperature. Available in 5 litre.


A liquid admixture which makes mortar easier to
Sealomix use, reduces incidence of cracking and improves
durability. Available in 5 litre and 25 litre.
A powder admixture which makes mortar easier
to use, reduces incidence of cracking and
Sealomix Powder improves durability. Addition rate 1 sachet per
50kg cement.
Available in single sachets.
An integral liquid waterproofer for use in
Sealoproof renderings and concretes. Addition rate 0.5 to 1
litre per 50kg cement. Available in 5 litre.
A rapid hardener for mortar and concrete mixes.
Sealorapid Addition rate upto 5 litres per 50kg cement.
Available in 5 litre.
A Three-in-one Admix. This is a special formula
waterproofer, retarder and plasticizer for use in
Sealorend renderings, bondings and pebble dashing.
Addition rate
1 litre per 30 litres water. Available in 5 litre.
Sealatone A liquid additive used to colour mortar a

PRODUCTS AND SOURCES OF ADMIXTURES AVAILABLE IN PAKITAN:


Berdex Construction Chemicals Ltd. — Lahore

Protection Systems:

BERDEX offers a vast variety of cementation grouts, proven over time and capable of fulfilling
the requirements for any sort of installation.

Zhabiya Chemicals Pvt Limited:

ConcreMight-PD (ASTM C1107) is a polymer reinforced bonding additive &


cement/concrete grouting admixture powder, which when blended with fresh dry
cement as per recommended ratios, provides non-shrink & non-cracking properties to
the concrete structure, increasing the compressive & flexural strength, resistance
against water/salt penetration and weather resistance. Best for sub-soil and water-
logged areas, waste water ponds, effluent drains, basements, underground water tanks,
machinery foundation preparations. It also best helps sealing/ plugging water seepage,
as it provides fast setting & strength build up to concrete mixture
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Zahabiya ZUBA 16/127 (ASTM C494 Type A) is a low dosage, highly concentrated,
liquid bonding additive used for grouting, sealing, plugging & high strength cement
admixture to suit a variety of specialized construction utilities, especially at high water
level areas. Used beneficially for the applications requiring high initial/ green
compressive strength, fast setting, non-shrink grouting & non-cracking properties of
concrete in the extreme climatic conditions. Strongly recommended for saline,
waterlogged, marine, seaside & coastal areas, drains and other wet areas, basements,
overhead and underground water tanks, foundations, zones of road bridges exposed to
continuous water spray, guarding the structure from chlorination and carbonation
effects.

Production of Low Cost Self Compacting Concrete Using Rice Husk Ash:
It is being used in Pakistan. However the scale is very small. It offers great compacting
properties. Its use will spread near the future.

The husk of the rice is added to the concrete mix to improve the self compacting property of the concrete.

Mitchells Construction Company:

This company produces the following products in Pakistan,


1. Plasticizer
2. Accelerator
3. Retarder